Inkomoko y’Insigamugani "Yihinduye inyagira"

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 14 Nyakanga 2019 saa 09:14
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Uyu mugani bawucira ku muntu wabonye yarihindurije, agateshwa umuco nyamurema akayabira ingeso mbi z’urugomo n’ubugome n’ubwicanyi ; nibwo mu biganiro bagira bati ’’Ese wari uzi ko naka nawe yahindutse inyagira’’ ?

Wakomotse ku bajura bahonotse amavunja n’ubushita bwa Muryamo ya mbere, ahagana mu mwaka wa 1880.

Uyu mugani ntiwadutse kera cyane, wadutse ku ngoma ya Kigeli Rwabugili. Muryamo imaze guca ibintu mu nka, naho amavunja n’ubushita biyogoza abantu. Ubwo habaye icyorezo gikomeye mu Rwanda; abagihonotse babita Ibirayi. Haciyeho iminsi, abo bitwaga ibirayi bihindura abashimusi (abajura biba inka); bakajya biba inka z’abakirwaye amavunja zahonotse muryamo. Bamaze kumenyereza umwuga wabo biyita Inyagirabahunde; imbwa zabo bazita Ibikurankota.

Kwiyita Inyagirabahunde byashojwe na Kanyabashi ka Sebanyambo na mugenzi we Munigantama. Bombi bari batuye i Murambi wa Mwaka ho mu Kabagari (Masango, Gitarama).

Kanyabashi yamaze kuryoherwa n’ubwo bushimusi bwariho icyo gihe, kandi yishimye n’umuryango mugari, arahimbarwa arubahuka, yiyita Kigeli nka Rwabugili. Yiyemeza gutora ingabo ze muri abo bajura bari bayogoje u Rwanda, azita Inyagirabahunde; (ari ukugenekereza amatwara y’Ingangurarugo za Kigeli Rwabugili, zasakizaga Abahunde (Abashi) zikabanyagira nk’imvura y’umuhindagano.

Nuko abo bajura aho bari hose mu Rwanda bitwa Inyagirabahunde. Bigeze aho rubanda barabihina bivugira “Inyagira” gusa, mu rwego rwo kubatandukanya na Mibambwe Rutarindwa, wari umaze gutora Inyagirabahunde nk’ikivugo cye.

Zihuza izina n’imigambi zirasara zirasizora hamwe n’imbwa zazo ’’Ibikurankota’’; ziyogoza u Rwanda. Zigatera zikanyaga inka zikazishorera ku manywa nyaruhangari; n’amajoro ariko ntiziyakangwe; ihene ku biziriko zikazitura; nyir’ubwite yagerageza kuzikabukira zikamucura inkumbi. Kuva ubwo niho ihene bazise ingarukirwa kuko ari bwo rubanda rwinshi rwazinenutse bakazirya; mbere ntizaribwaga na bose.

Ibikurankota byatangiraga abantu mu mayira bikabarya; byari byarahindutse nk’ibirura, ku mpamvu yo kurya abapfu bishwe n’amavunja n’ubushita.

Nuko ibintu biradogera. Ubwo Rwabugili yari yaratabaye i Gikore cy’Abarihira. Amaze gutabaruka babimusanganiriza mu rugo rwe rw’i Rubengera; bati: ’’Tabara u Rwanda rwawe Inyagira n’Ibikurankota byazo zirarurimbuye!’’.

Muri iyo minsi Rwabugili yahigiriraga gutera ku Ijwi. Araye ari buhaguruke, abanyabyuma be bamubwira ko impu yambaraga zashaje. Azitumiza ku Kamonyi kwa Kazanenda ka Mushoza wari umutware w’abakannyi. Intumwa irahutera isohoza ubutumwa igitaraganya. Kazanenda atoranya impu nziza ebyiri aziha umuhungu we Serudibura ngo azishyire Rwabugili i Rubengera. Ageze mu Kabagari, Inyagira za Kanyabashi ziramufata ziramumushyira; amwambura impu arazigera.

Se Sebanyambo abonye ko zimubereye aranezerwa; ati: ’’ Izi mpu zikwiye Kigeli cyanjye ureke icya Rwogera! Kanyabashi yendamo rumwe, urundi arusubiza Serudibura; aramubwira, ati: ’’ Uru rushyire Rwabugili maze umumbwirire, uti:’’Ngurwo uruhu akuramuriye urundi yarwenze".

Serudibura arikiriza ararwakira; amusaba umusare wo kumwambutsa Nyabarongo. Undi amuha uwitwa Kabacuzi, ati; ’’ Jya kunyambukiriza uyu muntu ni uwa mugenzi wanjye Rwabugili, amushyiriye ruriya ruhu musaguriye.”

Kabacuzi ashyira nzira baragenda aramwambutsa. Serudibura araboneza agera i Rubengera ku kirengarenga. Abo asanze ku karubanda bamubaza amagenzi ye; arayabatekerereza. Bati: ’’ None se wa mwana we ko uzaniye umwami ubwanza (igicagate, ikigabanye)’? . Ati : ’’ Nimuntambutse gusa ibindi ndabyivugira’’.

Umunyagikari aramutambutsa amujyana aho Rwabugili yabugurizaga; ati ’’ Dore uyu mwana nakubwire amakuba yaboneye mu nzira’’

Serudibura atekerereza Rwabugili; ati’’ Data yampaye impu ebyiri ngo nkuzanire, ngeze mu Kabagari, umuntu waho Kanyabashi wiyise Kigeli arazinyambura; yenda rumwe urundi ararunsubiza, ambwira ngo ’’ Mushyire urwo musaguriye, urunguru umwami azarwambara’’.

Rwabugili abyumvise afata ubushungu ararakara arabisha. Abwira Bisangwa na Mugugu, ati:’’Ntanze imbwa n’utubwana twayo’’. Ubwo yavugaga Kanyabashi n’Inyagira ze n’Ibikurankota byabo. Yungamo, ati ’’ Nimuhaguruke dutere imbwa’’. Abandi, bati: ’’Twese dutere Kanyabashi koko nta soni?’’. Rwabugili ariyumvira, ati: ’’ Ni koko!’’ ati ’’Noneho nihatere Rwidegembya wenyine!’’ Abandi, bati:’’Nabwo ni nk’aho waba ari wowe uteyeyo; bati’’Shaka undi woroheje’’
Rwangampuhwe rwa Nkangura aba araje. Agitunguka baramufatirana, bati: ’’Jya i Mwaka urebe uwo muntu wahigomekeye’’. Aboneza ubwo. Abasabye ibya Kanyabashi bamwoma mu nyuma. Baragenda, bageze mu Burenga bwa Budaha buba burije barara aho. Rwangampuhwe acumbika mu ngabo ze. Yohereza intumwa mu Bakeramihigo b’i Nyabitare bya Muhanga, ngo bazinduke iya Rubika bahurire i Murambi kwa Kanyabashi zambaye.

Nuko inkoko abahungu bayirara ku kababa, mu rukerera basakiza kwa Kanyabashi, bahasanga imbaga y’abantu, urugamba rurambikana. Aba Kanyabashi bakubita Abakeramihigo inshuro ndende, barabashushubikana babageza ku mugezi wa Nyagikona. Igihe bagiye kuwubambutsa, Rwangampuhwe aremarara; ati’’ Ndi Inkikabahizi ya Rwizihirangabo sinkandagira mu mazi y’igitondo ngira ubute’’.

Abakeramihigo bumva icyo ashatse kuvuga, bahindukirana ibakwe bagarukana Inyagira. Bazikubita inshuro bazigeza mu muharuro kwa Kanyabashi. Bagenzi babo b’ i Nyabitare baba barahasesekaye. Urwa Kanyabashi baruha inkongi rurakongoka; abigwamo n’umuryango we n’ingabo ze zimwe. Inka zitwarwa na Giharamagara cya Rwakagara, umusozi utwarwa na Rwangeyo; ni bo bari babisabye Rwabugili mu igaba ry’igitero.

Nuko guhera ubwo, Inyagira zose aho ziri hose bazihigira kubura hasi no kubura hejuru. Ariko kuzirwanya bibanza kubabera ibamba, kuko zari zimaze kuba nyinshi, kandi zirwanywa n’abanyantege nke bakinobagizwa n’amavunja, banakirutse n’ubushita. Ariko kuko ngo ’’ Nta nduru irwana n’ingoma’’ iz’ibwami zarashyize zizitoraguza uruhindu. Zimaze kurimbuka baduka muri za mbwa zazo Ibikurankota; na zo barazihiga barazica barazitsemba. Nuko ibyorezo birijuka, umudendezo uba wose, amayira yongera kuba nyabagendwa. Ariko ngo ’’Aho kabaye ntikahava’’; nyuma y’aho ku ngoma ya Yuhi Musinga byarongeye biba nK’uko.

Kuri iyo ngoma, Inyagira zongeye kwaduka mu gihugu bisa n’ibya mbere, ariko ntizongera kwiyita Inyagira ziyita Intabikangwa, maze nazo ziyogoza u Rwanda ziba ku mugaragaro, mu gihugu haba ibikubarara imyaka cumi isaga. Ababirigi babonye ko bisayishije, bazifatira imigambi mu mwaka wa 1925. Barazifata barazifunga, ndetse n’abatware b’imisozi zari ziganjeho bamwe baranyagwa baranafungwa kuko batazamaganye.

Ariko abantu ntibahaha; ngo ’’ Aho kabaye ntikahava’’ byashyize kera iyo ngeso y’ubujura n’ubwicanyi irubura, noneho Inyagira zizutse zizukana izina ry’irivashyanga zitwa “Amabandi”. Amabandi ni abagizi ba nabi nk’inyagira; mbese rwose ni Inyagira ubwa zo; kuko na bo ari ibiraramisagara nka zo.

Bubuye mu mwaka wa 1960, u Rwanda bararwogogoje: maze bakikora nk’Inyagira za kera, bagasakiza urugo nyirarwo arurimo, bagapfukirana bagasahura ndetse bakica; uwo badahwanyije bagasiga intere, ucitse ku icumu agasigara iheruheru bamukenyeje rushorera. Reta y’u Rwanda yafashe imigambi yo kubakangara bamaze gusayisha.

Kuva rero ahagana mu mwaka wa 1900, ni bwo uwo mugani wadutse, baba babonye umuntu wataye umuco nyamurema akayabira ingeso z’ubugome, bakamugera kuri za nyagira zo ku ngoma ya Rwabugili, bati ’’Yihinduye inyagira’’.

Inyagira zayogoje u Rwanda cyane mu gihe cya Rwabugili

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