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Uko intambara ya Shikaramu yasize urwikekwe hagati y’u Rwanda na Congo

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 30 Werurwe 2021 saa 07:36
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Intambara ya Shikaramu ni imwe mu zizwi cyane mu mateka ya Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, by’akarusho ikamenywa n’Abanyarwanda kuko u Rwanda rwayivuzwemo kenshi mu myaka ya 1960.

Shikaramu uyu yari umubiligi yitwa Jean Schramme ariko ubwo yatangiraga intambara Abanyarwanda bamubatije Shikaramu. Hari abamwumvise mu Ikinamico kuri Radio Rwanda, bakagira ngo ni igitekerezo cyangwa umugani ariko yabayeho.

Shikaramu yavutse mu 1929. Ubwo yari afite imyaka 18 yoherejwe muri Congo yari ikolonijwe n’igihugu cye cy’u Bubiligi. Muri Congo, yari ashinzwe kugenzura abahinzi b’abanye-Congo bakoraga mu mirima y’Ababiligi.

Ubwo Congo yabonaga ubwigenge mu 1960, icyo gihugu cyatangiye kwinjira mu bibazo n’imvururu, zirushaho gukomera ubwo Patrice Lumumba wari Minisitiri w’Intebe yicwaga, hakavuka imitwe igamije kwihorera ku buyobozi bwamwivuganye.

Muri iyo myaka nibwo Shikaramu yaretse ibyo kuyobora abahinzi, yinjira mu rugamba ayoboka inyeshyamba zasabaga ko intara ya Katanga yigenga. Bivugwa ko abenshi mu bari abahinzi be bamuyobotse kuko yabafataga neza cyane. Babaye nk’aho babigeraho hagati ya 1961 na 1963, Katanga yiyita Leta yigenga iyobowe n’uwitwaga Moïse Kapend Tshombe.

Ubutegetsi bwa Congo butashakaga ko igihugu gicikamo ibice byongeye ko Katanga ariyo Ntara ibitse ubukungu bwinshi bw’icyo gihugu, yakoze ibishoboka byose irwana n’inyeshyamba zo muri Katanga, kugeza ubwo Tshombe yatsindwaga agahunga n’inyeshyamba ze.

Inyeshyamba by’umwihariko izari ziyobowe na Pierre Mulele wahoze ari inkoramutima ya Lumumba, zakomeje imirwano zizengereza ubutegetsi bwa Joseph Kasavubu kugeza ubwo Tshombe abumvishije ko ari we wenyine wabafasha gusubiza ibintu mu buryo. Baramwemereye mu 1964 aragaruka aba Minisitiri w’Intebe ariko biranga biba iby’ubusa yongera guhunga mu 1965 mbere y’uko Mobutu ahirika Kasuvubu mu 1965.

U Rwanda rwisanze mu ntambara ya Shikaramu ...

Igitabo gisoza amasomo ya Maîtrise Thimonier Olivier yise ‘La politique de la France au Rwanda de 1960 à 1981’, kivuga ko ubwo Général Mobutu Desiré yari amaze gufata ubutegetsi akoze Coup d’Etat, intego nyamukuru yabaye kujya guhashya imitwe yitwaje intwaro by’umwihariko iyashakaga kwigarurira Katanga.

Igitabo kivuga ko u Bufaransa n’u Bubiligi byashakaga Katanga cyane ari nako gukoresha imbaraga zose zaba iza gisirikare n’iza politiki kugira ngo bahagire ijambo. Ibi bihugu byombi byifashishije Moïse Tshombe ari na we wari ku ruhembe rw’abifuzaga ko Katanga yigenga, mu gihe ku rundi ruhande Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zari zishyigikiye Leta ya Mobutu ngo igihugu kigume hamwe.

Mu 1967, Moïse Tshombe byatangiye guhwihwiswa ko ashaka kugaruka muri Congo. Muri Kamena uwo mwaka, yashimutiwe mu ndege ajyanwa muri Algerie, ashyirwa mu nzu acungiwe umutekano. Congo yasabye ko yoherezwa akaburanishwa i Kinshasa ku byaha by’ubugambanyi ariko Algerie iramwimana. Muri Congo, Tshombe naho yakatiwe urwo gupfa adahari.

Muri Nyakanga, Shikaramu wari ukiri muri Congo, yubuye imirwano na za nyeshyamba ze zari ziganjemo abacanshuro b’Abafaransa bayobowe na Bob Denard n’Ababiligi, Abanya-Portugal ndetse n’abahoze ari abajandarume muri Katanga. Barwanye bashaka gukuraho Mobutu. Batangiye barwanira muri Kisangani yitwaga Stanleyville, bakomereza Bukavu utwo duce twose baratwigarurira.

Mobutu yashakishije ubufasha hose ngo Shikaramu atamufatana igihugu, Abanyamerika bamuba hafi.

Urugero, telegaramu Minisiteri y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga ya Amerika yandikiye Ambasade yabo mu Bubiligi tariki 22 Kanama 1967 igira iti “Turizera ko igihe kigeze ngo Guverinoma y’u Bubiligi itange itangazo igaragaza ko ishyigikiye Guverinoma ya Congo, yamagane ukwivumbura gushyigikiwe n’abacancuro kandi igaragaze icyizere no guhosha imvururu mu mahoro. Ni itangazo rikwiriye kuba riha icyizere Mobutu ariko riburira Schramme ko atazashyigikirwa n’ubuyobozi bw’u Bubiligi. Rikwiriye kuba kandi rikangara itangazamakuru ry’u Bubiligi rishyigikiye Schramme kuko bibabaza Mobutu.”

Imirwano yarakomeje ariko Kanama 1967 yagiye gushira inyeshyamba za Shikaramu zitangiye gutakaza ingufu dore ko abasirikare b’abanyamahanga batarengaga 120, n’abanya-Katanga basaga 600.

Shikaramu yatangiye gusaba imishyikirano abinyujije ku nshuti ye yitwaga Bontemps. Inyandiko z’ibanga za Amerika zashyizwe hanze na CIA, zigaragaza ko hari Telegaramu yavuye i Bukavu tariki 9 Kanama 1967, ivuga ko Bontemps yabijeje kubahuza na Shikaramu agacisha make ariko bakabanza kumwemerera ibyo abasaba.

Ibyo Shikaramu yasabaga Mobutu byari ukwemererwa kunyura mu Rwanda bakerekeza mu Burayi no kwemera ko inyeshyamba zo muri Katanga zihaguma ntawe uzikozeho cyangwa zikemererwa guhunga. Bontemps yabwiye Abanyamerika ko nibitagenda bityo ‘Shikaramu afite ubushobozi bwo guteza akavuyo mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo yose igihe kirekire’.

Tariki 22 Kanama 1967, Shikaramu yemeye gusinya inyandiko imwemerera kuba yahunga aciye mu Rwanda we n’ingabo ze dore ko n’ubundi bari bari i Bukavu hafi yarwo.

Grégoire Kayibanda yabanje kwanga kwakira izo nyeshyamba ariko uwo Bontemps wari umuhuza yaje kuvuga ko yisubiyeho.

Shikaramu n’ingabo ze bamaze guhungira mu Rwanda, Mobutu umutima wakomeje kumurya, asaba ko izo nyeshyamba zoherezwa i Kinshasa zikaburanishwa.

Mobutu yacanye umubano n’u Rwanda….

Igitabo cya Thimonier kivuga ko Mobutu yemeye kubabarira abanya-Katanga bari barafatanyije na Shikaramu ndetse abemerera gusubira mu gihugu cyabo ariko ararahira arirenga ko atazatuza adahawe abanyamahanga barimo Shikaramu, bakaburanishwa ku guteza akavuyo muri Congo.

Tariki 27 Nzeri 1967, Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga w’u Bufaransa yahuye na Guverinoma y’u Rwanda, abasaba kutohereza muri Congo izo nyeshyamba by’umwihariko abafite inkomoko mu Bufaransa. Byarakaje cyane Mobutu aza gucana umubano n’u Rwanda.

Shikaramu yazonze ubutegetsi bwa Mobutu kugeza ubwo yatsindwaga uruhenu agahungira mu Rwanda

Hakozwe inama zitandukanye hagati y’u Rwanda, Congo bigizwemo uruhare n’Umuryango uhuza ibihugu bya Afurika (OUA) n’ibihugu by’amahanga ariko kumvikana birananirana.

Tariki 6 Ugushyingo 1967 hari inyandiko yohererejwe Minisiteri y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga ya Amerika ivuga ko “Perezida Kayibanda ashaka ko bamuvira ku butaka mu gihe gito gishoboka. Kuvana abo basirikare basaga 2000 ku butaka bw’u Rwanda ndetse n’imiryango yabo biri kugorana kubera nta ndege zihagije. Biri kubangamirwa kandi na Guverinoma ya Congo ishaka ko Schramme n’abantu be bajyanwa muri Congo.”

Perezida Kayibanda amaze gushoberwa dore ko byinshi mu bihugu bya Afurika byari bishyigikiye Mobutu, Thimonier yasabye guhura na Perezida w’u Bufaransa Général de Gaulle ngo amugishe inama.

U Bufaransa nabwo bwabikoraga rwihishwa kugira ngo Mobutu atamenya ko bari gukorana na Kayibanda. Inyandiko z’u Bufaransa zivuga ngo “Dufite impungenge ko ubusabe bwa Kayibanda buramutse bumenyekanye, Mobutu ashobora kwihumurira ku bikorwa dufitemo inyungu muri Congo.”

Kayibanda amaze kumvikana n’u Bufaransa, inyeshyamba zirimo na Shikaramu yazohereje iwabo muri Mata 1968. Bamwe mu bakomoka muri Katanga basubiye iwabo, abatabishaka bahungira muri Zambia.

Hashize amezi menshi y’ibiganiro hagati ya Kigali na Kinshasa umwuka utameze neza, icyakora ibihugu byombi biza gusubukura umubano nyuma.

Nubwo nta bihamya bibigaragaza, bivugwa ko iyo myitwarire y’u Rwanda yababaje Mobutu, biza no gutuma ashyigikira Coup d’Etat yo mu 1973 ubwo Juvenal Habyarimana yahirikaga Kayibanda.

I Bukavu tariki 2 Nzeri 1967 ubwo Shikaramu yajyaga inama n'abasirikare be
Shikaramu atanga amabwiriza y'urugamba ubwo bari i Bukavu muri Nzeri 1967
Shikaramu imbere y'intwaro i Bukavu muri Kanama 1967
Shikaramu n'abana be ubwo bafotorerwaga i Kigali muri Mata 1968

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