Jenoside: Ibaruwa ku mugabo wagerageje kuvuga ukuri

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 17 Gashyantare 2021 saa 07:24
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Umunyamakuru ukomoka muri Ireland wakoreraga ikinyamakuru cyo mu Bwongereza, The Independent ndetse akaba yaragendereye u Rwanda mu bihe bya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, ari gushaka kugera kuri Raymond Mbaraga, warokotse Jenoside ndetse mu gihe yabaga akemera kumuvugisha yirengagije ibyago yari ari kwishyiramo. David Orr yicuza kuba inyota yagize yo kubona inkuru yarasumbye kuba yarimo amushyira mu byago.

Iyi baruwa iri munsi ni iyo David Orr yandikiye Raymond Mbaraga ishyirwa mu Kinyarwanda na IGIHE

Nshuti, Raymond

Kuva ubwo duherukana hashize igihe kinini. Ndizera ko umeze neza. Mfite kuvuga ko kuva mu minsi ishize nagutekerejeho cyane, ku bw’ibyo ntekereza ko nakwandikira. Iki gitekerezo nakigize ubwo nari nicuye mu ijoro hagati. Nari ndimo gukora isuku ngwa ku gikarito kirimo amakayi yanjye ya kera n’inkuru nanditse ubwo nari umunyamakuru ushinzwe gutara amakuru kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda. Ubwo nabinyuragamo nageze ku izina ryawe n’inyandiko nakoze ubwo twahuraga mu 1994.

Mvugishije ukuri, ubu sibwo bwa mbere nari ngutekerejeho muri iyi myaka. Buri gihe mu buryo buhoraho, iyo numvaga ikintu kuri radiyo cyerekeranye na Jenoside cyangwa nkareba filimi mbarankuru ibitekerezo byanjye byasubiraga inyuma muri ya minsi iteye ubwoba y’ubwicanyi n’akarengane. Nibukaga amahirwe twagize yo guhurira mu nkambi aho wari warafatiwe ubwo ubwicanyi bwari bukabije ndetse n’inshuro ya kabiri ubwo twahuraga mu buryo tutateganyije nyuma y’ibyumweru bike.

Kuva aho hari igihe ubuzima bwantwaraga, ukaba wava no mu bitekerezo byanjye, urabizi uko ubuzima bugenda.

Kuri iyi nshuro, nari mfite intego y’uko ntagomba kureka ngo aya mahirwe ance mu myanya y’intoki. Ubwo nari nicuye natekereje ko ngomba kuzavugisha ikinyamakuru cyo mu Rwanda, nkandikira Raymond urwandiko rufunguye. Wenda azarubona, noherereje email umuntu nari nzi muri Kigali ubundi ampa izina ry’umunyamakuru, niyo mpamvu turi aha.

Birumvikana ko nagushakishije kuri Facebook ariko sinabashije kubona umuntu nu’mwe witwa Raymond Mbaraga. Nshobora kuba naranditse izina ryawe nabi ubwo twagiranagana ikiganiro muri ya nkambi y’urupfu. Wenda bitewe n’ibihe twarimo byashoboka ko wari kuba warampaye n’izina ritari ryo.

Ariko ntiwari kuba ufite impamvu ya kongera kubikora ku nshuro ya kabiri twahuye, kubera ko icyo gihe ibibi, cyangwa reka mvuge ibibi bikabije byari bimaze kurangira.

Ibyo tubaye tubishyize ku ruhande ndizera ko Raymond, umwarimu twahuye muri iyo myaka yose ishize akiriho kandi ameze neza, kandi akaba azasoma aya magambo.

Ikintu cya mbere nshaka kuvuga ni uko nsaba imbabazi. Imbabazi z’uko ntaguhaye agaciro kandi wowe warashyize ubuzima bwawe mu kaga umbwira ibyabaga muri biriya bihe by’umwijima. Yego nagerageje kukurinda ntavuga umwirondoro wawe muri raporo yanjye ya mbere. Nakujyanye kure gato ahitaruye amaso y’abari bashinzwe kurinda inkambi kandi hasaga n’ahatekanye turaganira.

Ariko kongera gusoma inkuru z’ikinyamakuru cy’i Londres, The Independent, bihita bigaragarira amaso yanjye ko kubona inkuru bishobora kuba aribyo byazaga imbere muri gahunda yanjye y’icyo gihe. Iyo nza kubitekerezaho byimbitse, nashoboraga kubona ingano y’ibyago wirengeraga wemera kumvugisha. Kandi neza nk’uko wabimbwiye nyuma ubwo twongeraga guhura, wagambaniwe n’imfungwa ngenzi zawe zashakaga kugirirwa impuhwe n’abaguhigaga.

Byari amahirwe n’ubwenge bwawe bwagusimbukije urupfu ubwo abarinzi b’Interahamwe bazaga bagushakisha.

Nshobora kuba wenda ndi kurya amagambo. Ku bw’inyungu z’abasomyi, nshobora wenda gusobanura ibyabaga icyo gihe n’ukuntu naje guhura na we. Byari muri Gicurasi hagati mu 1994 hamwe n’irindi tsinda ry’abanyamakuru, nageze i Kabgayi mu nkengero z’Umujyi wa Gitarama (ubu ni mu Karere ka Muhanga) aho Guverinoma yakoze Jenoside yari ikambitse.

Bariyeri, Interahamwe zifite imihoro n’umuhiri n’abasirikare bafite imbunda bari batonze umurongo mu mihanda. Urusaku rw’imbunda rwumvikaniraga mu ntera cyane ko Ingabo zahoze ari iza RPA zasatiraga. Ubwicanyi bwari bumaze ukwezi bukorwa. Imirambo yuzuye mu bice bitandukanye by’igihugu ndetse itemba no mu migezi.

Kugira ngo mbashe kumvikanisha ibi ndakoresha amagambo nakoresheje mu nkuru. Aka kanya mfite agace k’agapapuro kayo. Ushobora kubona umutwe wayo ugira uti ‘‘Inside Rwanda’s Death Camp Hell’- byumvikana nk’inkuru iteye ubwoba ariko ntiyari kure y’ukuri.

“Hanze y’Umujyi wa Gitarama ahantu hazengurutswe na senyenge Abatutsi barenga 1000 bafunzwe mu buryo bubi ntigeze mbona. Buri munsi, nabwirwaga inshuro nyinshi, ko amatsinda y’abagabo akurwa muri iyo nkambi bagakubitwa n’abasirikare ba Guverinoma kugeza bapfuye.” (Mbonye ko nanditse “ Umututsi 1000”, aho kuba Abatutsi, ni yo mvugo yari ikwiye yo gukoresha ariko muri iyo minsi ya mbere, abenshi muri twe banyamakuru b’abanyamahanga twari tukiga byinshi ku Rwanda.

Ndibuka ko hari ikinyamakuru kimwe kizwi cyanditse Tutus na Hutsis. Ariko nari narigeze gusuraho u Rwanda mbere ya Jenoside, byatuma mvuga ko wenda ibyo nari nzi byarutaga ibya bamwe muri bagenzi banjye b’abanyamakuru.

Reka nkomeze mbabarira inkuru nk’uko yari yanditse. “Mbere na mbere, batangiye gusohora abagabo bakuze ariko kuri ubu bari gufata n’abato,” aya ni amagambo nabwiwe n’umusore wari wambaye ingofero. “Dufite ubwoba bwinshi ariko turabizi ko tugerageje gusohoka iyi nkambi Interahamwe zadufata.”

Ku bw’inyungu z’abasomyi reka nsobanure, Interahamwe ni “itsinda ry’abasore bitwazaga imihoro bari mu rubyiruko rwo ku ruhande ya guverinoma.”

Nakomeje nsobanura uko byari byifashe muri iriya nkambi wowe Raymond wari ufungiyemo. “Amagana y’abantu yuzuye mu mbuga y’icyahoze ari iseminari, amagana y’abandi yikusanyirije mu byumba byuzuyemo umunuko ndetse n’izindi nzu zo anze. Imirambo irambaraye mu bazima no mu bari guhumeka uwa nyuma. Hari ibyo kurya bike cyane kandi nta mazi. Umugore ukuze amfashe akaboko ubundi antungira agatoki ku nda ye mu buryo busa n’aho afite icyo ashaka cyane. Mu mbuga rwagati abana bari gukinira iruhande rw’imirambo ibiri iri mu ngobyi z’abarwayi.”

Sinigeze mbona, ko mu kugukoresha ikiganiro, nabaye nk’ugusiga umeze nk’umuhigo. Muri kiriya gihe ubwo njye n’abandi banyamakuru twageraga muri Gitarama, abasirikare barinze inkambi baragushakishaga. Impamvu baturutse ngo twinjire mu nkambi mbere na mbere sinyizi. Birumvikana ko baduhakaniye ko hari ikibi kiri kuba.

Batubwiye ko wari warafashwe kubera ko bashakaga kukurinda. Ariko washiritse ubwoba, umbwira ukuri. Wenda watekereje ko inkuru mu kinyamakuru kizwi cyane izagabanya umuvumba w’ibyabaga.

Gusa watubuye ubushobozi bw’itangazamakuru mpuzamahanga. Ubwicanyi bwarakomeje. Nubwo ibyaberaga muri icyo gihugu cyawe gito kidakora ku Nyanja byigaragazaga. Abo mu burengerazuba bw’Isi ntacyo bakoze ngo babihagarike.

Raymond, ndacyafite urwibutso ku gihugu cyanyu cyiza, urwibutso rw’igihugu cyanyu giteye ubwoba nk’uko cyari cyahindutse mu 1994. Gutwara imodoka mu bibaya n’imisozo y’icyatsi, gusura ingagi zo mu misozi nk’umwaka wari wabanje mbere y’uko Jenoside itangira.

Kugirana ikiganiro na Perezida Habyarimana mbere ho amezi y’uko indege ye iraswa Jenoside igatangira. Guhagarara hejuru y’Umugezi w’Akagera muri Gicurasi 1994, imirambo itemba mu mazi.

Gucumbika muri Hoteli Méridien muri Kigali- nta mazi ariko televiziyo ya CNN igaragara, n’urusaku rw’imbunda ziremereye rukikije udusozi tutuzengurutse.

Gutemberera mu nkambi y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye irimo abashinzwe kubungabunga amahoro bananiwe kuyabungabunga. Guhura na Perezida Kagame mu mashyamba ubwo we n’ingabo ze basatiraga umurwa mukuru.

Mu kongera gusoma inkuru zanjye kuri Jenoside, ndi guheranwa n’ibiteye ubwoba bitarangira. Nakoze inkuru eshatu muri Gicurasi na Kamena 1994, ebyiri mu ruhande rwa Guverinoma ubwo ubwicanyi bwari bugeze ku kigero cyo hejuru n’indi imwe mu runda rwa RPF. Muri kiriya gihe ngomba kuba naraganiriye n’amagana y’abantu, biganjemo abarokotse ubwicanyi. Abenshi muri iyi nyandiko bagaragara badafite amazina.

Muri bariya bose nahuye nabo, kubera iki ari wowe wagaragaye nk’uri kuvuga ibifite umujyo n’imbaraga? Byarashobokaga ko nawe umwirondoro wawe wari kuguma ari ibanga, iyo bitaza kuba ko nyuma yo guhura kwacu kwa mbere, nongeye guhurira nawe mu rugo rw’umuntu wari wameneshejwe hanze y’Umujyi wa Ruhango, iki gihe RPF niyo yari ifite ubutegetsi.

“Ubwicanyi no gufata ku ngufu byarakomeje nyuma y’uko ugiye,” Niko wambwiye. “Interahamwe zimaze kumva ko navuze ibyabaga zaje zincaka. Ni Imana gusa yandinze. Nacukuye umwobo muri nyakatsi umuvandimwe wanjye antwikiriza ibibabi. Nagumye muri uwo mwobo mu minsi itanu, nsenga ngo ntafatwa. Kiriya gihe RPF yaraje iratubohoza.”

Wavuze ko abavandimwe bawe babiri batemaguwe n’abicanyi. Wamaze ibyumweru bitandatu muri iriya nkambi. Nta numwe uzi umubare w’abahiciwe. Nyuma y’uko RPF ije, abari bameze nkawe bafite imbaraga zihagije bagiye mu mijyi yari yamaze kubohorwa.

Ubwo njye na bagenzi banjye b’abanyamakuru twasubiraga muri iriya nkambi, twasanze hari abarokotse bagihari, nta mbaraga kandi baraguhabanye ku buryo batashoboraga kuhava. Mu mirambo, nahabonye abana babiri bari bakiriho, umwe muri bo yurira umurambo wa nyina.

“Ese bake barokotse iri curaburindi bazigera bakira ibikomere?” Niko nibajije.

Icyo navuga ni uko ubwo nongeraga guhura na Raymond Mbaraga, yari afite ibishashi by’ubuzima mu maso ye. Kiriya gihe n’ubu iyo yavugaga, wabonaga inseko ku minwa ye. Ndetse yakomoje zimwe muri gahunda ze z’ahazaza.

Zari gahunda nziza. Uracyari umwarimu, ndibaza…. niba ugifite akanyamuneza ku maso yawe? Raymond, nifuza kumenya icyo wabaye cyo mu myaka yakurikiyeho. Duhura wari ukiri umusore muto.

Ndatekereza ko wubatse, ukagira umuryango. Wenda inkuru y’ibitangaza y’uko warokotse abicanyi yabaye inkuru y’umuryango. Cyangwa wenda wahungabanyijwe n’ibyo wanyuzemo ku buryo utifuza kuvuga kuri iriya minsi y’umwijima. Urwibutso rwanjye kuri Jenoside rwambujije gutuza bihagije- mu byumweru byakurikiyeho nagize inzozi mbi ndetse ngorwa no kugoheka. Ariko uburemere bw’urwibutso rwanjye ruremereye bingana iki ngereranyije n’urwawe n’urwa biriya bihumbi by’abagore n’abagabo musangiye igihugu barokotse? Ni iki nshobora kumenya cyangwa ngo numve ku kababaro n’ibibazo byawe?

Ndacyeka ko iyi myaka yakubereye myiza ndetse igatuma ugera kuri zimwe muri za gahunda wari warambwiye. Ntibishoboka ko waba waribagiwe ibyo wanyuzemo ariko wenda wize kubana n’ahahise no kwishakamo no gushakira abawe urumuri, ubuzima bushya muri icyo gihugu cyawe cyiza naje kumenya neza nyuma. Mu myaka yakurikiyeho narahagarutse ndetse buri gihe uko nazaga, nibukaga uguhura kwacu.

Ndakwifuriza ibyiza,


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