Urwibutso ku miterere y’ibirango by’u Rwanda mu mateka y’impitagihe

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 27 Mutarama 2021 saa 09:57
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Amateka yo hambere agaragaza ko kugira ngo igihugu kiganze, cyemerwe mu ruhando rw’ibindi cyagombaga kuba gifite inkingi eshanu z’ingenzi cyubakiraho, zirimo ubutaka gihangirwaho, umwami ugitwara, ikirango cyacyo, abaturage bagishagara n’ingabo zikirinda.

Kuva mu bihe by’Abami kugeza mu bya Repubulika, u Rwanda rwanyuze mu bihe bitandukanye bijyanye n’inkingi zikomeye igihugu cyubakiraho, bigatuma gihamya igitinyiro mu ruhando rw’ibindi.

Mu ihanga ry’ibihugu kuva u Rwanda rwaturwa ahasaga mu mwaka wa 300, haremwe ibihugu bigera kuri 29 bya mbere y’uko urwa Gasabo rubaho. Buri gihugu cyagize ikirango cyariho muri ibyo bihe cyitwaga “Ingoma Ngabe” wagereranya n’ibendera ry’igihugu.

Ikirangantego ni cyo cyari izina ryayo, ryabaga rikagiriyemo ibigwi bya ba nyiracyo n’intego bafite mu iyubaka bihugu byabo.

Muri ibyo bihe ni bwo ibihugu byose byahuriye ku kuramvura ingoma mu biti, bakayiha ishusho bashaka, bakayita izina rikagiriyemo intego zabo n’icyerekezo baganamo.

Aha ni ho dusanga nk’Ingoma Ngabe y’u Bugesera yitwaga Rukombamazi, iy’ u Bushiru ikitwa Nkundubushiru, iy’u Bungwe ikitwa Nyamibande, iy’u Rweya ikitwa Sera, iy’u Budaha n’u Bwishaza ikitwa Mpatsibihugu, iy’i Gisaka ikitwa Rukurura, iy’u Buliza ikitwa Bushizimbeho, iy’u Bwanacyambwe ikitwa Kamuhagama, iya Nduga ikitwa Nyabihinda, iy’u Bunyabungo ikitwa Karyamahugu, iy’u Bunyambilili ikitwa Nkunzurwanda, iy’u Bukunzi ikitwa Nyamuganza, iy’u Bugoyi ikitwa Nyamwishyura, iy’u Burera ikitwa Bazarubaze, iya Rwankeri y’Abalindi ikitwa Kabuce, iya Rwankeri y’Abaguyane ikitwa Ndahaze, iy’u Bukonya ikitwa Ruvugamahame, iy’u Buhoma ikitwa Nkandagiyabagome, iy’u Bwanamwali ikitwa Rugoruhindingoma, iya Bugamba-Kigamba ikitwa Kayenzi-Iravumera, iya Cyingogo ikitwa Simugomwa, iy’i Ndorwa ikitwa Murorwa, iy’u Bugara ikitwa Rugara.

Ibi bihugu byose byabaga bifite ibyangombwa byuzuye ngo bibe biganje, bifite ubusugire bwabyo n’ubutavogerwa ku Isi, harimo n’ingoma ngabe nk’ibendera ry’igihugu n’ikirangantego cya ba nyiracyo. Ni cyo cyatumye byitwa ibihugu n’ubwo wasangaga bifite ubutaka buto bungana n’akarere k’iki gihe cyangwa se ugasanga hari n’aho kamwe karimo ibihugu bibiri.

Muri iyi nkuru tugiye guterura amateka y’ibirango by’u Rwanda mu mateka yanzikira ku ihangwa ry’igihugu kugeza mu bihe bya Repubulika.

-  Ibirango bya Gihanga ahanga u Rwanda

Amateka yerekana ko u Rwanda rwahanzwe na Gihanga cya Kazi ahasaga mu wa 1091. Ahanga u Rwanda, yasanze rugandagajemo ibihugu 24, icye cya Gasabo cyaje kubyara u Rwanda kiba icya 25, hiyongeraho n’ibindi bine byahanzwe n’abana be mu bisigara by’ubutaka bwasigaye bahanga ibindi bihugu.

Mu ihangwa ry’u Rwanda, Gihanga na we yaje muri uwo mujyo wo kugira ibirango by’igihugu ariko bitandukanye n’iby’abami b’ibindi bihugu byamutanze kurema kuri ubu butaka.

Ibirango Gihanga yahanganye u Rwanda birimo urusengo, inyundo n’umuriro kandi byose byari bifite igisobanuro muri icyo gihe.

-  Urusengo: Ni igikoresho cy’umuziki cyashushanyaga ubwisanzure, ubusugire n’ibitaramo by’abaturage bafite amahoro, cyiswe “Nyamilinga”. Iri zina rikomoka ku nshinga yitwa “Kulinga’’ isobanura ‘Icyizere ntagamburuzwa cy’ahazaza h’igihugu kiramye’.

-  Inyundo: Gihanga yahanganye u Rwanda inyundo isanzwe bifashisha mu bucuzi. Yayihaye izina rya “Nyarushara”, bivuga ‘Inyundo yacuze Abami, igahanga igihugu.’

-  Umuriro: Umuriro uvugwa hano wagombaga guhora waka ubutazima. Washushanyaga “Uburame bw’ubwami, ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda n’ubusugire bw’igihugu.”

-  Ibirango by’ibihugu byiyunze bikaba kimwe

Ahasaga mu 1100, ni bwo Gihanga yahaye igitekerezo Abami b’Abasangwabutaka cyo guhuza ibihugu bito bafite kandi bitubakitse, bakarema igihugu kimwe kigwije igitinyiro. Aya masezerano yasinyiwe i Nkotsi na Bikara mu Buhanga [Ubu ni mu Murenge wa Nkotsi mu Karere ka Musanze].

Nyuma yo kwemeranya ayo masezerano y’ihuzabihugu, bahise barema ikirango cy’igihugu gishya cy’ibihugu byiyunze. Icyo kirango cyabaye Ingoma Ngabe Rwoga yaramvuwe na Nyamuhindura wa Rubunga w’Umusinga w’Umurenge, bakura igisekuruza cyabo ku Basinga b’Abasangwabutaka.

Ingoma-Ngabe “RWOGA” isobanura ‘Kogera cyangwa Kwamamara’. Kuva Rwoga yaremwa, u Rwanda rwahise ruyigira iyarwo, kubera ko arirwo rwahawe ubunyamabanga nshingwabikorwa bushyira mu bikorwa umushinga w’ukwiyunga kw’ibihugu, n’ubwo bwose byari bitariyunga ngo bibe kimwe.

Kuva ubwo ibirango Gihanga yahanganye u Rwanda, byasimbuwe na Rwoga ariko bikomeza kuba mu mihango y’iyimikabami b’u Rwanda no mu yindi y’ubucamanza, iyo gutangiza intambara, kohera ibiza n’ibyorezo byabaga byibasiye igihugu.

-  Ibirango by’u Rwanda byaremwe na Ruganzu Ndoli

Nyuma y’aho bicikiye i Rubi rw’i Nyundo, bene Gahima barwaniye ingoma Ndahiro Cyamatare akahagwa, ingoma ngabe Rwoga ikanyagwa n’Abanyabungo u Rwanda rukamara imyaka 11 ruraranze, Ruganzu Ndoli amaze kubundura u Rwanda, yahise arema indi ngoma ngabe isimbura Rwoga yari yaranyazwe n’Abanyabungo.

Ingoma ngabe Ruganzu Ndoli yaremye, ni yo yiswe Kalinga mu mateka y’ibirango by’u Rwanda.

Kalinga yaramvuwe mu Ishyamba rya Cyungo ho muri Cyungo (ubu ni mu Murenge wa Cyungo mu Karere ka Rulindo), iramvurwa na Minyaruko ya Nyamikenke ahasaga mu wa 1510.

Imihango y’iramvura rya Kalinga yateguriwe kwa Minyaruko ya Nyamikenke mu Busigi (ubu ni mu Mirenge ya Bushoki, Tumba na Mbogo yo mu Karere ka Rulindo), ha handi yarasukiye bwa mbere, mu ijoro yabundukiyemo ubwo yageraga i Rwanda.

Igisobanuro cy’Ingoma Ngabe Kalinga, ari na cyo kirangantego za ba nyiri u Rwanda, usanga n’ubundi gisa n’icya Nyamilinga yahangiweho u Rwanda. Igisobanuro cya Kalinga n’ubundi gikomoka ku nshinga Kulinga, Kalinga yo bikavuga ‘Inkingi y’icyizere cy’ahazaza’.

Ingoma Ngabe Kalinga yabaye ikirango cy'u Rwanda yaremwe na Ruganzu Ndoli iramvuwe na Minyaruko ya Nyamikenke

-  Ibirango by’ingoma ya cyami by’agateganyo ku bwa Rudahigwa

Mu bihe abakoloni b’Ababiligi bari mu Rwanda, batangiye kugerageza ikirangantego cy’ingoma ya cyami mu buryo bwa kizungu butandukanye n’ingoma ngabe Kalinga yariho muri ibyo bihe.

Icyo gitekerezo bakizanye ku ngoma y’Umwami Mutara Rudahigwa mu 1935, nyuma y’uko bamaze kureba Ibuku ari yo ndangamuntu ya mbere y’Abanyarwanda irimo ubwoko bw’Abahutu, Abatwa n’Abatutsi.

Muri icyo kirangantego kirimo interuro igira iti “Imbaga y’inyabutatu ijya mbere”. Gusa ntaho amateka adutekerereza ko kigeze cyemerwa ngo gikoreshwe mu miyoborere y’Abanyarwanda.

-  Ibirango by’u Rwanda mu bihe bya Repubulika ya Mbere n’iya Kabiri

Aho ingoma ya cyami ibererekeye Repubulika, ibirango by’igihugu na byo byarahinduwe, babyambura umuco byahanzwemo.

Repubulika yakuyeho ingoma ngabe irema ibendera ry’igitambaro cyakorewe mu ruganda gifite amabara afite ibisobanuro by’intego zashyizweho, hakiyongeraho n’igishushanyo cy’ubugeni kirimo ibimenyetso biranga icyo bimirije imbere.

Imiterere n’imihangire y’ibirango by’igihugu mu bihe bya Repubulika, bayifatiye ku birango by’Abanyaburayi bakolonizaga Afurika muri ibyo bihe, bakuraho umuco wa Kinyafurika w’ibirango bifatiye ku ngoma ngabe. Muri ibyo birango hiyongereyeho n’Indirimbo yubahiriza Igihugu.

Ibendera ry’u Rwanda rya mbere ryamuritswe ku wa 1 Nyakanga 1962, ubwo u Rwanda rwabonaga ubwigenge, Kayibanda Grégoire, akarubera Perezida wa Kabiri warutegetse mu 1962-1973. Amabara yari agize ibendera rya Repubulika ya Mbere, yari ‘Umutuku, umuhondo n’icyatsi’.

Indirimbo yubahiriza Igihugu yari “Rwanda rwacu”. Ikirangantego cyari kigizwe n’ibimenyetso bitandukanye ariko kivuga ‘Ubumwe, Amahoro n’Amajyambere’.

Ibyo birango by’u Rwanda rwa Repubulika, ni byo rwagendeyeho mu bihe bya Repubulika ya Mbere n’iya Kabiri kugeza ku wa 31 Ukuboza 2001. Iki cyemezo cyafatiwe mu nama zidasanzwe zo kwigira hamwe uko igihugu kizabaho mu myaka iri imbere zabaye mu 1998-1999.

-  Ibirango by’u Rwanda mu bihe kuzuka k’u Rwanda

Nyuma y’uko habayeho amahano rurangiza ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi igahitana abasaga miliyoni, ikaza guhagarikwa n’Ingabo za FPR-Inkotanyi zari zirangajwe imbere na Kagame Paul, Leta y’ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda, yashinzwe ku wa 19 Nyakanga 1994, yatangiye kwiga uburyo ibirango by’igihugu byahindurwa. Byakozwe hagamijwe gushyiraho ibijyanye n’ibyo igihugu cyifuza kugeza ku benegihugu mu Rwanda rushya.

Ibirango bya Repubulika ya Mbere n’iya Kabiri, byari byiganjemo amacakubiri, irondakoko n’irondakarere. Aha ntiwakwirengagiza n’ubwishongoro bwinshi Abaparimehutu babigaragajemo ubwo birukanaga benshi mu baturarwanda bakajya kuba impunzi mu mahanga, n’abasigaye mu gihugu bakaba impetamugongo n’impunzi mu gihugu cyabo.

Nuko ku wa, 31 Ukuboza 2001, ni bwo hasohotse ibirango bishya by’u Rwanda, birimo ibendera ry’igihugu rigizwe n’amabara atatu, ari yo ‘Ubururu-juru, umuhondo w’izahabu n’icyatsi kibisi’. Ni na bwo kandi habonetse n’indirimbo nshya yubahiriza igihugu yiswe ‘Rwanda Nziza’.

Ikirangantego cyo kiganjemo ibimenyetso bitandukanye, bifite igisobanuro cy’‘Ubumwe, Umurimo no gukunda igihugu’, nk’intego y’Abanyarwanda bagiye kurandura icyo bapfa, bakabagarira icyo bapfana.

Ikirangantego gishya n’ibendera ry’igihugu, biranga u Rwanda muri ibi bihe byahanzwe n’umunyabugeni Alphonse Kirimobenecyo, aho yatsinze bagenzi be basaga 400 bari bahanganye.

Indirimbo yubahiriza igihugu yo yahanzwe n’abagororwa batatu bari bafungiye muri Gereza ya Karubanda barangajwe imbere na Munyaneza Vedaste, barimo Kalisa Evariste, Shenge Laurent na Mbonyizina Jean Marie Vianney.

-  Umurage w’u Rwanda mu birango b’igihugu

Ukurikiye amateka y’iremwa ry’u Rwanda n’iyubakwa rya rwo, usanga ari igihugu cyubakiye ku murage utajya uhinduka kugeza magingo aya ubwo aya mateka yandikwaga.

Uwo murage tunawusanga no mu birango by’igihugu uko byagiye bihererekanwa kuva kuri Gihanga, ugakomereza kuri Ruganzu Ndoli no kuri Perezida Kagame Paul, ariko twirengagije intego mbi zikubiye mu mitekerereze mibi yadukanywe mu birango bishya bya Repubulika ya Mbere n’iya Kabiri.

Mu busesenguzi bw’Amateka buri mu gitabo “Nkurangire u Rwanda, igihugu cya Benimana”, umwanditsi agaragaza ko ibirango by’u Rwanda byagiye bikagirirwamo umurage udasaza ugikoreshwa mu mushinga wo kubaka u Rwanda, no mu kinyejana cya 21.

U Rwanda rwagize ibirango bitandukanye, byinshi muri byo bikaba bikagiriyemo umurage ndagwabuvivi uzafasha bene rwo kurwubaka rugwije igitinyiro n’icyubahiro mu mahanga aruzengurutse. Igihamya gikomeye, ni iryo huzabitekerezo ryaremye ibirango by’u Rwanda byaba iby’abami na Perezida Kagame.

Ng’ayo ng’uko! Ng’ayo mateka y’impitabihe ku birango by’u Rwanda bimaze imyaka isaga 930 (1091-2021). Nihaganze umurage ukagiriye mu birango by’u Rwanda twarazwe n’abakurambere batuboneye iryo mu museso. Ibyadukanye umurage –mutindi, w’abadakunda u Rwanda na bene rwo, byo bigende nk’ifuni iheze.

Ikirangantego cy'Ingoma ya Cyami cy'agateganyo ku Ngoma y'Umwami Rudahigwa
Ibendera u Rwanda rwakoresheje muri Repubulika ya Mbere n'iya Kabiri (1962-2001). Ryaje kwamaganwa nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bitewe no kuba Abanyarwanda bose batararyibonagamo
Ikirangantego cya Repubulika ya Mbere n'iya Kabiri (1962-2001). Cyakuweho nyuma yo kunengwa kubamo amahame ya Parmehutu n'ibikoresho byifashishijwe mu gusenya u Rwanda
Ibendera u Rwanda rukoresha kugeza ubu ryahinduwe ku wa 31 Ukuboza 2001
Ikirangantego cy'u Rwanda kuri ubu gishushanya ubumwe bw'Abanyarwanda nk'ipfundo ry'iterambere rirambye

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