Byagenze bite ngo u Rwanda rugire igisirikare nyuma y’Ubukoloni?

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 3 Nzeri 2020 saa 07:43
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Imyaka isaga 60 irashize u Rwanda rugize igisirikare cyarwo bwite kirinda ubusugire n’umutekano by’abagituye, nyuma y’indi isaga 60 igihugu cyari kimaze mu bukoloni bw’u Budage n’u Bubiligi.

Nubwo mbere y’umwaduko w’abakoloni u Rwanda nk’ubwami bwahoranye ingabo, ntabwo zari ziremye mu buryo bw’igisirikare tuzi uyu munsi ndetse n’imikorere yazo yari yihariye ku buryo bitagereranywa n’imiterere y’igisirikare cy’ubu.

Igisirikare ni imwe mu ntwaro ikomeye kugira ngo ubutegetsi bwose burambe kandi intego zabwo zishyirwe mu bikorwa nta nkomyi. Mu gihe cy’ubukoloni bw’ababiligi bwatangiye mu 1916, u Rwanda rwarindwaga n’ingabo z’Ababailigi zari zishinzwe kurinda Congo, u Rwanda n’u Burundi. Izo ngabo zitwaga “Force Publique”.

Muri Kamena 1960, Congo yabonye ubwigenge, Minisitiri w’Intebe, Patrice Lumumba, ategeka ko ingabo z’Ababiligi zari zibabereye mu gihugu zitaha, hagasigara abenegihugu.

Byabaye ngombwa ko tariki 13 Kamena 1960 hashyirwaho ingabo zihariye zishinzwe kurinda u Rwanda n’u Burundi (Garde territoriale du Ruanda Urundi) ibirindiro bikuru bishyirwa i Bujumbura.

Ababiligi bifuzaga ko u Rwanda n’u Burundi bigira ingabo zimwe

Colonel Guy Logiest wayoboye ingabo z’u Bubiligi mu Rwanda nyuma akagirwa uhagarariye icyo gihugu mu Rwanda, mu gitabo cye ‘Ma mission au Rwanda, 1988’ yavuze ko “Imyaka 44 yari ishize u Rwanda ruri mu maboko y’ababiligi ariko nta musirikare w’u Rwanda wari wakagiye muri icyo gisirikare cya gikoloni”.

Logiest wagize uruhare mu gufasha Grégoire Kayibanda kugera ku butegetsi, avuga ko Congo imaze kubona ubwigenge, ari umwe mu bagize uruhare mu kumvisha bene wabo ko u Rwanda rukeneye ingabo zarwo nubwo batabyumvaga.

Impamvu ngo Ababiligi cyane cyane ubuyobozi bukuru bwari bushinzwe u Rwanda n’u Burundi butabyumvaga, ni uko u Rwanda n’u Burundi babibonaga nk’igihugu kimwe kizakomeza kuba kimwe kikagira ingabo zimwe zikireberera.
Ababiligi bumvaga gutoza igisirikare cyihariye cy’u Rwanda mu gihe hari inkubiri y’ubwigenge, bizarangira Abanyarwanda babahindukiranye nk’uko byabagendekeye muri Congo.

Kubera ko ibirindiro bikuru byari i Bujumbura, Ingabo z’Abakoloni zitaga cyane ku bibazo byo mu Burundi kurusha ibyo mu Rwanda. Izo boherezaga mu Rwanda ngo akenshi zabaga zishinzwe kurinda ubusugire bw’igihugu no kurinda abanyamahanga baba mu Rwanda, aho kurinda abaturage.

Logiest mu gitabo cye agira ati “Navuga ko ingabo z’u Bubiligi zari zaratojwe nabi cyane cyane ku bijyanye no kuzuzuza inshingano zo kurinda cyangwa kugarura ituze mu gihugu nk’u Rwanda. Ntacyo bari bazi kuri politiki y’imbere mu gihugu, imibereho y’abaturage, nta rurimi n’umuco gakondo bari bazi, byatezaga ibibazo kenshi.”

Col Guy Logiest yavuze ko mu 1960 yaje gutanga igitekerezo cy’uburyo u Rwanda rwategurwa rukagira igisirikare cyarwo.

Ati “Naje gutanga igitekerezo ko muri teritwari icumi zari zigize u Rwanda habamo nibura itsinda rito ry’abasirikare (platoon) rifite intwaro. Hagombaga no kubaho indi batayo ku ruhande yiteguye gutanga umusanzu ku rwego rw’igihugu. Kubera iyo mpamvu hari hakenewe nibura abasirikare 1200, gushinga ishuri ry’abofisiye bato n’ishuri ry’abofisiye bakuru mu gihe gito kandi hakaboneka ibikoresho.”

Nubwo Logiest yari ashishikajwe n’uko u Rwanda rugira igisirikare cyarwo, avuga ko intego yari ukugira igisirikare cyuzuyemo abahutu, bo kurengera inzego za politiki ziyobowe na Kayibanda zari zimaze gushyirwaho nyuma y’ikurwaho ry’ubwami.

Mu gitabo akomeza agira ati “Numvaga ari ngombwa guhita dushyiraho igisirikare cy’umwimerere kigizwe n’abatutsi 14 % n’abahutu 86 %, gusa mu bigaragara bagombaga kuba ari abahutu 100 %. Kugenda kwihuse kw’abasirikare b’Ababiligi nako kwakomeje kwihutisha icyo cyifuzo cyo gushinga ingabo zihariye zirinda u Rwanda.”

Ababiligi baje kwemera ko mu Rwanda haba igisirikare cyihariye, gihabwa izina rya Garde Nationale. Icyo gisirikare cyahabaga kibangikanye n’icy’Abakoloni. Muri Kamena 1960 Umubiligi Major François Vanderstraeten niwe wahawe kuyobora ingabo nshya z’u Rwanda.

Ingabo za mbere z’u Rwanda nta bikoresho zagiraga

Nyuma y’igihe gito, ishuri rikuru ry’abofisiye bato ryari i Bujumbura, ryagabanyijwemo kabiri igice kimwe kijya i Butare, nyuma kijyanwa i Kigali.

Tariki 10 Ugushyingo 1960 i Kigali hafunguwe ishuri ry’abofisiye bakuru, hatangira higamo abanyeshuri barindwi. Tariki 23 Ukuboza 1961, abanyeshuri batandatu bahawe amapeti ya Sous-Lieutenant bayobowe na Juvenal Habyarimana waje kuba Perezida wa kabiri w’u Rwanda.

Ingabo za mbere z’u Rwanda ahanini zari zigizwe n’Ababiligi biganjemo abari baherutse kwirukanwa na Lumumba muri Congo. Abasirikare ba mbere b’Abanyarwanda bo bari bakiri ku ishuri. Intwaro za mbere ingabo z’u Rwanda zatangiranye zari izo bahawe na Garde Publique.

Tariki 15 Ukwakira 1960, buri teritwari mu icumi yahawe itsinda rito ry’abasirikare bo kuririnda. Ingabo z’u Rwanda zari zigifite ibibazo birimo kubona ibizitunga, ibikoresho by’itumanaho, imodoka n’ibindi, no gutegura igisirikare kizima cyuzuye kizabasha kwibeshaho ubwo igihugu kizaba gihawe ubwigenge.

Ukurikije uko Logiest abivuga mu gitabo cye, ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda icyo gihe buyobowe na Kayibanda bwasaga n’ubudashishikajwe n’igisirikare cyane, imbaraga nyinshi bazihanze mu guhabwa ubutegetsi mu buryo bwemewe, u Rwanda rukigenga.

Abasirikare ba mbere b’abanyarwanda bamaze kurangiza amasomo, Habyarimana wari ubasohotsemo yahawe imirimo itandukanye kugeza ubwo agizwe Umugaba Mukuru w’ingabo.

U Rwanda rwabonye ubwigenge rufite ingabo nke cyane ariko by’umwihariko izo ngabo zari zigowe no kubona ibikoresho.

Tariki 7 Gicurasi 1962, Major François Vanderstraeten yandikiye uwari Minisitiri w’Ingabo na Logiest wari uhagarariye u Bubiligi mu Rwanda, ibaruwa igaragaza ko ingabo z’u Rwanda zifite ibibazo bikomeye by’ibikoresho.

Yagize ati “Nta mbunda zihagije zihari n’amasasu ahari ntarenga 12000, ni ukuvuga nibura amasasu 600 kuri buri tsinda (platoon) cyangwa se amasasu 15 buri musirikare. Ni ukuvuga ko ubu abasirikare bose 800 dufite, n’abo turi gutegura, igisirikare cy’u Rwanda kizaba gifite ubushobozi bwo kurinda ubusugire bw’igihugu muri Nyakanga 1962 ariko bizakunda nigihabwa ibikoresho.”

“Niyo mpamvu imbunda n’amasasu byahoze bikoreshwa na Garde Publique bikwiriye guhabwa ingabo z’u Rwanda, imbunda zo mu bwoko bwa Lee–Enfield zatumijwe mu Bubiligi zikwiriye kugera mu gihugu mbere y’impera za Kamena 1962, turifuza guhabwa bimwe mu bikoresho byahoze bikoreshwa n’ingabo z’u Bubiligi birimo ibifaru, ibyombo by’itumanaho n’ibikoresho byo kubisimbura.”

Nyuma y’ubwigenge, abasirikare b’Ababiligi nibo bakomeje kuyobora inzego nkuru z’igisirikare cy’u Rwanda kuko bavugaga ko nta bunararibonye abanyarwanda baragira.

Izo ngabo nshya z’u Rwanda zahuriranye n’ibitero by’abanyarwanda bari barameneshejwe bajyanwa mu buhunzi n’ubugizi bwa nabi bwo mu 1959 bashaka kugaruka mu gihugu cyabo.

Ibitero bya mbere byagabwe muri Gicurasi 1962 basubizwa inyuma, bongera muri Nyakanga uwo mwaka mu Ruhengeri. Ibitero byarakomeje mu 1963 kugeza mu 1966.

Igitabo The teaching of history of Rwanda, A participatory approach, kivuga ko muri Repubulika ya mbere, Kayibanda yakomeje kudaha agaciro cyane igisirikare, acyoherezamo Abahutu benshi baturukaga Iburengerazuba n’Amajyaruguru. Ngo yirindaga kubashyira muri Politiki kuko yasaga nk’uwabihariye Abahutu bo mu bice byo mu Majyepfo aho yakomokaga.

Byateye umujinya abasirikare bo mu Majyaruguru n’Iburengerazuba batangira kwivumbura kugeza kuwa 5 Nyakanga 1973, ubwo Gen Major Habyarimana yahirikaga ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda

Hashize amezi ane ahiritse ubutegetsi, mu Ukuboza 1973, Ingabo z’u Rwanda zitwaga Garde Nationale zahinduriwe izina zitwa Forces armées Rwandaises (FAR).

Ubwo Habyarimana yafataga ubutegetsi ahiritse Kayibanda mu 1973, yikubiye imyanya yose mikuru mu gisirikare irimo kuba Umugaba Mukuru w’ingabo, Minisitiri w’Ingabo ndetse akagenzurira bya hafi ibijyanye n’ubutasi.

Indi myanya ikomeye mu gisirikare yahabwaga abantu bake bakomoka mu bice bya Gisenyi, Ruhengeri na Byumba by’umwihariko mu bice byegereye ibyo Habyarimana yavukagamo.

Mu 1978 habayeho amavugurura mu gisirikare, habaho guhuza ingabo na Jandarumori yafatwaga nka Polisi.

Ivangura mu gisirikare cya Kayibanda na Habyarimana

Bamwe mu babaye mu gisirikare cyo kuri Repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri, bavuga ko hari harimo ivangura n’itotezwa rikomeye cyane cyane ku batutsi.

Colonel Epimaque Ruhashya, ni umwe mu batutsi ba mbere bemerewe kujya mu gisirikare mu bihe bya mbere u Rwanda rubona ubwigenge.

Col Ruhashya yinjiriye rimwe n’abandi basirikare muri poromosiyo ya mbere y’iryo shuri barimo Habyarimana Juvénal wari ufite nimero Matricule 01, Kanyarengwe Alexis M. 02, Nsekalije Aloys M.03, Benda Sabin M.04. We yari afite nimero Matricule 05.

Mu kiganiro yatanze tariki 21 Nyakanga 2004, Col Ruhashya yavuze ko kwinjira mu gisirikare byamugoye cyane.

Yagize ati “Mu gisirikare cy’u Rwanda hakoreshwaga uburyo bwiswe ‘système pignet’ bwo kwikiza abo badashaka. Ni uburyo bwakoreshwaga batsikamira abantu bakoresheje uko bababona. Nubwo abatutsi bari bamerewe kujya mu gisirikare, byari bigoye ngo bakirwe. Abofisiye bakuru bakoraga ibishoboka byose ngo batsindwe. Ntabwo nigeze ngira ibibazo ngeze muri ESM (Ecole Supérieure Militaire) uretse kunshinja ko ngirana inama za rwihishwa n’abari abayobozi b’ishyaka UNAR.”

Ruhashya yavuze ko buri gihe iyo yoherezwaga mu bitero byo guhashya Inyenzi, bamucyuriraga ngo agiye guhangana na bene wabo.

Ati “Mu bitero byo mu Buyenzi mu 1966 mu gusubiza inyuma i Nyenzi, ingabo z’u Rwanda zatwitse inzu nyinshi z’abaturage. Nyuma baje kuvuga ko nari ndi kwihorera ku baturage. Byari byatewe n’uko hari abatutsi nafashije guhunga.”

Ruhashya muri Kanama 2004 yavuze ko ku musirikare kurongora umukobwa cyangwa umugabo mudahuje ubwoko nabyo byari ikibazo. Yavuze ko bitari byemewe kurongora ‘Umututsikazi.”

Ababirengagaho bakabikora, ngo hari ubwo bamburwaga amapeti. Yatanze ingero za Joachim Muramutsa wari ufite umukobwa bakundana w’umututsikazi, pasiporo ye ikaza gufatirwa ubwo yashakaga kujya mu mahugurwa mu Bubiligi.

Mu 1990, igisirikare cy’u Rwanda (FAR) bivugwa ko cyari gifite ingabo zigera ku 7000 zirimo abajandarume (polisi) 1200. Kubera urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu rwatangijwe na FPR Inkotanyi tariki 1 Ukwakira 1990, igisirikare cyarongerewe ku buryo cyageze ku basirikare 30 000.

Mu mishyikirano ya Arusha hagati ya Guverinoma y’u Rwanda na FPR Inkotanyi, hemejwe ko hajyaho igisirikare kivanze kirimo ingabo 19000 n’abajandarume 6000 gusa abenshi mu basirikare bakuru n’abanyapolitiki muri Leta ya Habyarimana barabirwanyije.

Ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi RPA (Rwanda Patriotic Army) zimaze kubohora igihugu muri Nyakanga 1994 no guhagarika Jenoside, zashyize hamwe zubaka igisirikare gishya ndetse abo mu ngabo zari zimaze gutsindwa, bemererwa kwinjiramo. Igisirikare cy’u Rwanda cyahinduriwe izina cyitwa Rwanda Defense Force (RDF).

Ingabo z’u Rwanda (RDF) kuri ubu zifite inshingano zo kurinda imipaka n’ubusugire by’igihugu; gufatanya n’izindi nzego z’umutekano kurinda umutekano w’abaturage n’iyubahirizwa ry’amategeko; gutabara mu gihe cy’ibiza; kugira uruhare mu bikorwa by’iterambere ry’igihugu; kugira uruhare mu bikorwa byo kubungabunga amahoro hirya no hino ku Isi, gutabara ikiremwamuntu ndetse n’inyigisho zigamije kurengera ikiremwamuntu.

RDF igizwe n’Ingabo zirwanira ku butaka, izirwanira mu kirere, imitwe yihariye y’ingabo ndetse n’Inkeragutabara.

Guhera mu 1962, u Rwanda rumaze kugira ba minisitiri b’ingabo icumi n’abagaba b’ingabo icyenda.

Uhereye ibumoso: Maj. Buregeya Bonaventure, Maj. Gahimano Fabien wayoboraga Ishuri ry’Abofisiye i Kigali, Maj. Ruhashya Epimaque wari ukuriye Ikigo gikomeye cyo mu Ruhengeri, Maj. Benda Sabin wayoboraga Ikigo cya Camp Kigali, Maj. Ntibitura Bonaventure, Maj. Serubuga Laurent, Maj. Simba Aloys, Maj. Nsekalije Aloys , Lt. Col. Kanyarengwe Alexis wayoboraga Iseminari Nto yo ku Nyundo na Gen. Maj. Habyarimana wari Minisitiri w’Ingabo na Polisi akaba n’Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo. Iyi foto iraburamo Maj. Jean Nepomuscène Munyandekwe na we wari mu bagize itsinda ryiyise ‘Les Camarades du 5 Juillet” ryarimo abasirikare bakuru 11 bahiritse ku butegetsi uwari Perezida wa Repubulika, Kayibanda Grégoire, bamushinja kuba imbohe y’ibitekerezo by’abanzi b’amahoro bisenya ubumwe bw’igihugu
U Bubiligi bwakomeje kugira ijambo mu gisirikare cy'u Rwanda nyuma y'ubwigenge
Colonel Guy Logiest yahaye Kayibanda n'ishyaka rye ubufasha bwose bushoboka burimo n'uburinzi mu gihe Abatutsi hirya no hino bicwaga abandi bameneshwa
Habyarimana amaze gufata ubutegetsi, yiyegereje igisirikare cyane, akagishyiramo benshi baturuka mu bice by'amajyaruguru
Ingabo za Habyarimana zihunga igihugu nyuma yo gutsindwa na RPA muri Nyakanga 1994. Zahungiye muri Zaire n'igihiriri cy'impunzi
Hejuru yo kurinda igihugu, ingabo z'u Rwanda kuri ubu (RDF) zifasha mu bindi bikorwa bigamije imibereho myiza y'abaturage. Kuri iyi foto umuganga wa RDF ari kubaga umurwayi wo mu Bitaro bya Munini biri mu Karere ka Nyaruguru mu bikorwa ngarukamwaka byo kwegereza abaturage serivisi zitandukanye z’ubuvuzi
Ingabo z'u Rwanda zitanga umusanzu no mu bikorwa by'ubwitange, aha zatangaga amaraso yo gufasha indembe
Abasirikare ba RDF batera ibitunguru mu bikorwa ingabo zikorera abaturage
Ingabo z'u Rwanda zifatanya n'abaturage mu bikorwa by'iterambere
Umusirikare wa RDF akingira umwana wo muri Darfur aho yari mu butumwa bwo kubungabunga amahoro
Mu butumwa bwo kugarura amahoro hirya no hino ku Isi, ingabo z'u Rwanda zakuriwe ingofero
RDF yafashije abaturage kwinjira mu bworozi bw'inkoko babasha kwiteza imbere
Ingabo z'u Rwanda zagize uruhare mu iterambere ry'abaturage binyuze mu kuboroza inka n'andi matungo
Umugaba w'Ikirenga w'ingabo z'u Rwanda, Perezida Kagame agenzura ingabo mu birori byo kwizihiza umunsi wo kwibohora ku nshuro ya 25
Ingabo ziri mu karasisi ubwo hizihizwaga Kwibohora ku nshuro ya 25
Kudasobanya byabaye intero mu ngabo z'u Rwanda

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