Ivumburamatsiko ku icukurwa rya Gaz Methane mu Kivu n’ingaruka zayo iramutse icunzwe nabi

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 17 Nyakanga 2020 saa 11:47
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Ikiyaga cya Kivu kiri hagati y’u Rwanda na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo ni hamwe muri hake ku Isi haboneka ku bwinshi Gaz Methane ishobora kuba amahirwe iramutse ikoreshejwe neza, ikaba ikibazo gikomeye idakoreshejwe uko bikwiriye.

Ikiyaga cya Kivu gifite ubujyakuzimu bwa metero 480. Inyigo iheruka yerekanye ko mu Kivu harimo kilometero kibe (km3) hagati ya 250 na 300 za Carbon (CO2) na Gas Methane igera kuri km3 hagati ya 55 na 60, kandi ngo bikomeza kwiyongera uko bwije n’uko bukeye.

Inzobere mu bijyanye n’ibyo mu ndiba y’amazi magari, Dr. Natacha Tofield Pasche, Umwarimu akaba n’Umuyobozi muri École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne mu Busuwisi aherutse kugirana ikiganiro n’ikinyamakuru The Conversation, aho yasobanuye byimbitse uko gucukura Gaz Methane mu Kiyaga cya Kivu bikorwa.

Ubusanzwe Ikiyaga cya Kivu kirimo umwuka wa CO2 na Gaz Methane nyinshi biri mu ndiba hasi y’icyo kiyaga. Ni imyuka imaze imyaka iri hagati ya 800 na 1000.

Dr. Natacha Tofield Pasche yavuze ko CO2 iba mu Kiyaga cya Kivu ituruka mu Birunga bya Nyiragongo na Nyamuragira biri hafi y’icyo kiyaga. Ibi birunga bimaze imyaka isaga 20 000 ni bimwe mu bicyaka biri ku Isi.

Gaz Methane yo ituruka mu myanda n’ibindi bintu byagiye kwitekera mu ndiba y’ikiyaga. Ibyo nibyo bitanga kimwe cya gatatu cya Gaz Methane iboneka mu Kivu, isigaye igaturuka muri CO2.

Pasche yavuze ko ubwinshi bwa Gaz Methane iboneka mu Kivu, nta handi bwigeze buboneka ku Isi ari nabyo biha umwihariko icyo kiyaga.

Yagize ati “Muri make, uwo mwihariko uterwa nuko iyo myuka (Gaz) yagiye ikitekera mu ndiba hasi mu mazi. Kugeza ubu hari kilometero kibe 45 zishobora gucukurwamo Gaz Methane zifite ubushobozi bwo gutanga amashanyarazi ya Megawatt 500 mu gihe cy’imyaka 50.”

Yavuze ko icyakora kugira ngo ayo mashanyarazi aboneke, bizaterwa n’ikoranabuhanga rizaba ryakoreshejwe mu gucukura.

Gaz Methane idacukuwe yateza ibibazo bikomeye

U Rwanda rumaze igihe rutangije uburyo bwo gucukura Gaz Methane mu Kiyaga cya Kivu ikabyazwa amashanyarazi. Ni umushinga ukomeje unashobora gutuma muri icyo kiyaga hacukurwa gaz karemano ikoreshwa mu bindi n’iyasimbura ibikomoka kuri peteroli bikoreshwa mu binyabiziga.

Dr Pasche yavuze ko Gaz Methane iramutse idacukuwe, ishobora kwangiza byinshi birimo n’ubuzima bw’abaturage.

Yagize ati “Ubusanzwe iyo myuka iba iteje ikibazo ku baturage bahaturiye kuko ishobora guturika ivuye mu kiyaga ikangiza. Muri make, akantu gato k’akabazo gashobora guteza ibindi bikomeye. Nk’inkangu yonyine ishobora gutuma izo Gaz ziturika.”

Yavuze ko byabayeho muri Cameroun aho mu mwaka wa 1984 mu Kiyaga cya Manoun, Gaz Methane yaturitse igahitana abantu 37, mu 1986 iyo Gaz igaturikira mu Kiyaga cya Nyos abantu 1700 bagapfa.

Pasche yavuze ko gucukura Gaz Methane ari uburyo bwo kugabanya ibyago byo guturika kwayo.

Indi nyungu yo gucukura iyo gaz ni uko ishobora kubyazwa umusaruro ikaba yavamo nk’ingufu z’amashanyarazi nkuko u Rwanda rwabigenje.

Uruganda rwa KivuWatt rukoreshwa na ContourGlobal rusanzwe rucukura Gaz Methane ibyara amashanyarazi mu Kiyaga cya Kivu. Icyiciro cya mbere gitanga Megawatt 26, hakaba hari gukorwa icyiciro cya kabiri kizagatanga Megawatt 100.

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ku bufatanye na Shema Power Lake Kivu Limited, yahoze yitwa Symbion Energy, bafite umushinga wo kubaka uruganda rutanga Megawatt 56.

Pasche yavuze ko hari indi sosiyete yitwa Gasmeth izatangira gucukura gaz muri Kivu mu 2020. Intego yayo ni ugucukura Gaz karemano igacuruzwa mu macupa.

Uko Gaz icukurwa

Icukurwa rya Gaz Methane ribera ahantu hazwi nka ‘Resource Zone’, rigakorerwa mu bujyakuzimu buri hagati ya metero 260 na 480 ari naho Gaz nyinshi iba iherereye.

Bikorwa hifashishijwe amatiyo manini akoherezwa hasi mu ndiba, agasunikira hirya amazi asanzwe hagasigara Gaz.

Dr Pasche yavuze ko iyo gaz ikiva mu ndiba y’ikiyaga iba ikivanze n’amazi make bikaba ngombwa ko inyuzwa mu mashini zibitandukanya.

Iyo imaze gutandukanywa, Gaz Methane ibi ikirimo Co2 nyinshi, bikaba ngombwa ko inyuzwa mu bundi buryo bwo kuyiyungurura.

Nubwo gucukura Gaz Methane ari byiza, bishobora gutera izindi ngaruka zirimo guhindura imimerere y’ikiyaga bikaba byakongera ibyago byo guturika kw’iyo gaz.

Pasche yavuze ko bisaba kwitonda no gukoresha uburyo bwiza bwo kuyicukura.

Indi ngaruka ni uko hashobora kubaho guhinduka k’urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima ruba mu mazi nk’amafi n’ibindi binyabuzima. Ubusanzwe mu ndiba y’ikiyaga niho haba ibintu byinshi bitunga ibinyabuzima byo mu mazi. Gukorerayo rero ibikorwa by’ubucukuzi hari ibyangirika bigateza ikibazo kuri urwo rusobe.

Pasche kandi yavuze ko hari imyanda ishobora gusigara mu gihe hacukurwa Gaz Methane ikwiriye kugenzurwa neza ngo bidateza ibibazo.

Kugeza ubu u Rwanda ruhurira kuri iki kiyaga na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, haranarebwa uko ibihugu byombi byashyira ingufu hamwe mu kwihaza ku ngufu z’amashanyarazi.

Dr Pasche yavuze ko Gaz Methane iramutse idacukuwe, ishobora kwangiza byinshi birimo n’ubuzima bw’abaturage
Ikiyaga cya Kivu ni hamwe muri hake ku Isi haboneka Gaz Methane ku bwinshi

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