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   Ingoma I Rwanda (Igice cya XXX)

Ingoma I Rwanda (Igice cya XXX)


Yanditswe kuya 23-06-2012 - Saa 11:33' na NSANZABERA Jean de Dieu

Nkuko twabibateguje mu gice cya makumyabiri n’icyenda, tugiye kwinjira mu gice cy’amateka maremare y’iremwa ry’ingoma. Amateka n’imiterere y’ingoma tukaba tugiye kuyava i Muzi tukazayagera i Muzingo. Tugiye gukomereza ku ngingo nkuru twise “Ingoma z’Imisango” izagira ingingo nto nyinshi zizagenda zisobanura Ingoma n’umwanya yari ifite mu Rwanda rwo ha mbere. Muri iki gic , turacyabagezaho umutwe wiswe “Ibigwi by’ingoma”.

Ibigwi by’ingoma

Ibigwi by’ingoma haba mu Rwanda rwo ha mbere, haba no mu Rwanda rw’ubu,ni byinshi cyane ! Kuko byogeye hose tutibagiwe no mu mahanga. Nk’uko amateka y’ingoma abigaragaza, ingoma ntizihuije amoko n’amatwara. Ku ngoma za kera habaga Ingoma z’Ingabe zari indanga-bwami ntizivuzwe, hakaba Ingoma z’Imihango zabaga zigenewe kuvuzwa mu muhango uyu n’uyu ; hakaba iz’Impuruza zashozaga intambara, n’iz’Umutsindo ,umurishyo wazo ukajyana n’ivuga ry’amacumu, ingabo zatsinze urugamba zivuga ibigwi.

Habaga n’ingoma z’imivugo zavugiraga i Bwami no mu irambagira ry’igihugu Umugendo ugashagara, cyangwa se Umusuko w’Igihubi ugasanganira Umwami. Ingoma z’Imihango n’iz’Ingabe, iz’Impuruza n’iz’Umutsindo ntizikibaho. Zacyuranye igihe n’imiterekero yajyanaga n’ibitero byarengeraga ubusugire bw’u Rwanda rwo ha mbere.

Nyamara, ariko ingoma ntizacitse mu Rwanda, ahubwo iz’Imisango ziracyavugwa cyane zarogeye no mu mahanga zirazwi ; ndetse zibarutse iz’Imiburo zimenyekesha ibihe, n’iz’Imitako zizihiza uruhimbi mu miturirwa.

Ibigwi by’Ingoma mu Rwanda rwa mbere na mbere
Ingoma zagize ibigwi bitagerurwa mu ngoma-ngabe zo mu Rwanda rwo hambere. Reka turebe ibigwi byazo uko byagiye bikurikikirana :

Ingoma Mpinza

Abatwa b’impunyu nibo bavuga batuye mbere mu mashyamba bigabanyije umuryango ukagira icyanya cyawo undi icyawo, ukaba ari naho uhigira. Abakonde baje bakonda ishyamba,bakaba baragiraga ituro ry’umutware w’Abatwa ryitwaga “URWUGURURO “, kugirango babone uburenganzira bwo gukonda ishyamba cyangwa kwegeka mo imizinga, batatanga rya turo imizinga igaseswa cyangwa se imyaka ikononwa.

Abatwa bo mu gihugu bitandukanyije n’impunyu ziguma mu ishyamba ryazo zirigenga, zirigenzura, bo bahitamo kwibanira n’abandi baturarwanda no kwigumira ku murimo wabo wo kubumba inkono n’ibibindi bakabigurisha bikabatunga.

Abakonde bamaraga gukomeza umuryango,umukuru w’umuryango ubagenga akitwa Umwami, aho banesherejwe n’Abami b’Abanyiginya babita Abahinza byo kuvuga abo rubanda ikesha uburumbuke bw’imyaka.

Abahinza bari abakuru b’imiryango bagategeka bene wabo.Ntabwo bamaraniraga kwungura igihugu cyabo, umuntu yagumanaga abo bava inda imwe. Kwagura igihugu cyabo byaterwaga no gutura ahegereye ishyamba bakarikonda.

Uko bakonda ishyamba, bagira n’amahirwe yo kwororoka ,umuryango ukaba munini.Haca amasekuruza menshi cyane, umwami wabo akaba afite umuryango munini ukomeye.

Igihugu cyabaga kinini ari uko Ingoma y’Umuhinza runaka irusha abandi ishyamba. Umwami wese yakondeshaga ishyamba rye,ryarangira agahinira aho, akahatera urubibi n’amateke cyangwa se rw’ibikangaga ahari mu bishanga by’urugano.

Bene wabo b’abo bahinza bakoreshaga ikoro ry’ibro bahingagabyose aho byereye.Abo bahinza nabo bakagira ibirori byo kuvuma ibyonona imyaka byose,bagahabwan’umuganura ukagirirwa ibirori nawo.

Abahinza baremye u Rwanda mu ikonda ry’ishyamba ryari rirutwikiriye.Bagiraga Ingoma kuko ariyo kirango cy’ubwami mu bihugu by’Abirabura ba Afurika iyi yacu.Dore nk’Abahinza b’I Mabanza mu Bwishaza batwaraga Ubwisahaza n’Ubudaha,Ingoma yabo ya GIHUGU.

NKANDAGIYABAGOME yari iy’Abahinza b’I Mushishiro,

KAYENZI yahoranye Abahinza b’I Bugamba mu Cyingogo.

SIMUGOMWA ikaba iy’Abahinza batwaraga mu Cyingogo

Mu by’ukuri ,Ingoma Mpinza n’imitekerereze yazo niyo yatazuriye itegura Ingoma zindi zadutse nyuma.

Ingoma Mpima

Abahima badukanye inka,barwubatse ku mutwe,bagatura aho inka zabo ziraye,ari nako bagendana n’urugo rwabo rwose.Bageze mu by’ino, aho baragiye inka zabo bakabagiramo abagaragu. Yamara kugwiza abagaragu be bakamubera amaboko yo kumuyoborera ba Bahinza, akabaha inka, bakaryoherwa bagatabara shebuja,nabo bagatera undi muhinza,bityo ,bityo igihugu kiriyongera mu bugari.Uko inka ibatsindira ibihugu ,ikabaha n’amaboko.

Nyamara kandi Umuhinza yamaraga gutsindwa ,bakamurekera aho ,akaguma kugira imihango ye ya Gihinza ari nako ayoboka uwamutsinze.Abahinza ba kera bagumyeho bagumana n’ingoma zabo,abatari bazifite ,bagumana imihango yabo y’Ubuhinza.Imiryango y’Abahima yari ifite ibihugu mu Rwanda rw’ibyo bihe bya kera ni iyi ng’iyi :
Abenengwe, Abasinga,Abazigaba,Ababanda, Abongera, Abahinda, N’abagara.

*Abenengwe

Igihugu cy’Abenengwe cyari muri Perefegitura ya Butare na Gikongoro (ubu ni mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo mu Turere twa Nyaruguru, Nyamagabe, Huye na Gisagara):Icyo gihugu cyari kibumbye : Ubusanza, Ubufundu,Nyaruguru, Nyakare, Bashumba, Buyenzi.

Igihugu cy’Abenengwe cyitwga Ubungwe,na n’ubu akarere ko mu Bisi bya Huye kitwa Ubungwe. Ingoma yabo y’Ingabe yitwaga Nyamibande.Aho batsindiwe yafashwe mpiri, ijya I bwami. Ariko hanyuma yarariboye “Bayitera imikwege ,bituma bayita Rwuma “.

Mu Bami b’Abenengwe ,uwari ku ngoma ku mwaduko w’Abanyiginya yari Rwamba wari wubatse Nyakizu mu Bashumba (Ubu ni mu Karere ka Gisagara ), Undi ni Samukende, umugabo wa Nyagakecuru, n’umuhungu we Rubuga watsinzwe igihugu cye kikagarurwa n’u Rwanda.

*Abasinga

Abasinga bari ugutatu :

- Abasangwabutaka ,Abanyiginya basanze bategeka

- Abanukamishyo ,bazanye n’umutware wabo Runukamishyo

- Abagahe, baturutse mu Bugahe bw’I Ndorwa hanyuma y’Abanukamishyo.

Abagiraga ingoma ni Abasangwabutaka ,ari nabo bita “Ababyara-bami” kuko bigeze kubonekamo Abagabekazi mu itangira ry’Ingoma Nyiginya .Abandi badutse mu Rwanda izina Abasinga rimaze gucibwa ku Ngoma.Umwe mu BamI b’Abasinga w’igihangange wamamaye ni Rurenge ,niwe bakurijeho rya zina ryo kwitwa ABARENGE

Abarenge yari inzu ivamo Abami babo.Igihe cy’Umwaduko w’Abanyiginya Umwami wabo yari Jeni ya Rurenge wari utuye ku Rwerere rw’I BugoyI (ubu ni mu Karere ka Burera ) Ingoma yabo y’Ingabe yitwaga “MPATSIBIHUGU”.Ibihugu by’Abasinga (Burwi ) byateruriraga Mvejuru ,Buhanga –Ndara bikazana Nduga yose ,bikagarurwa na Nyabarongo na Mukungwa (mu burasirazuba ),bigasesera mu Bugoyi n’inyuma y’I Birunga mu bya Gishari ,bigahera no mu Bunyambiriri bikagarurwa n’I Kivu.

*Ababanda

Ababanda baturutse mu bya Bwanacyambwe ,batunguka mu Nduga harateye amapfa.Bakihagera imvura iragwa ,Rubanda barashika babazanira amasororo .Umutware wabo arayanga ati :Keretse mu nzaniye Kimezamiryango cya Rurenge (niwe Musinga wayoboraga Nduga icyo gihe )niwe wabiciye imvura. Abanyanduga barabyemera batera Kimezamiryango apfana nabe bose. Wa mutware w’Ababanda yiha icyo gihugu, arimbura Abasinga bakomeye kugirango batazamwiganzura. Abamuzunguye bakomeye ni Sabugabo n’umuhungu we Nkuba n’Umwuzukuru we Mashira. Ababanda Ingoma y’ingabe yabo yitwaga Nyabahinda. Usibye ko Ingoma yabo itamaze kabiri yigaruriwe na Mibambwe I Sekarongoro I Mutabazi I ahasaga mu w’1411.

*Abongera

Abongera batwaraga ibihugu byo mu Bwanacyambwe n’u Buriza .Uturere batwaraga ni ahari u Bumbogo ,u Banacyambwe ,u Buriza n’u Busigi .Ingoma y’Ingabe yitwaga Kamuhagama.

*Abazigaba

Abazigaba bari mu mahugu ya Ruguru ya Muhazi bakerekeza mu Mutara. Batwaraga mu Rweya igihe Abanyiginya badutse mu by’ino.Ingoma yabo ikitwa Sera.

*Abahinda

Abahinda, iryo zina ryabo rikomoka ku mwami wabo wa mbere witwaga Ruhinda,waremye igihugu kimwe cyakomatanyaga Ndorwa, u Bunyambo, Gisaka, Kalagwe n’u Bujinja.Ubwoko bwe yari Umugesera, nk’Abahinda bo muri ibyo bihugu.Ibihugu by’Abahinda biri mu Rwanda ni Mirenge ,Gihunya,Migongo byo mu Gisaka, Ingabe yabyo ikitwa Rukurura.Mubari aricyo Mazinga cyahoze ari igihugu ukwacyo.Ingabe yacyo ikaba Babasi yaturutse I Kalagwe.

*Abagara

Abagara ni abo kwa Nzira ya Muramira.Babita Abagara kuko batwaraga U Bugara,Ingoma yabo yitwaga Rugara.

Igihugu cy’u Bugara cyari mu mahugu akikije imigezi ya Burera n’iya Ruhondo ho mu Ruhangeri.Babumbaga ibihugu biri hagati ya Mukungwa na Base, bigaterura na Gahunga k’I Murera,bikarenguka mu Ndorwa y’u Bushengero no mu Bufumbira. Impugu dusigaranye z’icyo gihugu ni Bukonya, Kibali, Buberuka, Bugarura,Bukama-Ndorwan’igice cy’u Murera. Ibindi byaguye mu by’Abongereza bategekaga amahugu yo hakurya aho.

Ng’izo Ingoma zagengaga u Rwanda mbere y’umwaduko w’Abanyiginya.Mu itsitsurana ry’abamaraniraga ingoma, abatsindwaga bakarekerwa ingoma bari Abami b’Abahinza. Nta Mwami w’Umunyiginya watsindwaga ngo agumane Ingoma.

Umwami yagabanyaga abana be igihugu cyangwa abo bava inda imwe. Uwagabanye agahugu akakabamo nk’Umwami,abana be bakagakuranwamo iteka, bakemera Umwami bakamukeza.Umwami ntawe yanyagaga igihugu cye, icyoyarushaga abo bandi ni Ingoma y’Ingabe. Umutware yatwerwaga n’undi wo mu kindi gihugu akirwanaho akimaramariza.

Abahima bagitangira baremye ibihugu bigari.Bamaze kubirema,byemera ingoma bihuriyeho,ariko rero bene byo babitegekaga gihinza, akaba ari nayo mpamvu yatumaga Abanyiginya babitsinda,cyane cyane guhera ku ngoma ya Kigeli I Mukobanya wabimbuje gutegeka igihugu cyose wenyine

Uru Rwanda rwatangiriye kwaguka mu Bwanacyambwe,mu Buganza,mu Busarasi, mu Buriza,no mu Busigi. Aho rumariye kwambuka Nyabarongo rugeze mu Nduga,ingoma zo mu Gisaka n’izo mu Ndorwa zitunyaga ibihugu byinshi byo mu Buganza, mu Buriza no mu Bwanacyambwe. Aho rumariye kugwiza amaboko rurwana n’I Gisaka n’I Ndorwa bimara igihe kirekire rushirwa ruhatsinze.

Mu nkuru itaha tuzatangira igice gikuru kivuga“Imitegekere y’Ingoma Nyiginya”

Inganzo z’Abanditsi twisunze :

- Ingoma I Rwanda : (Padiri .SIMPENZWE Gaspard ,1992)
Umusizi NSANZABERA Jean de Dieu
Twandikire kuri : umusizi@igihe.rw

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