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Dutembere i Nyanza, Rwesero, Mwima na Mushirarungu ku gicumbi cy’umuco Nyarwanda

Yanditswe na Karirima A. Ngarambe
Kuya 10 Ugushyingo 2021 saa 01:01
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Nyanza kuva 1899 habaye umurwa mukuru w’ubwami ku ngoma y’umwami Yuhi V Musinga ubwo yatoranyaga umusozi wa Gakenyeri nk’ahagomba kuba ingoro ye, avuye ku Kamonyi. Byabaye nk’ihame ku bami bamukurikiye bituma nabo bubaka ingoro zabo i Nyanza.

Ako gace niko kubatsemo ingoro ya Mutara III Rudahigwa mu Rukari n’ingoro ya Kigeli V Ndahindurwa ku Bigega, aho yabaye kugeza mu 1960. Ni agace kuri ubu katejwe imbere, karavugururwa ndetse Guverinoma yiyemeje kukagira agace kihariye k’ubukerarugendo bushingiye ku muco.

Nubwo Nyanza yahoze ari umurwa mukuru w’ubwami, nyuma y’ubwigenge, Umurwa Mukuru wimuriwe i Kigali. Guhera ubwo Repulika ya mbere itari ishyigikiye ubwami yakomeje gusibanganya ayo mateka y’ubwami kugeza ubwo yirukanye Umwamikazi Rozaliya Gicanda mu ngoro ye mu mpera za 1963, bamushakira inzu i Butare ku i Taba aho yageze muri Mutarama 1964, kugeza ubwo yicwaga muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi 1994.

Nyanza ni umujyi uri gutera imbere uko bwije n'uko bukeye
Iterambere rirakataje muri Nyanza, akarere kazwiho kuba igicumbi cy'umuco nyarwanda
Inyubako zigezweho ziri kuzamurwa ubutsitsa i Nyanza

Nyanza yagezweho n’impinduka

Nyuma y’ubwami, Nyanza yagizweho n’impinduka zitandukanye kuko yaje guhindurirwa izina iba Nyabisindu, ita agaciro yari isanganywe muri byinshi byayirangaga.

Nyuma y’urugamba rwo guhagarika Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi n’Urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu, amateka y’u Rwanda n’abanyarwanda yongeye guhabwa agaciro, u Rwanda rufungura ingoro ndangamurage umunani, zisanga imwe gusa yari i Huye. Hongewemo izindi zirimo iya Nyanza mu Rukari mu 2002 yitwa Ingoro y’amateka y’abami.

Abashyitsi basura iyi ngoro bamurikirirwa urugo rwa Kinyarwanda rwerekana uko Abami n’Abanyarwanda babagaho mbere y’umwaduko w’abakoloni. Ni urugo rwubatswe higanwa ingoro y’umwami Yuhi V Musinga nubwo hatubatswe amazu yose nk’ayari kwa Musinga. Hubatswe gusa inzu y’i Kambere yari ingoro y’umwami na Kagondo ebyiri, iyaterekwagamo amata n’iyaterekwagwamo inzoga zubatse neza neza nk’ingo 16 zari mu gikari cya kambere kwa Musinga mu Gakenyeri.

Ukigera mu Rukari ubona ishusho y'u Rwanda rwo hambere
Ingoro y'Umwami mu Rukari ni kimwe mu birangamateka Leta y'Ubumwe yagaruye nyuma y'igihe byarasibanganye
Ibikoresho gakondo abanyarwanda bifashishaga mu gukama no gutereka amata biboneka mu Rukari
Ibiti bitandukanye mu busitani bw'ingoro y'umwami mu Rukari
Mu Rukari uhasanga abarimo Ndayambaje Alexis biteguye kuguha ikaze mu rugo rw'Umwami
Ikigabiro n'umuvumu ni bimwe mu biti bidatana n'ibwami
Umunyamakuru Karirima akigera mu Rukari, yahawe ikaze na Ndayambaje Alexis asobanurirwa amateka y'uru rugo rw'amateka
Mu Rukari hari ubusitani buteyemo ibiti bitandukanye. Ni ahantu hakunze kubera ibirori bitandukanye birimo n'ubukwe

Mu 2011, inyambo zongeye kumurikwa mu Rukari

Nyuma y’uko Inyambo nazo zari zaraciwe mu gihugu kuko nazo zari kimwe mu biranga Ingoma ya cyami. Imiryango y’umwami n’Abatutsi bameneshejwe mu gihugu nyuma y’itanga rya Rudahigwa muri 1959 ndetse na nyuma yo guca Kigeli V Ndayindurwa, hari abahunganye inyambo haba abahungiye muri Uganda n’abahungiye muri Tanzania i Karagwe.

Nyuma yo kubohora igihugu, abanyarwanda bongeye gutahuka mu rwababyaye ndetse abari bagifite Inyambo barazigarura, habaho n’icyigo cy’igihugu gishinzwe ubuhinzi n’ubworozi gifite inshingano zo kubungabunga ubworozi harimo n’Inyambo. Niko zakomeje kororoka kugeza ubu.

Abanyarwanda bigaragara ko bari bazi neza uburyo bwo kuzibangurira bwiza kuburyo zakomezaga kororoka zikagwira nk’Inyambo z’umwimerere, aho bafataga imfizi nziza y’Inyambo bakayibangura inkuku zikabyara Ibigarama, imfizi y’Inyambo n’Ikigarama bikabyara Inkerakibumbira, imfizi y’Inyambo n’Inkerakibumbira bikabyara Ingegene, imfizi y’Inyambo n’Ingegene bikabyara Umurizo ariyo Nyambo.

Uko kuzibangurira ni nabyo Abanyarwanda barusha Abanyankole bafite Inka zikomoka ku Nyambo banyaze Rwabugiri zari mu Ndorwa ya ruguru.

Inyambo zibyagiye mu Rukari
Inyambo zabaga ari inka z'ibirori ibwami
Karirima asobanurirwa umwanya inyambo zabaga zifite ibwami n'uburyo yari inka zubashywe cyane

Mu Gakenyeri ahari ikigabiro cy’umwami Yuhi V Musinga

Mu Gakenyeri niho hari ingoro ya Yuhi V Musinga kuva mu 1899 kugeza yirukanwe n’abakoloni mu mpera za 1931 aho bamuciriye i Kamembe. Nyuma baje kumucira n’i Moba muri Congo mu 1940 ari naho yatangiye mu 1944.

Ikigabiro rero ni igiti cy’umuvumu cyabaga giteye mu gikingi cy’irembo no kumuzenguruko w’urugo. Ni igiti kiramba ari nabyo byatumaga biba ibisigaratongo bikaranga ahahoze ingoro y’umwami. Uretse ku rugo rw’Umwami, hari n’izindi ngo z’Abanyarwanda wabisangagaho.

Ahahoze ibigabiro bya Musinga, abakoloni n’abihaye Imana b’Abazungu bahubatse amashuri na Kiliziya ya Kristu Umwami. Iyo uhageze iruhande rw’amashuri na Kiliziya ubona iki kigabiro gisigaye nk’ikirango cy’amateka yahahoze ingoro y’umwami.

Ikigabiro cy'Umwami Musinga mu marembo y'aho yari atuye kuri ubu hari Kiliziya yitiriwe Kristu Umwami
Iki kigabiro cyubatswe ahahoze urugo rw'Umwami Yuhi V Musinga
Ishuri ryisumbuye rya Kristu Umwami ryegeranye na Kiliziya byitiranwa yahubatswe ku ngoma y'Umwami Rudahigwa

Kiliziya ya Kristu Umwami

Kiliziya ya Kristu Umwami yubatswe 1935 nyuma y’imyaka ine abakoloni birukanye Umwami Yuhi V Musinga wari waranze kuyoboka Kiliziya ndetse yanze amatwara y’abakoloni.

Ni naho hubatswe ishusho nini ya Kristu Umwami. Ni naho kandi umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa yeguriye u Rwanda Kristu umwami mu 1946.

Aha abanyeshuri bari bagiye kwiga baherekejwe n'ababyeyi babo imbere ya Kiliziya yitiriwe Kristu Umwami
Kiliziya ya Kristu Umwami i Nyanza aho Rudahigwa yeguriye u Rwanda Kristu
Ishusho ya Kristu Umwami mu marembo ya Kiliziya byitiranwa i Nyanza

Icyuzi cya Nyamagana

Icyuzi cya Nyamagana cyafukujwe n’Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa ku bufatanye na Agoronome w’Umubiligi Dubois nyuma y’inzara ya Ruzagayura yayogoje u Rwanda hagati ya 1943-1944. Mu kugicukura, umwami yari agamije kuhira imyaka no gutangira ubworozi bw’amafi,mu rwego rwo guhashya imirire mibi mu bana b’u Rwanda no kwirinda ibindi byorezo by’inzara byashoboraga gutera.

Icyuzi cya Nyamagana cyafukujwe n’Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa
Icyuzi cya Nyamagana kuri ubu kibamo amazi yifashishwa mu kuhira imyaka y'abaturage

Amateka ya Mututu mu gihe cy’Ubwami

Mututu ni ahantu ndangamurage hubatswe n’umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa hagati ya 1948-1949, ahakorera ubworozi bwa kijyambere aho yari afite inka z’inkuku 60 zitwaga"Ingeri" zikabamo imfizi yitwaga "Ruhagafu".

Mu kuhororera izo nka, Umwami Rudahigwa yari agambiriye gutanga urugero ku bworozi bwa kijyambere, aho yifuzaga ko abanyarwanda bareka ubworozi bwa gakondo bakorora inka z’umukamo.

Amateka y’Ibigega by’i Nyanza

Ibigega byubakishijwe n’umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa nyuma y’inzara ya Ruzagayura mu 1946. Byubatswe hagamijwe guteganyiriza ibihe by’amage byashoboraga gutera igihugu.

Ibi bigega ubu biri mu nshingano za Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi, bikaba bihunihwamo imyaka. Byagize uruhare mu kugoboka abanyarwanda muri ibi bihe u Rwanda n’isi byibasiwe n’icyorezo cya Corona Virus.

Ku bigega ni aha hantu hegereye muhanda munini uva Kigali ugana mu majyepfo no mu Burengerazuba, hafashe izina ryo "ku Bigega" nyuma y’uko hubakishijwe ibigega n’Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa.

Ibi bigega byubatswe mu 1947 ku iteka ry'Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa nyuma y'inzara ya Ruzagayura

Umusigiti w’Abasiramu i Mugandamure

Uyu Musigiti uzwi nk’imbere yo kwa Hadji, wubatswe mu kibanza bahawe n’Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa nk’ingurane y’ikibanza cyarimo umusigiti mu mujyi wa Nyanza. Hakaba ari ahantu hazwi nk’ihuriro ry’abantu basura i Nyanza cyane mu bijyanye n’idini ya Isilamu ndetse n’ubucuruzi buhakorerwa kuva kera.

Igishanga cya Nyamagana

Iki Gishanga cya Nyamagana giherereye hepfo y’icyuzi cya Nyamagana cyatunganijwe nyuma y’inzara ya Ruzagayura yabaye hagati 1943-1944 kugira ngo giterwemo imboga n’ibindi bihingwa mu buryo bwa kijyambere no mu gihe cy’amapfa, bakuhira bakoresheje amazi y’icyuzi cya Nyamagana kugira ngo bazashobore guhangana n’amage yashoboraga gutera u Rwanda.

Igishanga cya Nyamagana giherereye hepfo y’icyuzi cya Nyamagana

Kagondo yaterekwagamo Amata

Kagondo yaterekwagamo Amata ni imwe mu nzu zabaga mu gikari cya Kambere (ingoro y’Umwami) ahari “Uruhimbi" aho Amata aterekwa mu Byansi n’Inkongoro n’Umugamba wo kujishaho Ibisabo.

Muri Kagondo ni naho habaga abakobwa bari bashinzwe gutereka amata y’umwami.

Mu Rukari hari inkongoro, ibyansi n'ibisabo bitereka amata yakirizwa abashyitsi
Ibyansi nk’igikoresho cy’Ingenzi gakondo mu gukama, gutereka amata no gukuramo amavuta y’inka
Kagondo niyo nzu yabikwagwamo ibikoresho bifashisha mu gukama no gutereka amata
Ibikoresho byifashishwa mu gukama byarubahwaga cyane bikabikwa ahantu hafite isuku
Igisabo cyifashishwaga mu gucunda amata. Mu Rukari biboneka mu nyubako ya Kagondo

Igiti cy’Umuvumu

Umuvumu ni igiti gakondo kandi kiramba cyari gifitiye abanyarwanda akamaro kanini. Nicyo bateraga ku ngo zabo mu gihe bashinga imiganda y’urugo kugira ngo bizakure bikokeze urugo igihe indi miganda y’ibindi yashaje. Ni nacyo bakoshagamo ibyansi n’inkongora. Mu bishishwa byacyo niho bakomaga impuzu "imyambaro gakondo" , ni nacyo hakuragamo imigozi yo kuzirika imbariro bubaka urugo. Mu bishishwa byacyo kandi niho babohagamo inshinji z’igisabo.

Ikindi ni uko abanyarwanda bakitaga Ikimana kuko imihango gakondo myinshi bayikoreraga munsi y’Umuvumu.

Ku rugo rw'Umwami mu Rukari haboneka igiti cy'umuvumu cyari gifite akamaro gakomeye mu buzima bw'Abanyarwanda bo hambere
Umunyamakuru Karirima asobanurirwa ibyubatse ibikingi by'amarembo mu Rukari
Umuvumu Abanyarwanda bawitaga Ikimana kuko imihango gakondo myinshi bayikoreraga munsi y’Umuvumu

Urusyo n’ingasire

Urusyo n’ingasire ni bimwe mu bikoresho gakondo fatizo byifashishwaga mbere y’umwaduko w’abakoloni mu Rwanda, basya amasaka kugira ngo babone ifu y’igikoma cy’abana, umutsima, inzoga n’imbetezi zo kubetera umutobe w’urwagwa.

Iyo usuye ingoro y’amateka y’Abami bakwereka uko basya kandi wabyifuza bakakwigisha uko byakorwaga.

Urusyo n'ingasire byari ibikoresho bikomeye cyane mu buzima bw'Abanyarwanda
Umunyamakuru Karirima asobanurirwa imikorere y'urusyo n'ingasire

Kwinikiza, Gukama no kubuganiza

Inyambo ni inka gakondo z’umwami. Zari inka zo kumurika mu minsi mikuru Ibwami ndetse no gukoreshwa mu mihango y’Ibwami, zikaba zitari inka z’umukano ariko byaba ngombwa zigakamwa kugira ngo bagabanyirize Inyana ntizizarware ikibagarira kubera amata menshi.

Amata bakamye yabaga ari ay’abatahira n’abana. Iyo usuye u Rukari mu masaha ya mu gitondo mbere ya saa tatu ukurikirana umuhango wo kwinikiza waba wazanye abana bakakirizwa amata.

Muri Kagondo yatarwagamo inzoga uhasanga ibibindi bitandukanye byifashishwaga n’umusogongezi w’inzoga z’ibwami zabaga zatuwe n’abantu batandukanye kugira ngo yumve iziryoshye kandi yumve ko nta wahumanyije inzoga ije Ibwami.

Ikibindi gisenze cyitwa "Inkurubindi"nicyo cyaterekwagamo inzoga y’umutsama (inzoga y’ubuki) umwami yanywaga, akabindi gato n’imperezo kifashishwaga mu kujya kongera inzoga mu mivure, mu ntango cyangwa mu kibindi aho abantu benshi babaga basangirira inzoga.

Ikibindi kinini nicyo abantu barenze icumi basangiriragamo inzoga bagasangirira ku miheha cyera hatarabaho indwara z’ibyorezo.

Buri gitondo inyambo zifite imitavu zirakamwa mu Rukari, amata akakirizwa abahasura

Uruho, Agacuma n’Umubirikira

Uruho ni igikoresho gakondo cyifashishwaga nk’igikombe cy’ubu mu kudaha inzoga mu mivure basuka mu bibindi cyangwa mu gacuma, ni narwo bakoreshaga mu kunywa igikoma kubana n’inzoga ku bagore.

Agacuma, niko banyweragamo inzoga mu gihe Umubirikira ariwo bifashishaga basuka inzoga mu gacuma kugira ngo basuke vuba.

Uruho, igicuma n'umubirikira byari ibikoresho bikomeye mu kwenga inzoga
Kagondo ya kabiri niyo yaterekwagamo inzoga mu bibindi, hakaba n'ibindi bikoresho byifashishwa mu kunywa inzoga
Ikibindi cyari igikoresho gikomeye mu buzima bw'abanyarwanda kuko cyifashishwaga mu kwenga inzoga z'ibinyampeke no kuzinywa

Mu busitani bw’ingoro y’abami uhasanga ibiti gakondo nk’iminyinya n’imigwegwe n’ibindi byari bifitiye runini abanyarwanda bo hambere n’ubu.

Umunyinya wawusangaga ku marembo y’ingo z’abanyarwanda aho banyiri urugo n’abahisi n’abagenzi bugamaga izuba, ndetse no ku mbuga y’inka aho inka zabyagiraga. Ikindi ni uko ari munsi y’iminyinya abanyarwanda bakemuriraga ibibazo byabo nko mu nkiko gacaca.

Imigwegwe nayo niyo bakuragamo imigozi yo kuboha imisambi n’ibiseke ndetse no gukora imigara y’intore.

Ubu busitani buri mu Rukari bwakira ubukwe n’ibindi birori bitandukanye.

Urwibutso rwa Nyanza

I Nyanza nk’ahandi hose mu gihugu tuhasanga inzibutso zishyinguwemo imibiri y’abatutsi bishwe muri Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi 1994. Nyanza iri mu turere tugize icyahoze ari Perefegirura ya Butare,ikaba ariyo ifite umubare munini w’abatutsi bishwe muri Jenoside. Uru rwibutso ruruhukiyemo imibiri y’abatutsi isaga 25,000.

Mu rwego rwo gusigasigara amateka no Kubika ibimenyetso by’amateka ya Jenoside, Akarere kubatse uru rwibutso. Rukaba narwo rusurwa, abarugana bagasobanurwa amateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu cyahoze ari Nyabisindu,Gikongoro n’ahandi.

Urwibutso rwa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi rwa Nyanza, ni kimwe mu bimenyetso by'amateka asharira u Rwanda rwanyuzemo biboneka muri ako karere
Winjira mu karere ka Nyanza usanganizwa imitako gakondo aho uyisanga ku birango bitandukanye nko ku byapa, amazu y'ubucuruzi ndetse n'ayo abaturage batuyemo
Imitako ya kinyarwanda niyo itatse amazu y'ubucuruzi i Nyanza
Ku Musezero i Mwima ahatabarijwe abami babiri ba nyuma b'u Rwanda, Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa n'Umwami Kigeli V Ndahindurwa
Umutahira, Kanamugire Anastase ahagaze imbere y'Inyambo mu Rukari
Umutahira Sebukayire Alexis mu Rukari
Ndayambaje Alexis, umukozi w’Ingoro ushinzwe kwakira no gusobanura Amateka yaho
Ibiro bigezweho by'Akarere ka Nyanza
Ntiwagera i Nyanza ngo usure Ingoro y'Amateka y'Abami utahe utageze ku Rwesero ahari Ingoro y'Amateka yo Kwigira kw'Abanyarwanda, aho abazajya bayisura bazajya basobanurirwa imurika rivuga ku mateka yo kwigira kw'Abanyarwanda
Umuntu usuya Akarere ka Nyanza yakiranwa urugwiro
Ubu busitani burimo ibiti byiza bituma hahora amahumbezi
Ingoro y'Umwami ku Rwesero hari ubusitani bwiza butuma uwahasuye atifuza gutaha
Ingoro ya Rwesero iri ku musozi aho uba witegeye udusozi twiza twa Nyanza
Mu ngoro y'Umwami Rudahigwa ku Rwesero hameze neza kuko hakomeje kubungabungwa kugeza ubu

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