Ibijya gushya birashyuha: Uko Abafaransa bageze mu Rwanda n’uburyo bahaciye ingando

Yanditswe na Akayezu Jean de Dieu
Kuya 18 Mata 2021 saa 05:42
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U Bufaransa bwashyigikiye cyane ko u Rwanda n’u Burundi bibona ubwigenge bikigobotora Ababiligi babigenzuraga binyuze mu Bukoloni. Icyo gihe bwakoraga ibishoboka byose ngo ibi bihugu byo muri Afurika y’Uburasirazuba binashyirwe mu Banyamuryango b’Umuryango w’Abibumbye.

Bidateye kabiri, u Rwanda rubona Ubwigenge nk’uko byari byarateguwe, Ubwami buvanwaho hatangira ubutegetsi bwa Repubulika ndetse mu 1961, u Rwanda rugira Perezida wa Mbere ari we Mbonyumutwa Dominique. Nyuma y’amezi 10 yaje gusimburwa na Kayibanda Grégoire.

Abahanga muri Politiki n’Abanyamateka bagaragaza ko mu mpamvu zatumye u Bufaransa bubona u Rwanda nk’igihugu bwifuza gukorana nacyo bya hafi zari zishingiye ku kuba Abafaransa bararubonaga nk’ahantu [ligne Maginot linguistique] bagombaga gutsindagira n’ubutegetsi bwabo bukahakoresha imbaraga kugira ngo babashe kuhinjiza ururimi rwabo rw’Igifaransa.

Bumvaga ko Icyongereza kiramutse cyinjiye mu Rwanda ubwo bizaba byarangiye, kizafata muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, Congo Brazzaville, Centrafrique, kikagenda kikagera muri Cameroun, Igifaransa kikazima.

Umwanditsi akaba n’Umushakashatsi ku mateka y’u Rwanda, Nizeyimana Innocent, yavuze ko mu Ukwakira 1962, aribwo Kayibanda Grégoire yagiriye uruzinduko rwa mbere mu Bufaransa bwayoborwaga na Charles de Gaulle.

Mu ijambo Kayibanda yavugiye i Paris, yashimiye byimazeyo De Gaulle kuba yarahaye ibihugu bya Afurika ubwigenge kandi nyuma y’aho akaba arimo no kubifasha kugira ‘ubwigenge bwuzuye’ binyuze mu kubifasha guteza imbere no kubyaza umusaruro umutungo kamere wabyo.

Icyo gihe Kayibanda yagize ati “Mfite icyizere ko ubwo bufasha natwe, nubwo tutakolonijwe n’u Bufaransa, muzabuduha.”

Nyuma y’uruzinduko rwa Kayibanda i Paris, ibihugu byombi byahise bishyira umukono ku masezerano ya mbere, aho ku wa 20 Ukwakira 1962, hasinywe amasezerano y’ubucuti n’ubufatanye.

Mu minsi yakurikiyeho, intumwa z’u Bufaransa zaje mu Rwanda, mu rwego rwo gutegura amasezerano atatu y’ubufatanye mu bukungu, umuco na Tekiniki. Aya yasinywe ku wa 4 Ukuboza 1962. Ku rundi ruhande ariko kugeza icyo gihe u Bufaransa ntabwo bwari bufite ubuhagarariye [Ambasaderi] mu Rwanda.

Muri icyo gihe Jacques Mullender wari ushinzwe u Rwanda n’u Burundi muri Ministeri y’Ubutwererane mu Bufaransa, kuva mu wa 1962-1966, asobanura ko mu myaka ikurikira ubwigenge, ibijyanye n’umubano wabo n’u Rwanda bagombaga kubanza kubigendamo gake.

Ati “Mu minsi ya mbere twirinze gutanga inkunga nyinshi no kugaragaza ko dukeneye u Rwanda cyane, mu rwego rwo kwirinda ko habaho ishyari hagati yacu n’u Bubiligi.”

Yakomeje avuga ko kuva u Rwanda n’u Burundi byabona ubwigenge, u Bubiligi bwishingiye gutanga ingengo y’imari muri ibyo bihugu, ndetse bunashora amafaranga mu mishinga minini [kubaka ibibuga by’indege n’ibikoresho by’itumanaho].

Ati “Ikindi kandi, boherezaga nibura abakozi 200 bashinzwe gufasha mu bya Tekiniki muri buri gihugu. Ntabwo rero twari gusohora amafaranga menshi mu Rwanda tudafite abakozi bahagije bo kugenzura uko akoreshwa.”

Nizeyimana Innocent wanakunze gukurikirana politiki y’u Rwanda n’u Bufaransa avuga ko muri ibyo bihe Kayibanda na we yasaga nk’useta ibirenge, akanga gufungukira cyane u Bufaransa ngo atiteranya n’Ababiligi.

Ati “Ibintu rero bitangira guhinduka nyuma y’ihirikwa ku butegetsi kwa Kayibanda, ho bivugwa ko n’u Bufaransa bushobora kuba bwararigizemo uruhare.”

Amateka agaragaza ko mu 1972, abasirikare ba mbere b’u Rwanda bagiye kwimenyereza umwuga mu Bufaransa ndetse n’abajandarume bane bajya mu Ishuri ry’u Bufaransa ryigisha ibya Gipolisi.

Habyarimana yabashyize igorora

Hagati ya 1969 na 1970 Kayibanda yirukanye abo yitaga abantu badakenewe [indésirable]. Mu birukanwe harimo Ababiligi, abacuruzi b’Abanya Oman, ab’Abahinde, avuga ko badakenewe nk’uko no muri Uganda byakorwaga na Idi Amin.

Nizeyimana ati “Hanyuma icyaje kubaho abazungu batangira kumwanga, bagenda bamucikaho, ariko u Bufaransa bwari bwaratangiye gushaka uko bwinjira mu Rwanda ku butegetsi bwa De Gaulle, mu gihe Kayibanda yari akiri ku butegetsi.”

Habyarimana Juvénal wari ufite imyumvire itandukanye cyane n’iya Kayibanda, akimara kujya ku butegetsi [amuhiritse], Abafaransa batangiye kumwiyegereza ku buryo mu 1975, habayeho amasezerano ya mbere ashyizweho umukono nyuma y’imyaka ibiri u Rwanda rwari rubonye ubutegetsi bushya.

Ni amasezerano yari ashingiye ku bufatanye mu bya gisirikare aho Ingabo z’u Bufaransa zari zemeye ko zigiye gutangira gutanga imyitozo ku Bajandarume b’Abanyarwanda. Icyo gihe u Bufaransa bwayoborwaga na Valéry Giscard d’Estaing.

Nyuma y’ayo masezerano, Valéry Giscard d’Estaing, yahise agenderera u Rwanda, muri Gicurasi 1979, aho yamaze iminsi itandatu.

Uyu mugabo n’umufasha we Anne-Aymone Giscard d’Estaing baje mu Rwanda bitabiriye inama ya gatandatu ihuza Afurika n’u Bufaransa (Conference Franco-Africaine) yabereye i Kigali. Nubwo icyari cyamuzanye yari inama, Giscard yaje mbere cyane y’uko inama iba, atembera u Rwanda ndetse ajya no guhiga muri Pariki y’Akagera.

Tariki 18 Gicurasi, Perezida Giscard na Habyarimana bari kumwe n’abafasha babo bazindukiye mu Ruhengeri, basura ibitaro n’ishuri rya Gendarmerie, ku gicamunsi bagaruka i Kigali basinya amasezerano y’ubufatanye.

Raporo y’u Bufaransa yitiriwe Quilès [Paul Quilès yigeze kuba Minisitiri w’Ingabo] isobanura ko “mu ntangiriro z’aya masezerano, u Bufaransa bwagombaga gufasha u Rwanda kubaka ikijandarume kimeze nk’icy’u Bufaransa."

Muri Mata 1983, aya masezerano yaravuguruwe, hongerwamo ibijyanye n’ubufatanye mu bya gisirikare.

Mu mwambaro w’igisikare cy’u Rwanda, umusirikare w’Umufaransa uri mu kazi k’ubufasha mu bya gisirikare (Assistant technique militaire) yagombaga kujya yambara icyapa (insigne) yanditse ho ‘cooperation militaire’, akayambara ku rutugu rw’ibumoso.

Muri aya masezerano kandi cyaraziraga ko umusirikare w’umufaransa yakwivanga mu itegurwa ry’intambara iyo ari yose.

Urugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda rwabaye hakiri ho aya masezerano atemerera umusirikare w’Umufaransa uwo ari we wese kwivanga mu mirwano mu Rwanda.

Ku wa 26 Kanama 1992, ni bwo hongeye kuvugururwa aya masezerano, ahavugwaga ikijandarume hashyirwamo igisirikare [Gendarmerie Rwandaise isimburwa na Forces Armées Rwandaises] kandi noneho aha ububasha igisirikare cy’u Bufaransa bwo kugira uruhare mu bikorwa byose by’icy’u Rwanda.

Iyi raporo yitiriwe Quilès isobanura ko izi mpinduka zaje muri aya masezerano hashize imyaka ibiri FPR Inkotanyi igabye igitero cya mbere ku Rwanda.

Iti “Biratangaje kubona abayobozi b’u Bufaransa, abasivili n’abasirikare batarigeze babona ko bamaze imyaka urenga bakora ibikorwa bya gisirikare ku butaka bw’u Rwanda, nta masezerano ahari abibemerera kuko amasezerano yari ahari yavugaga ubufasha mu kijandarume, ntaho yavugaga igisirikare cy’u Rwanda.”

U Bufaransa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

Mu myaka 27 ishize, u Bufaransa nk’igihugu bwakunze kugendera kure ingingo ibushyiraho uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta, abanyamakuru, abashakashatsi n’abandi bo mu Bufaransa akenshi ni bo bagiye bakomeza kotsa Leta igitutu ngo igaragaze ukuri kw’ibyo ikekwaho.

Ku wa 26 Werurwe ni bwo inzobere mu mateka 13 zashyizweho na Perezida Emmanuel Macron mu myaka ibiri ishize ngo zicukumbure uruhare rw’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, zamushyikirije raporo yazo ya paji hafi 1000.

Izo nzobere zari ziyobowe na Dr Vincent Duclert zanzuye ko hagati ya 1990 na 1994, u Bufaransa bwayoborwaga na François Marie Adrien Maurice Mitterrand bwafashije Leta ya Juvénal Habyarimana bukica amatwi ku makuru bwagendaga buhabwa n’inzego zirimo iz’ubutasi y’uko Leta ya Habyarimana iri kwibasira Abatutsi b’abasivili kandi ko hari umugambi wo kubarimbura.

Impuguke muri Politiki n’Amateka y’u Rwanda akaba n’Umwanditsi w’Ibitabo, Dr Jean Paul Kimonyo, aherutse kubwira IGIHE ko uburemere bw’iyo raporo buri mu myanzuro yayo.

Ati “Urebye raporo uburemere bwayo buri mu myanzuro. Ifite imyanzuro ibiri. Umwanzuro wa mbere uvuga ko Abafaransa bagize uruhare rukomeye cyane mu byabaye mu Rwanda hagati yo mu 1990 -1994. Ikindi ni ubwa mbere urwego rwo mu Bufaransa rubivuze gutyo, ibyo ni intambwe ikomeye cyane.”

Dr Kimonyo yavuze ko kuba Komisiyo Duclert yarashyizweho na Perezida Macron, hanyuma ikanzura igaragaza ko hari uruhare u Bufaransa bwagize mu gufasha Leta yateguraga Jenoside, ubwabyo ari intambwe ikomeye kuko nta kindi gihe byari byarigeze byemerwa ku mugaragaro.

Habyarimana yaje gucudika bikomeye n'u Bufaransa. Aha Perezida Giscard na Habyarimana bari kumwe n'Abafasha babo i Paris mu mwaka wa 1980
Inama z'u Bufaransa na bimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika zaberaga i Kigali. Uhereye ibumoso hari Perezida Giscard, Leopold Sedar Senghor wayoboraga Sénégal na Perezida Habyarimana
Perezida Valery Giscard d’Estaing na Juvénal Habyarimana basinyanye amasezerano y'ubufatanye mu bya Gisirikare mu 1975
Byarakomeje no ku butegetsi bwa Mitterrand Habyarimana akomeza gucudika nabwo
Ubucuti bw'u Rwanda n'u Bufaransa bwaje kuvamo kugira uruhare mu itegurwa n'ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi
Mu minsi ishize Umunyamateka Prof Vincent Duclert yashyikirije Perezida Macron Raporo igaragaza uruhare rw'u Bufaransa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

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