Burya mu matora ya Perezida muri USA, uwatowe n’abaturage benshi ashobora kutaba ari we utsinda

Yanditswe na Uwimana Abraham
Kuya 4 Ugushyingo 2020 saa 05:31
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Kimwe mu bintu bitangaje mu matora ya Perezida muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ni uko kugena uzaba Perezida bidashingira ku mubare w’amajwi ya rubanda nyamwinshi (popular vote), ahubwo hashingirwa ku majwi mwihariko (electoral vote).

Muri electoral vote buri leta iba ifite umubare runaka w’abagomba kuyihagararira mu gutora umukuru w’igihugu, bose hamwe baba bagomba gutanga amajwi 538, leta zigenda zigenerwa umubare bitewe n’umubare w’abaturage zifite gusa ntayo igenerwa munsi y’amajwi atatu.

Ibi bituma urugamba rwo kwiyamamaza rukara muri Leta zimwe na zimwe abakandida bazi ko zishobora kuzamura amahirwe yabo bigendeye ku mubare w’amajwi zitanga, bikaba byabafasha kugeza ku majwi 270 akenewe kugira ngo umuntu atsinde.

Aya majwi ya rubanda nyamwinshi rero nta ruhare yo agira mu kugena uzaba perezida cyangwa visi-perezida, gusa mu gushyiraho Abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko, Abameya, Abaguverineri, ndetse n’abandi bayobozi mu nzego zibanze, bwo niyo yifashishwa.

Birashoboka cyane rero ko umukandida yagira amajwi menshi muri “Popular vote”, ni ukuvuga akaba ari we watowe n’umubare munini w’abaturage rusange bitabiriye amatora, ariko bikarangira atariwe utsinze amatora mu gihe yaba yarushijwe muri “electoral vote” (electoral college).

Urugero nko mu matora yo mu 2016, yari ahanganishije Donald Trump na Hillary Clinton, muri “Popular vote” Hillary yagize amajwi 65.853.514 angana na 48.2%, mu gihe Trump yagize 62.984.828 ahwanye na 46.1%, hanyuma mwese uwaje kuyobora muramuzi ko ari Donald Trump.

Impamvu yabyo nyine ni uko hakurikijwe “Electoral votes” nk’uko Itegeko Nshinga ribigena ko ari yo akurikizwa hagenwa uzaba umukuru w’igihugu. Icyo gihe muri “Electoral votes” Trump yari yagize amajwi 304, mu gihe Hillary yari afite 227 atari kumuhesha uwo mwanya.

Hashize imyaka myinshi abaturage bagaragaza ko bashyigikiye ikurwaho rya “Electoral votes”, ahubwo uwatsinze akajya agenwa na “popular votes”, hari n’ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko 61% by’Abanyamerika bashyigikiye ikurwaho rya “Electoral votes”, mu ruhande rw’amashyaka, 89% by’Aba- Démocrates barabishyigikiye, naho mu ba- républicains 23% nibo baboshyigikiye.

Inzira imwe yo kugira ngo ibi bihinduke, ni ihinduka ry’Itegeko Nshinga ryasaba ko ryemezwa na bibiri bya gatatu by’Abadepite n’Abasenateri bose hamwe, cyangwa isubirwamo ry’Itegeko Nshinga ryakwemezwa na bibiri bya gatatu by’abayobozi bakuru.

Uretse ibyo hari abandi babona hagabanywa agaciro ka “Electoral votes”, nk’ubu hari leta 15 ndetse n’intara ya Columbia, zose hamwe zitanga amajwi 196, zasinye ku masezerano mpuzamaleta avuga ko amajwi ya Electoral votes bazajya bayaha n’ubundi uwatsinze muri poplular votes, gusa ibi byakwemerwa n’amategeko haramutse hishyize hamwe Leta zageza ku majwi 270 aba akenewe kugira ngo umuntu atsinde.

Mu gihe haba hatagize ugira amajwi 270 ateganywa, ni ukuvuga banganyije amajwi, ubwo ububasha bwo kugena uwatsinda buhabwa Inteko Ishinga Amategeko, aho Umutwe w’Abadepide utora uba Perezida, mu gihe umutwe wa Sena utora uba Visi-Perezida.

Gusa ibi ntibisanzwe kuko byabaye inshuro nke cyane mu mateka ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, ndetse kuva mu kinyejana cya 19 ntibiraba na rimwe.

Buri Leta n'umubare w'amajwi itanga muri Electoral vote

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