Uko abanyamahanga bashatse kwitambika ishyirwaho ry’Inkiko Gacaca u Rwanda rukaba ibamba

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 6 Ukuboza 2020 saa 07:13
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Ikibazo cyo gucira imanza abagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ni kimwe mu byari bihangayikishije kandi bikomeye Guverinoma y’Ubumwe nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Muri gereza zo mu Rwanda hari harimo imfungwa zisaga ibihumbi 135 zikekwaho uruhare muri Jenoside, hari hari abatarafatwa n’abahunze igihugu, inzego z’ubucamanza zari zarasenyutse abacamanza, abagenzacyaha n’abashinjacyaha ari bake ku buryo kuburanisha abakekwaho Jenoside byashoraga gufata imyaka 200.

Uretse intege nke z’inzego z’ubutabera, abakekwaho Jenoside abenshi bari barinangiye kwemera no kwicuza icyaha, aho agatoki katungwaga abanyamahanga gushishikariza kwanga kwirega no kwemera icyaha.

Byatumye muri Gicurasi 1998 ubwo hatangizwaga ibiganiro byo mu Rugwiro byari bigamije kwigira hamwe ahazaza h’u Rwanda, ikibazo cy’ubutabera ku bagize uruhare muri Jenoside gishyirwa mu byihutirwa.

Ubwo inama zo mu Rugwiro zatangiraga, hagaragajwe ko u Rwanda rufite ibibazo bikomeye mu bijyanye n’ubutabera birimo icyo guhana icyaha cya Jenoside kuko cyari icyaha gikomeye ariko gishya mu mateka no mu butabera bw’u Rwanda kandi cyabaye mu duce twose tw’igihugu.

Uwari Perezida icyo gihe Pasteur Bizimungu yavuze ko guhana Jenoside gusa bidahagije kuko yasize ingaruka nyinshi. Yavuze ko ari icyaha cyasize ingengabitekerezo ku buryo hari hakenewe amategeko n’uburyo bwo gukomeza kuyikumira nyuma yo kuyihana.

Kubera ko Jenoside ari icyaha cyagize ingaruka ku gihugu cyose, yavuze ko hakenewe uburyo bwo kugihana no kugikumira burundu buri wese yibonamo kandi akagiramo uruhare.

Uretse ubwinshi bw’abari bari muri gereza bakekwaho Jenoside, hagaragajwe ibindi bibazo bikomeye birimo ibyo kutabasha gukorera abakekwaho Jenoside dosiye. Hari abantu babaga batibuka uko bafashwe kuko nta bagenzacyaha cyangwa abashinjacyaha bari bahari ubwo bafatwaga, hari hari ikibazo cyo kubona igihano gihuye na Jenoside itari isanzwe iboneka mu byaha bihanwa n’amategeko y’u Rwanda, inzego z’ubutabera zarajegeraga, nta bacamanza, nta bakozi b’inkiko kuko bamwe bari barishwe cyangwa barahunze igihugu. Ibikoresho bimwe byari byarangijwe cyangwa byaribwe.

Mbere ya Jenoside mu Rwanda habarirwaga abacamanza 708 barimo 45 bize Kaminuza. Abenshi muri abo abenshi bazize Jenoside ku buryo nyuma yayo hari hakenewe guhugura no kwigisha abandi benshi. Kugeza mu 1999, mu Rwanda hari hari abashinjacyaha n’abagenzacyaha basaga gato 400.

Abanyamahanga batunze agatoki

Ikindi kibazo gikomeye cyagaragajwe ni uko inzego z’ubucamanza zavugwagamo ruswa ikabije ku buryo icyizere cyari hasi ku bazigana.

Abari bitabiriye inama zo mu Rugwiro bagaragaje ko abanyarwanda benshi batishimiye uburyo inkiko zisanzwe zicamo imanza zerekeye Jenoside. Bavugaga ko umuntu ujyanye ikibazo cye mu rukiko, asa nk’utaye indi mirimo yose yari asanzwe akora akajya yirirwa mu nkiko.

Bagaragaje ko ibibazo Jenoside yasize bigoye ngo bizakemurwa n’inkiko zisanzwe. Bavuze ko Jenoside ari icyaha cyabaye hose mu Rwanda ku buryo kubona abashinjacyaha n’abagenzacyaha bo kujya gukusanya ibimenyetso muri buri gace bitari gushoboka.

Inkiko Gacaca zashingiye ku buryo bwo gukemura amakimbirane bwahozeho mu muco nyarwanda

Bashingiye ku bantu bari bamaze gucirirwa imanza za Jenoside n’umubare w’abagombaga kuburanishwa kuri icyo cyaha, bagaragaje ko bizafata imyaka 200 ngo bose babone ubutabera.

Bavuze kandi indi mbogamizi ari uko “kwemera icyaha no kwicuza nabyo byasubijwe inyuma nuko abanyamategeko by’umwihariko abanyamahanga n’abandi bakozi, baramaraga umwanya munini muri gereza zo mu Rwanda bakangurira imfungwa kutemera icyaha”.

Sheikh Harerimana Abdul Karim, umwe mu bagize Urwego Ngishwanama rw’Inararibonye, muri Gicurasi uyu mwaka yabwiye IGIHE ko abenshi mu bari barafunzwe bakekwaho Jenoside bari barabisuzuguye, bumva ko ubutabera butazatangwa ngo bishoboke.

Yagize ati “Ati “Muri za 1996 twajyaga mu bukangurambaga muri za gereza zo mu Rwanda, ugasanga abo bantu barimo kutunnyega […] Icyo bitwazaga icyo gihe, nuko Leta yabo y’abicanyi yari yarababwiye ngo nimubijyamo muri benshi ntawe uzabahana n’umwe. Bati nitubijyamo turi abantu miliyoni ebyiri, eshatu uwaduhana yaduhana ate, kandi koko mu bwenge busanzwe ntibishoboka. Izo nkiko ziburanisha abantu miliyoni eshatu wazivana he? Igihano ni urupfu, umuntu wasinya urupfu rw’abantu miliyoni eshatu ni nde?”

Bamwe baneguye inkiko Gacaca

Nyuma yo kubona uruhuri rw’ibibazo rwari rwugarije ubutabera bw’u Rwanda, abenshi mu bitabiriye ibi biganiro byo mu Rugwiro bagaragaje ko hifashishijwe Gacaca nk’uburyo bwahozeho mu muco nyarwanda mu gukemura amakimbirane, byatanga umusaruro.

Babishingiraga ku kuba bizakorerwa hafi y’aho ibyaha byabereye, kuba ubucamanza buzatangirwa mu ruhame bigaha isomo abandi, kuba bizafasha igihugu kwihutisha imanza za Jenoside kandi ntibihende no gufasha muri gahunda y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge.

Icyakora si igitekerezo cyakiriwe kimwe mu bari bicaye mu Rugwiro icyo gihe. Bamwe mu nzobere mu mategeko zari muri iyo nama zarabyamaganye kuko zavugaga ko uburyo Gacaca ikoresha butandukanye n’uburyo mpuzamahanga bwo guca imanza ku buryo imanza zaciwe na Gacaca zitazemerwa ku rwego mpuzamahanga. Banavugaga ko kuburanisha imanza za Jenoside muri Gacaca ari ukugabanyiriza ubukana icyo cyaha kuko abazakiburanisha ari abantu batize amategeko batumva uburemere bwacyo.

Bamwe mu bitabiriye inama bavuze ko ibyo inzobere mu mategeko zivuga bidafite ishingiro ahubwo ari uburyo bwo gushaka gukomeza kurinda akazi kabo ngo hatagira abandi bakinjiramo bakabura akazi, no kwirengagiza uburemere bw’ikibazo cyugarije igihugu.

Hari abavuze ko abazaba bagize inkiko Gacaca batize amategeko bityo ibyo bazaba bakora bitizewe, basobanuriwe ko nta muntu waba injiji ku buryo ahuguwe atabimenya.

Hari n’abagaragaje ko inyangamugayo muri Gacaca zishobora kuzabogama mu gihe zicira imanza abo bafite aho bahuriye cyangwa baturuka mu miryango imwe. Icyakora basobanuriwe ko kubogama bizagorana kuko imanza zizajya zibera mu ruhame.

Uretse abanyarwanda bari mu biganiro byo mu Rugwiro, Protais Musoni umwe mu bari bashinzwe kwiga uko Inkiko Gacaca zizakora, muri Nyakanga uyu mwaka yabwiye IGIHE ko hari n’abanyamahanga banze ubwo buryo, ndetse bahagarikira u Rwanda inkunga.

Yavuze ko ibihugu nk’u Budage, u Buholandi n’abandi bahagaritse inkunga bateraga u Rwanda mu rwego rw’ubutabera, barubwira ko uburyo bw’Inkiko Gacaca butazakunda kandi butazaba ari ubutabera. Byabaye ngombwa ko u Rwanda rutsimbarara ku cyemezo cyarwo.

Byarangiye benshi bemeje ko Gacaca ikoreshwa, igacira imanza abakoze ibyaha bya Jenoside, byarangira hakarebwa niba yanifashishwa mu gukemura ibindi bibazo by’ubutabera bisanzwe.

Nyuma yo kwemeranya ku kamaro k’inkiko Gacaca, hashyizweho Komisiyo izafasha mu kwiga no kunoza neza akazi k’inkiko Gacaca n’imikorere yazo, Minisiteri y’ubutabera ihabwa umukoro wo gukurikirana no gushyiraho amategeko azorohereza izo nkiko.

Inkiko Gacaca zatangiye guca imanza guhera tariki ya 10 Werurwe 2005. Zasoje imirimo mu 2012 zimaze guca imanza imanza zigera kuri miliyoni ebyiri bikozwe n’inyangamugayo zigeraku 16 442.

Musoni yavuze ko inkiko Gacaca zimaze gusozwa, bamwe mu banyamahanga bari barahagaritse inkunga nabo bamaze kubona ko bibeshye, barazirekuye.

Inyandiko z'inkiko Gacaca zibitswe mu buryo bwihariye ndetse zamaze gushyirwa mu buryo bw'ikoranabuhanga ngo amateka atazasibangana

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