Bamwe mu bayobozi ba Afurika bagiye biha cyangwa bahabwa ipeti rya ‘Maréchal’

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 12 Kanama 2020 saa 09:25
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Inkuru iri guca ibintu mu binyamakuru byo muri Afurika yo hagati no mu isi y’abakoresha ururimi rw’Igifaransa, ni iya Perezida wa Tchad Idriss Déby Itno wahawe ipeti rya Maréchal mu gisirikare.

Perezida Idriss Déby Itno ni Perezida wa Tchad guhera mu 1990. Ni umwe mu bagiye ku butegetsi babumazeho igihe nyuma yo kuyobora intambara yabumushyizeho afite ipeti rya Général.

Kuri uyu wa Kabiri tariki 11 Kanama ubwo Tchad yizihizaga imyaka 60 imaze ibonye ubwigenge, nibwo Perezida Itno yahawe ipeti rya Maréchal, aba umwe mu bayobozi ba Afurika bageze kuri urwo rwego nubwo akenshi ari amapeti biha cyangwa bahabwa bari ku butegetsi, ntavugweho rumwe.

Twasubije amaso inyuma ngo turebe abandi bayobozi ba Afurika bagiye biha iryo peti, n’uburyo bagiye basoza urugendo rwabo muri Politiki.

Idi Amin Dada, Field Marshal wa Uganda

Idi Amin Dada ni umwe mu bayoboye Uganda nyuma gato y’ubwigenge, akaba Perezida utavugwaho rumwe kugeza n’ubu kubera imwe mu myanzuro yajyaga afata, yatumye bamwe bakeka ko yaba atari yuzuye mu mutwe.

Idi Amin yavukiye mu gace ka Koboko mu Majyaruguru ashyira uburasirazuba bwa Uganda mu 1925. Yize muri Uganda nyuma aza kujya mu gisirikare cy’abakoloni b’Abongereza mu 1945.

Yahiritse ubutegetsi bwa Perezida Milton Obote mu 1971, abumaraho imyaka umunani ubwo yabukurwagaho agahunga igihugu mu 1979.

Idi Amin Dada mu 1975 yihaye ipeti rya Field Marshal ry’inyenyeri eshanu, rikaba rikuru mu mapeti yose y’igisirikare cya Uganda icyo gihe.

Yapfuye mu mwaka wa 2003 agwa mu buhungiro muri Arabie Saoudite aho yari yarabonye ubuhungiro.

Mobutu Sese Seko, maréchal wa Zaïre

Yamanyekanye ku mazina menshi ariko iritangaje yiyise amaze kujya ku butegetsi ni Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga yihaye mu 1971 risimbura Joseph Désiré Mobutu yiswe n’ababyeyi.

Ni umugabo wafashwe nk’igihangange mu minsi ye ya mbere ku butegetsi ndetse hari abaturage ba Zaïre (Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo kuri ubu) bamufataga nk’Imana dore ko no kuri Televiziyo y’igihugu buri makuru yabanzirizwaga n’ifoto ye izamuka mu kirere.

Mobutu yavukiye mu mujyi wa Lisala mu yitwaga Congo Mbiligi tariki 14 Ukwakira 1930.

Yahiritse ubutegetsi bwa Joseph Kasavubu tariki 24 Ugushyingo 1965, igihugu akiyoboza inkoni y’icyuma ndetse mu 1982 ategeka ko mu gihugu haba ishyaka rimwe rukumbi.

Uwo mwaka ni nawo yihaye ipeti rya maréchal, Perezida wa Zaïre n’uw’ishyaka rukumbi, Mouvement populaire de la Révolution, nkuko BBC yabitangaje.

Azwi mu myanzuro itangaje yagiye afata n’impinduka mu gihugu cye nk’aho yategetse ko abaturage batongera kwambara amakote yo mu Burayi, ahubwo bakambara amakote akoze kizayirwa yise Abacost.

Mobutu kandi yasabye abaturage be kureka amazina biswe n’abanyamahanga cyane cyane ayo bagiye babatizwa mu madini, bakayasimbuza amazina gakondo ari nabwo yafataga izina rya Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga, bivuze ‘Mobutu, indwanyi igenda itsinda hose ntawe ubashije kuyihangara’.

Yaguye mu buhungiro tariki 7 Nzeri 1997, nyuma y’iminsi mike akuwe ku butegetsi na Laurent Desire Kabila.

Mohamed Hussein Tantawi : maréchal wa Misiri

Mohamed Tantawi yavukiye mu gace ka Nubie kari hagati ya Soudan na Misiri mu mwaka wa 1935. Yinjiye mu gisirikare cya Misiri mu 1956.

Yabaye Perezida wa Misiri tariki 11 Gashyantare 2011 nyuma yo guhirika ubutegetsi bwa Moubarak. Tariki 30 Kamena 2012 yarekuye ubutegetsi.

Mu myaka isaga 50 yamaze mu gisirikare, Tantawi yagize uruhare rukomeye mu ntambara Misiri yagiye irwana harimo n’iyo bahanganyemo na Israel ari nayo yatumye ahabwa ipeti rya maréchal.

Tantawi yabaye Minisitiri w’Ingabo za Misiri, aba n’umugaba w’ingabo z’icyo gihugu guhera mu 1991 kugeza mu 2012. Aracyariho atuye I Cairo mu Misiri.

Jean-Bédel Bokassa : maréchal akaba n’umwami w’abami wa Centrafrique

Jean-Bédel Bokassa yavutse tariki 22 Gashyantare 1921, avukira ahitwa Bobangui. Yize amashuri muri Congo Brazzaville nyuma aba umupasiteri, nyuma ababyeyi be bamugira inama yo kujya mu gisirikare cy’abakoloni b’Abafaransa.

Ubwo yari arangije kwiga amashuri ye mu 1939, yinjiye mu gisirikare atangira imirimo mu 1941. Yafashije abafaransa mu ntambara ya kabiri y’isi yose ubwo bwarwanaga n’ingabo za Hitler.

Muri Mutarama 1962, Bokassa yavuye mu Bufaransa ajya mu gisirikare cya Centrafrique, ahabwa ipeti rya Colonel, aba umujyanama mu by’igisirikare nyuma aba umugaba mukuru w’ingabo mu 1964.

Mu 1966 yahiritse ku butegetsi mubyara we David Dacko, hanyuma ayobora igihugu kugeza mu 1979.

Mu mwaka wa 1972 Bokassa yatangaje ko abaye umwami w’abami, mu 1974 yiyita maréchal. Mu 1979 yakuwe ku butegetsi ahungira mu Bufaransa. Yagarutse muri Centrafrique mu 1980, ajyanwa mu nkiko ashinjwa ibyaha bitandukanye byatunye akatirwa igifungo cya burundu.

Mu mwaka wa 1993, Bokassa yararekuwe, aza gupfa mu Ugushyingo 1996 azize guhagarara k’umutima.

Perezida wa Tchad Idriss Déby Itno yagizwe Maréchal kuri uyu wa Kabiri ubwo igihugu cye cyizihizaga imyaka 60 ishize kibonye ubwigenge

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