Ubuzima bw’indaya z’i Kigali mu myaka ya 1970

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 12 Gashyantare 2020 saa 03:38
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Ibihe byose bigira ab’ubu, ab’imico isanzwe n’idasanzwe, ibangamye n’itabangamye yose icyo iba ihuriyeho ni ugutuma ubuzima bugenda mu gihugu.

Abahanga bavuga ko uburaya ari umwe mu myuga ikuze kurusha indi ku Isi nubwo nta bihamya bifatika, ariko bigaragara ko wakozwe kuva kera dore ko na Bibiliya iwuvugaho.

Abagore bibohoye, Femmes Libres de Kigali, ni izina ryari iry’indaya i Kigali mu myaka ya 1970, iterambere ry’Abanyaburayi ritangiye gusakara muri Afurika, imijyi itangiye gutera imbere, imishinga y’abanyamahanga yisukiranya ubutitsa.

Ni umwuga wamye ukorwa mu bwihisho mu masaha y’ijoro cyangwa ahihishe kandi uwukora ntiyishimire izina ‘indaya’, byatumye abinjiraga mu buraya barangije amashuri mu myaka ya 1970 bahindura izina, bakiyita ‘Femmes Libres de Kigali’.

Ni umwuga wakozwe mu bihe bigoye ikoranabuhanga ritaraza, telefone zigendanwa zikiri mu mishinga, internet ikiri mu igeragezwa.

Icyo gihe nibwo hahimbwe imvugo nyinshi zikoreshwa n’ubu nko ‘Gutega indege’ nubwo ubu ryahindutse iry’abafundi bahurira hamwe bategereje ubaha akazi mu gitondo.

Inyandiko “Femmes libres de Kigali” ya Marijke Vandersypen yasohotse mu kinyamakuru ‘Cahiers d’études africaines”, volume 17 n°65, 1977, igaragaza ko uko iterambere ryiyongeraga i Kigali, abakora uburaya barushagaho kwiyongera ahanini bitewe n’umubare munini w’abavaga mu cyaro bajya mu mijyi.

Muri iyo myaka, utubari twari tumaze kwiyongera mu duce tw’Umujyi wa Kigali twarabicaga bigacika nko mu Kiyovu, Nyamirambo no mu mujyi rwagati.

Ubwiyongere bw’abaturage mu Mujyi wa Kigali bugaragarira ku kuba abari batuye Kigali mu 1962 bari munsi ya 38,000, nyamara mu 1975 bari bageze ku 90,000.

Indaya z’i Kigali zabaga mu byiciro, harimo iziciriritse zabaga mu bice bya Nyamirambo n’ahandi hatuwe cyane, indaya ziyubashye zakoreraga cyane mu Kiyovu zigataha mu mujyi rwagati, indaya zo mu biro zakoraga nyuma y’akazi n’indaya zigenga zabaga ahanini zigizwe n’abagore babuze abagabo zikorera mu rugo.

Utubari nitwo twabonekagamo indaya cyane twaba uduciriritse n’utworoheje, hakaba na ba nyir’utubari bazifashishaga mu gukurura abakiliya, bamwe bakaziha akazi.

Marijke Vandersypen mu nyandiko ye yavuze ko ubwo yakoraga ubushakashatsi, yasanze ahazwi nka Camp Swahili i Nyamirambo akabari byari bizwi ko habonekamo indaya nyinshi, abazishaka bifite bagaparika imodoka bakajya gutoranya izo bashaka, bakongera bakagenda.

Indaya ziciriritse

Ni indaya ahanini zabaga zigizwe n’abakobwa baje baturutse mu bice by’icyaro, baje gushaka amaramuko i Kigali.

Benshi muri aba bakobwa babaga mu duce dutuwe cyane, bagakodesha inzu ahanini z’ibyumba bibiri ziri hagati ya 500 Frw na 1000 Frw ku kwezi. Bamwe babanaga ari nka babiri cyangwa barenga.

Marijke Vandersypen avuga ko nk’i Nyamirambo hari inzu y’ibyumba bitatu yasanze hacumbitsemo indaya zigera ku icumi.

Indaya zo muri icyo cyiciro akenshi zabaga mu nzu nto z’icyumba kimwe cyangwa bibiri zitabamo sima. Nta kandi kazi abo bakobwa bagiraga uretse kwirirwa bazenguruka mu tubari bareba ko hari uwabareba irihumye. Akenshi aba bakobwa bahoraga bimuka kubera kubura ubukode.

Nubwo nta mubare nyawo uzwi w’abari mu cyiciro nk’icyo icyo gihe, ubuhamya bamwe muri bo bagiye baha umwanditsi bugaragaza ko bari benshi.

Icyo cyiciro cyabagamo izindi ndaya zo zabaga zifite akazi mu tubari, abagabo bazishimye bakazitahana mu ijoro. Ni ibanga akenshi babaga baziranyeho na ba shebuja babahaye akazi, kuko byatumaga n’abakiliya biyongera.

Nubwo bose babaga bari mu cyiciro kimwe, ahanini batarageze mu ishuri cyangwa baracikirije amashuri, aba bo ngo ntibakundaga guhura n’ubuzima bubi nk’izindi ndaya ziciriritse, kuko bashoboraga kwiyishyurira amacumbi rimwe na rimwe bakaba bafite ay’ubuntu babamo mu tubari bakoramo.

Marie, indaya yiyubashye yakoreraga ikigo cyigenga ifite imyaka 28 ubwo inyandiko yasohokaga mu 1977, yagize iti “Bariya bakobwa (baciriritse) bafata umugabo wese babonye nta gutoranya. Ntawe basubiza inyuma apfa kuba azanye amafaranga. Bahura n’abantu bavuye hose ku buryo bashobora no kubazanira indwara bakabanduza. Hari nubwo bibaviramo kubura urubyaro kubera izo ndwara.”

Izo ndaya ziciriritse akenshi zabaga zifite abana. Nyuma yo kubyara, abenshi kubera kubura umwanya n’ubushobozi bwo kwita ku bana babo, baboherezaga mu cyaro aho baturutse. Abatabikoze gutyo bagashaka abakozi (ababoyi) boroheje bo kubitaho.

Nubwo mu kazi kazo kubyara byabaga ari ikintu gishoboka cyane dore ko imibonano mpuzabitsina ikingiye yasaga nk’itabaho, benshi muri izo ndaya zangaga kubyara kubi.

Thérèse wari ufite imyaka 19, yari atwite inda ya mbere. Yaje i Kigali avuye i Butare ari naho avuka, yanabanje gukorerayo uburaya.

Yagize ati “Ubukene ubu buranyishe. Nta byishimo nkigira, nta mugabo ukindeba, ubu nirirwa mu madeni. Nsigaye nywa amazi masa. Nizeye ko nimara kubyara, nzongera nkasa neza, nkambara utwenda tunyegereye n’inkweto ndende. Nizeye kongera gukundwa no kuri IBIS (hotel). Mama yambwiye ko azanderera umwana.”

Amasaha ya saa kumi n’imwe z’umugoroba, ngo nibwo indaya z’i Kigali zabaga zivuye mu rugo zasokoje, zambaye amajipo magufi cyangwa amapantalo zigatangira kuzenguruka utubari zishaka abakiliya cyangwa zikajya ‘gutega indege’ bitewe n’aho zahisemo abazishaka bazajya bazisanga.

Nta mafaranga yihariye indaya ziciriritse zakoreraga muri icyo gihe ariko ahanini yabaga ari hagati ya 100 Frw na 400 Frw mu ijoro rimwe, akiyongera cyangwa akagabanyuka bitewe n’ubwiza bw’umukobwa.

Thérèse yavuze ko akenshi abakobwa bo mu tubari bishyuzaga mbere umugabo ushaka kubatahana kugira ngo akazi nikaba kenshi akabura umwanya wo kujyana n’uwo mugabo, umugabo ataza kwisubiraho akajya gushaka abandi, ahubwo agombe amutegereza cyangwa arambirwe yigendere amafaranga ayasigarane.

Akenshi abakozi bo mu rugo b’abakobwa bakorera indaya ziciriritse, nabo byarangiraga bavuyemo indaya kubera kwigana ba nyirabuja. Izo ndaya zo mu rugo zatangiraga ziryamana n’amabandi, abacuruza ikarito n’abandi basore baciriritse badashobora kwigondera indaya nkuru.

Indaya zo mu Kiyovu

Kiyovu niko kari agace gakomeye kandi kiyubashye muri Kigali. Kari agace kabonekamo utubari twiza, dusurwa n’abadipolomate, abanyaburayi n’abandi bifite.Wahasangaga abakobwa biyubashye nubwo n’indaya ziciriritse zajyaga zihaza gake.

Ubwiza bw’umukobwa mu Kiyovu nibwo bwamuzaniraga abakiliya cyangwa uburyo azi kubyinisha neza abagabo mu kabari. Hari ababonaga abagabo kubera ubwitonzi bagaragaza cyangwa se uburyo bazimo Igifaransa ku buryo babasha kuganira n’abanyamahanga.

Abakobwa biyubashye bicururizaga mu Kiyovu abenshi babaga baba mu mujyi rwagati , bamwe baba bonyine cyangwa babana na bagenzi babo. Babaga mu nzu zimeze neza, zirimo sima zisize n’irangi. Bakodeshaga inzu zihenze ku mafaranga agera ku 3000 ku kwezi.

Ni abakobwa babaga bazi kwiyambika neza, bahora bahinduranya imyenda bikaba akarusho ubwo byabaga bigeze mu mpera z’icyumweru.

Benshi babaga bifuza abakiliya b’abanyamahanga. Nubwo indaya nyinshi zitifuza kubyara zikiri muri ako kazi, izo mu Kiyovu zabyifuzaga igihe zahuye n’abo banyamahanga kuko kubyarana nabo, byabaga bivuze guhabwa indezo itubutse.

Hari uwavuze uburyo yaryamanye kenshi n’Umufaransa wabaga i Butare, ngo arebe ko yamutera inda azabyare umwana w’umuzungu, birangira amubyaye se aramwanga, no mu cyaro aho yamujyanye kurererwa ahabwa akato.

Ati “Ubundi umwana w’umuzungu akwiriye kwitabwaho na se, akamujyana ku ishuri. Ntiyakabaye ahinga, arya ibijumba n’ibishyimbo. Ubu umubonye wese amutunga urutoki, ngo dore kiriya cyana, nyamara umwana wirabura iyo ari mu bandi ntawe umumenya.”

Abakobwa bo mu Kiyovu akenshi bakundaga gutemberera mu yindi Mijyi nka Gisenyi na Butare. Basohokeraga mu tubari two mu Kiyovu mu minsi isanzwe aho Primus yaguraga 30 Frw.

Mu Kiyovu, Abataliyani ngo bari bazwiho kwishyura indaya menshi naho Abafaransa bakaba ingona ku ifaranga.

Umutaliyani ngo yashoboraga kwishyura 3000 Frw mu ijoro rimwe mu gihe Umufaransa atarenzaga 1000 Frw. Abakobwa bazi ubwenge bo ntibishyuzaga abo banyamahanga ahubwo babigiragaho inshuti kugira ngo bazabitabaze mu minsi mibi.

Thérèse ati “Umuzungu iyo yagukunze ufite ababyeyi b’abakene abubakira inzu kugira ngo nimujyana iwanyu azakirirwe mu nzu nziza aho yabasha kubona aho yicara. Iyo urwaye agushakira imiti igufasha. Iyo aguhaye amafaranga aba ari menshi umuryango wawe ugatera imbere. Iyo asubiye iwabo agusigira imodoka cyangwa inzu, ni ibyo tuba tubashakaho.”

Hari n’ababaga bategereje ko abo banyamahanga bazabagira abagore, bagasezera ku bukene burundu.

Muri iki cyiciro cy’indaya habagamo n’amashyari, uwo bagenzi be badashaka bakagurira amabandi akamukubita. Abazi ko bagezweho muri iyo minsi akenshi ngo bashakaga abasore b’ibigango b’abashomeri bo kubaherekeza, bakabishyura.

Indaya zo mu biro

Ni abakobwa cyangwa abagore babaga bafite akazi keza mu bigo byigenga cyangwa ibya Leta. Babaga bazi kuvuga neza Igifaransa, bazi aho igihugu kigeze n’ibindi. Abenshi babaga ari abahembwa amafaranga atari menshi, bagahitamo kuba indaya ziyubashye ngo babashe gukemura ibibazo bahura nabyo.

Marie watanze ubuhamya, icyo gihe yari indaya yiyubashye ikorera ikigo cyigenga.

Yagize ati “Abakobwa cyangwa abagore batinya kwitwa indaya, bakifuza kugira undi mwuga ubarinda kwitwa gutyo. Nk’iyo abanyamahanga bahuriye n’umukobwa mu kabari cyangwa muri hoteli, barabaza ngo ‘wowe ukora he”, undi yaba ahafite akahavugana ishema ati nkora aha n’aha. Umunyamahanga yaba yamukunze bagahera aho baba inshuti.”

Abafite isura nziza hari ubwo bagiraga inshuti nyinshi kandi nziza, rimwe na rimwe amafaranga bakorera mu buraya akaruta kure ayo bahembwa ku kwezi, bakaba bava mu kazi kabahemba ku kwezi bakaba indaya butwi.

Camille 25, ni umwe mu ndaya zo mu biro Marijke Vandersypen yasanze atongana n’indaya iciriritse.

Camille yagira ati “Wa mushenzi we , mwe mucunganwa n’ijoro ngo mubashe kubaho . Twe dukora ku manywa nta pfunwe , twajya mu karuhuko mugatangira amanjwe. Nta soni mufite zo kunyita indaya?”

Abo bakobwa akenshi babagaho mu buryo bwiyubashye kurusha abo mu Kiyovu. Babaga mu nzu nziza rimwe na rimwe umwe akaba yaba mu nzu wenyine kandi isa neza. Inzu babagamo zabaga zikodeshwa hagati ya 3500 Frw na 5000 Frw.

Abafite abana, babaga babaho neza, biga ku bigo byiza. Igihe abana babo bamaze gukura, hari abahitagamo kubajyana mu mashuri meza aho biga babamo kugira ngo babone uko bikorera akazi neza.

Indaya zo mu biro nta wapfaga kuzisanga mu tubari, akenshi zabaga zifite inshuti z’abanyamahanga zijya gusura akazi karangiye, akaba ariho bagorobereza banywa inzoga zihenze nka Martini na Whisky, banaganira ku buzima bw’igihugu.

Ni indaya zitapfaga kwishyuza ahubwo abo bagabo zagize inshuti akenshi babaga ari abanyamahanga cyangwa abaherwe batezeho byinshi kurusha amafaranga y’ako kanya.

Bernadette umwe muri bo yagize ati “nyuma y’igihe uramubwira uti nagize ibyago, ndashaka gusura mama ararwaye cyane, akaguha ibihumbi 10, cyangwa ibihumbi 15 ingunga imwe. Ayo urayabika ukazayakoramo igikorwa kigaragara. Hari n’ubwo umubwira uti ndashaka kugura tourne disque, akaguha ibihumbi 20.”

Izo ndaya hari ubwo zakoreraga amafaranga ashobora gutuma ziyubakira inzu, zirihira abana bazo amashuri agezweho , zigura imodoka, zitangira ubucuruzi n’ibindi.

Indaya zigenga

Iki cyiciro cyabagamo akenshi abagore batanye n’abagabo, bafite ubucuruzi buciriritse nk’utubari two mu rugo kandi batuye mu duce tubamo abantu benshi.

Ni abagore bakoraga icyo bashatse igihe bashakiye dore ko nta mugabo wabaga abagenga. Abakiliya b’abo bagore akenshi babaga ari abantu basanzwe ari inshuti zabo cyangwa ari ba bagabo badakunda ko hari ababonana n’indaya ku muhanda cyangwa mu kabari.

Akenshi abo bagore babaga bafite abagabo baryamana nabo bazwi, adashobora kuryamana n’abandi. Abo nibo yifashishaga bamuha ibyo akeneye.

Mu Kinyarwanda cyiza wavuga ko uwo mugore yabaga afite abinjira, baza mu masaha y’umugoroba, akabari akagafunga bakinyabya mu gikari akaba ariho banywera.

Catherine wabaga muri Camp Swahili i Nyamirambo yagize ati “Hari nk’ubwo umugabo ava i Butare tuziranye, akaza kunsura, akavuga ati ‘Uriya ni umugore utagira umugabo, niho ndarara’. Akenshi aba ari abagabo b’aha mu mujyi , akaba asanzwe aza hano nzi ko isaha n’isaha azamfasha. Ntiyabona amafaranga ngo anyibagirwe.”

Muri abo bagore b’indaya, hari ababashaga kugira amahirwe bakabona abagabo muri ako kazi, bagashinga ingo. Ni abagore batinywaga cyane n’abandi bagore bafite abagabo, ntawe ubagire inshuti ngo batazamutwarira umugabo.

Mu gitabo AIDS: Responses, Interventions and Care, hagaragazwa ko mu ndaya zari ziri mu Mujyi wa Kigali mu 1985, 88 % by’izabashije gupima icyo gihe bazisanzemo virusi itera SIDA.

Hagati ya 1982 na 1983, Leta yakoze imikwabu mu ndaya zo mu mujyi wa Kigali inyinshi zirafungwa hagamijwe kuzihashya.

Ifoto igaragaza umujyi wa Kigali mu myaka ya 1970, witegeye ibice bya Kinyinya (Twitter)
Ahubatse isoko rya Kigali kuri ubu mu mujyi rwagati, ni uko hari hameze mu 1960
Mu myaka ishyira 1980, umujyi wa Kigali wari utuwe cyane, ari nako n'abakora uburaya biyongera
Gukodesha inzu mu Mujyi wa Kigali byari bigoye ku bari bawurimo icyo gihe ariko buri cyiciro cyabonaga inzu zikibereye
Aha ni hafi ya Paruwasi Ste Famille mu Mujyi wa Kigali mu myaka ishyira 1990
Ibikorwa by'ubucuruzi mu mujyi wa Kigali mu myaka ya 1980, byatumaga abantu benshi bagana umujyi, abakobwa bicuruza bakaboneraho
Mu 1990, aha ni mu mujyi rwagati hafi y'ahubatse T2000 ubu
Ubucuruzi bwari butangiye gukomera mu mujyi rwagati, bikoroshya urujya n'uruza

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