Amateka ya ‘Vel’ d’Hiv’ n’uko Abafaransa bicishije Abayahudi ibihumbi

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 16 Nyakanga 2017 saa 04:35
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Imyaka 75 irashize hibukwa amarorerwa ya Vélodrome d’Hiver, inyubako twagereranya na stade nto y’imbere mu nzu yaberabagamo imikino ariko iza gusigarana amateka y’uko yakusanyirijwemo Abayahudi b’inzirakarengane mbere yo kujya kwicwa.

Vélodrome d’Hiver yubatswe igenewe kwakira imikino olimpiki yo mu mpeshyi mu1924, ifite ibice bigenewe kunyurwamo amagare n’indi mikino ngororamubiri.

Icyo gihe u Bufaransa bwafatwaga nko mu mudendezo w’Abayahudi kuko bwabahaga uburenganzira busesuye kimwe no muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika.

Ibintu byahinduye isura ubwo mu ntambara ya kabiri y’Isi, Abadage bari bayobowe n’aba-Nazi ba Adolf Hitler, bagabye igitero ku Bufaransa bakabutsinda mu 1940, batangira kugenzura igice cy’Amajyaruguru.

Abayahudi bahise batangira kugira ubwoba, batangira kwiyoberanya igihe bafite aho bifuza kwerekeza ndetse bamwe barekeraho kwambara inyenyeri ku gituza, ubundi cyari ikimenyetso batafashaga hasi.

U Bufaransa bwatereranye Abayahudi

Ku itegeko ry’Abadage, u Bufaransa bwatangiye kunoza umugambi w’uko bwazakusanya Abayahudi bukabahuriza mu nkambi bagombaga kuvanwamo bagakoreshwa ubucakara ubundi bakicwa.

Abayahudi batangiye kwiyandikisha kuri sitasiyo za polisi muri superefegitura (sous-préfectures), imyirondoro ikandikwa ku mafishi yitiriwe André Tulard wari Komiseri wa Polisi ushinzwe serivisi z’abanyamahanga n’ibibazo by’Abayahudi.

Abafite ubwenegihugu bw’u Bufaransa n’abakomoka bari bafite amafishi atandukanyije amabara kandi akabikwa hakurikijwe umwuga wa nyirayo n’umuhanda atuyeho.

Hatangiye inama zitandukanye hacurwa umugambi w’uko kubakoranya ngo bavanwe muri icyo gihugu bizagenda biyobowe n’abayobozi b’Abafaransa.

Inyandiko zitandukanye zigaragaza ko Abadage bari basabye ko hafatwa Abayahudi 20,000 bafite hagati y’imyaka 16 na 50, hagasigara abagore batwite cyangwa bonsa.

Gusa mu buryo bwo kuzigama igihe, kubatandukanya byagombaga gukorerwa aho bazabahuriza bwa mbere, naho abana batazajyana n’ababyeyi bakazashyirwa mu miryango.

Nyamara ibyo byasaga n’urwiyerurutso, kuko iperereza ryaje gukorwa nyuma na Serge Klarsfeld yabonye ubutumwa bwa René Bousquet wari Umunyamabanga mukuru wa Polisi y’u Bufaransa, asaba ba perefe b’uduce Abadage bagenzuraga kudatwara Abayahudi bakuru gusa ahubwo n’abana ntibabasige.

Ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’uyu mugambi

Gukoranya Abayahudi byatangiye mu gitondo cyo kuwa 16 Nyakanga 1942, ubwo abapolisi bagera ku 4500 b’Abafaransa bagendaga bafata uwitwa Umuyahudi wese i Paris.

Émile Hennequin wayoboraga Polisi yaho, kuwa 12 Nyakanga yari yatanze itegeko ko “ibyo bigomba kuba ku muvuduko wo hejuru, nta jambo na rimwe nta no kujurira.”

Abayahudi bagera ku 11,000 bafashwe mu munsi umwe gusa, abatari kumwe n’imiryango yabo burizwa imodoka boherezwa mu gace ka Drancy abandi bajyanwa muri Velodrome d’Hiver (Vel’ d’Hiv).

Bashyizwe muri iyo nyubako ari igihiriri, amadirishya arafungwa kandi hari ubushyuhe bw’impeshyi, badafite amazi yo kuywa, ibiribwa cyangwa ibikoresho by’isuku.

Mu cyumweru kimwe gusa, Abayahudi bahafungiwe bari bamaze kugera ku 13,152 barimo abana 4,051, kandi iyo nyubako yaragenewe kwakira abantu 9000 baje kwirebera imikino.

Byaje kugaragara ko abana bafite imyaka hagati ya 2-16 bafunganywe n’ababyeyi babo, baturukaga ahanini mu Budage, Austria, Pologne, Repubulika ya Czech n’u Burusiya.

Mu cyumweru cyakurikiyeho, baje kuvanwa muri iyo stade bajyanwa mu nkambi za Pithiviers, Beaune-la-Rolande mu Majyepfo ya Paris, abandi bajyanwa muri Drancy, aho abenshi bapfiriye.

Ahagana mu mpera za Nyakanga n’intangiriro za Kanama, Abayahudi bari muri izo nkambi batandukanyijwe n’abana babo. Mbere yo kuhabavana, buri mfungwa babanje kogoshwa umusatsi no gusakwa bikomeye.

Abenshi bajyanwe mu nkambi ya Auschwitz yaguyemo Abayahudi batangira ingano, kuko bibarwa ko nibura mu bagera kuri miliyoni 1.3 bayoherejwemo, miliyoni 1.1 bahaguye.

Mu gutwara abo Bayahudi kandi abana bagera ku 3000 bisanze basigaye mu nkambi Pithiviers na Beaune-la-Rolande bonyine, nabo bajyanwa muri Auschwitz mu modoka zifunze hose, aho biciwe kimwe n’abandi hakoreshejwe acide ya Zyklon B.

Mu mezi abiri yakurikiye ifatwa ry’Abayahudi bajyanwe muri Vel’ d’Hiv, nibura abagera ku 1000 berekezwaga muri Auschwitz mu minsi ibiri cyangwa itatu.

Kugera mu mpera za Nzeri 1942, Abayahudi bagera ku 38,000 bajyanwe muri Auschwitz ariko kugera mu 1945, abari bakiri bazima babarurirwaga muri 780.

Inyandiko zitandukanye zigaragaza ko nibura hagati ya 1940 na 1944, u Bufaransa bwafashe Abayahudi bagera ku 75,000 bari babutuyemo bakaza kwicwa, hakarokoka abagera ku 2500.

Nubwo iki gikorwa cyagizwemo uruhare n’ubuyobozi bw’u Bufaransa ndetse n’abakozi mu nzego za leta, hari n’abashimirwa uruhare bagize mu gufasha Abayahudi kurokoka, hari abanyapolitiki bavuga ko ntacyo u Bufaransa bukwiye kubazwa kuko bwakozwe Repubulika itarabaho.

Ibi ariko kuri iki Cyumweru tariki ya 16 Nyakanga 2017, Perezida Emmanuel Macron w’u Bufaransa ari kumwe na Minisitiri w’Intebe wa Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu, yavuze ko ari igikorwa ‘cyateguwe n’u Bufaransa, kubatwara, mbese hafi ibintu byose, n’urupfu rw’abantu 13,152 bari bafite imyemerere y’Abayahudi" nk’uko tubikesha RFI.

Inyubako ya Vélodrome d’hiver yaje guturitswa mu 1959, ubu hasigaye ibimenyetso biriho n’urwibutso rw’ayo mateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abayahudi.

Ku rwibutso rwa Vélodrome d'hiver
Abayahudi bashyizwe hamwe ari benshi nta byangombwa by'ubuzima bafite

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