Si ubwa mbere abaturage basabwa kwambara ​udupfuk​a​m​unwa, no mu 1918 ​byarabaye; Uko byari byifashe

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 26 Mutarama 2021 saa 09:42
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Ubu kujya mu ruhame umuntu atambaye agapfukamunwa, ni ikosa rikomeye kurusha kuba wagenda nta byangombwa. Hirya no hino ku Isi ibihano byarakajijwe ku bantu bafatwa batambaye agapfukamunwa mu gihe icyorezo cya Coronavirus gikomeje guca ibintu.

Nyamara agapfukamunwa si ubwa mbere kabaye itegeko ku Isi, kuko kabaye umwambaro wa benshi mu myaka isaga ijana ishize ubwo icyorezo cy’ibicurane bikaze cyangwa ‘Influenza’ cyakazaga umurego mu bice bitandukanye by’isi.

Ni icyorezo bivugwa ko cyahitanye abasaga miliyoni 50 ku Isi barimo 675.000 bo muri Leta Zunze ubumwe za Amerika.

New York Times yatangaje ko icyo gihe, mu 1918 Abayobozi muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika bagiriye inama abaturage yo kwambara udupfukamunwa, ndetse henshi biba itegeko.

Inzobere mu buvuzi zavugaga ko aribwo buryo bwiza bwo kwirinda icyo cyorezo nubwo amateka avuga ko ntacyo byatanze.

Mu gitabo cy’umwanditsi John M. Barry yise The Great Influenza: The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History, avuga ko udupfukamunwa twabaye umudeli n’umuco kuri benshi, imiryango itabara imbabare igatanga twinshi ku badashoboye kutwikorera.

Utwinshi mu dupfukanunwa tw’icyo gihe ntabwo twabaga twujuje ibisabwa nk’utw’iki gihe. Umuturage ubashije kudoda yidoderaga ako ashatse, cyangwa se agakubiranya umwenda runaka mu buryo buza gutuma apfuka amazura n’umunwa.

Barry avuga ko nko muri Atlanta muri Amerika, abayobozi bagiriye inama abaturage yo gufata impapuro ndende bakazikubiranya neza ku buryo zikwira ku mazuru n’iminwa yabo, hanyuma bagasesekamo utugozi tubiri kugira ngo babone uko bahambira ku matwi, mu rupapuro bagapfumuramo imyenge yo guhumekero.

Ku bakoreshaga udupfukamunwa tw’imyenda, inama bagirwaga kwari ukudufura nyuma yo kuducanira mu mazi mu gihe cy’iminota itanu, kugira ngo umuntu yongere kukambara.

Los Angeles Times icyo gihe yatangaje ko kwambara udupfukamunwa byahinduye imibereho y’abaturage ku buryo bukomeye. Ubujura bwariyongereye. Nko mu mujyi wa San Francisco, hari umugore wibwe n’abajura bambaye udupfukamunwa ku buryo atabashije kubamenya. Abagabo nabo umwanda wariyongereye kuko benshi batari bacyogosha ubwanwa.

Kwambara udupfukamunwa byakomeje gukazwa cyane ndetse abatabyubahirije bagahanwa. Tariki 1 Ugushyingo 1918, nibwo bwa mbere mu mateka umuntu yatawe muri yombi kubera kutambara agapfukamunwa. Uwahanwe yitwa Eugene C. Caley.

Muri iyo minsi muri San Francisco hari abafatwaga bagahanishwa kumara iminsi icumi muri gereza.

Hari abijujutiye ko udupfukamunwa duteza umwanda, abandi bakavuga ko tubabuza guhumeka neza.

Mu bagowe cyane n’udupfukamunwa ni abanywi b’itabi cyane cyane bamwe barinyweraga mu nkono y’itabi dore ko icyo gihe bari bakiri benshi. Nyuma yo kugorwa n’udupfukamunwa, bize amayeri, udupfukamunwa twabo bakadupfumura imbere aho bazajya banyuza inkono y’itabi, bakanabasha gucira nyuma yo kurinywa.

New York Times yatangaje ko hari umusaza w’imyaka 75 bajyanye mu rukiko, akabwira umucamanza ko adashobora kureka itabi kubera igitambaro kimeze nk’ibihoho by’amatungo.

Icyo gihe Leta zimwe na zimwe zararetse ibikorwa bimwe na bimwe birakomeza ariko ahahurira abantu rusange nk’aherekwanirwaga sinema, hamererwaga gufungura mu gihe abitabiriye bambaye udupfukamunwa.

Byabaye n’uburyo bw’ubucuruzi. Mu gihe umuturage agiye nko mu gitaramo atambaye agapfukamunwa, yishyuraga amafaranga menshi bakakamuha, yaza akambaye bakamugabanyiriza.

Icyakora Barry avuga ko nubwo udupfukamunwa twabaye itegeko icyo gihe, nta musaruro ufatika twatanze kuko bitabujije benshi kwandura no gupfa.

Amabwiriza yo kwambara udupfukamunwa kuri ubu agamije kugabanya ikwirakwira ry’udukoko dushobora kwanduzanya hagati y’umuntu urwaye Coronavirus n’utayirwaye. Ibitambaro bikorwamo udupfukamunwa birimo ibikoze mu ipamba, Polyester na Polypropylene kuko aribyo bizwi ho ko bishobora guhagarika umukungugu ku kigero cya 50%.

Abaganga byari itegeko kwambara udupfukamunwa mu gihe bita ku barwayi ba Influenza
Mu 1918 hirya no hino muri Amerika hubatswe ibitaro by'agateganyo mu mahema byo kwita ku barwayi ba Influenza
Kwambara agapfukamunwa byagizwe itegeko henshi, harimo no mu gisirikare
No mu bihugu by'i Burayi nko mu Bufaransa, udupfukamunwa twarambawe mu myaka ijana ishize
Abasirikare ni bamwe mu bategetswe kwambara udupfukamunwa kuko babanaga mu nkambi zabo ari benshi
Abanyeshuri bo mu Buyapani bambaye udupfukamunwa mu 1918
Abihayimana nabo bashishikarijwe kwambara udupfukamunwa mu kwirinda icyorezo

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