Abatabazi b’u Rwanda mu ihuzabitekerezo ku cyizere cy’ahazaza h’u Rwanda (Igice cya mbere)

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 5 Kamena 2018 saa 01:33
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Umurage wa Gihanga wagiye wogoga mu Bakurambere bamuzunguye, ugashorera iteka umuryango nyarwanda kugeza ku gisekuruza cya kure. Amateka agaragaza uburyo mpuzamyumvire bwaranze Abatabazi b’Abacunguzi b’u Rwanda, mu gushimangira icyizere ntagamburuzwa cyo kubaho k’u Rwanda no guhamya iginyiro mu mahanga aruzengurutse.

Mu gitabo “Intwari y’Izahabu, yakebanuye u Rwanda rukongera kubaho” cy’amateka y’umushinga wo kubaka u Rwanda umaze imyaka 926 (1091-2017) Umutumba wa Kabiri.

Yagaragaje uburyo imyumvire y’u Rwanda mu miyoborere n’imibereho, ishyaka barwanira igihugu cyabo n’imiryango yabo, ko ari uruhererekane ruri mu maraso ku buryo ntawe ushobora kuyahanagura usibye kuzana undi utari umwenegihugu akaba ariwe uyobora u Rwanda, usibye ko bitanashoboka, kuko byatanze isomo rikomeye cyane rigaragazwa n’aho abanyamahanga bagejeje u Rwanda ubwo baruyoboraga.

Umushinga wo kubaka u Rwanda wayobowe n’abayobozi 34 barimo: Abami 28 n’Abaperezida batatu, muri abo bayobozi babaye aberekeza b’uwo mushinga, rwagizemo Abatabazi b’Abacunguzi bane, bagiye baba intumwa z’Imana ku Banyarwanda bagahengamura igihugu kigiye kuzima burundu, barimo: Gihanga I Ngomijana (1091-1124), Ruganzu Ndoli (1510-1543), Kigeli Rwabugili (1853-1895) na Kagame Paul (2000 -…).

Nibo bagiye bashyiraho imfatiro zikomeye u Rwanda rwagiye rwubakirwaho iyo myaka yose. Mu guhuza umugambi mu cyerekezo cy’umushinga wo kubaka u Rwanda, hari byinshi Abatabazi b’Abacunguzi babayeho bagiye bahurizaho kuruta ibindi, usanga hari intego nyinshi bose bahuriyeho mu kubaka igihugu no kukiganisha aheza, ariko hakaba n’iz’ikirenga zagiye zibabera indangamurage wa Gihanga mu buryo budatezuka ku ntego zo kurugira ikirenga mu bindi bihugu by’isi, zikanaba ikimenyetso simusiga gihamya neza ukuri kw’amateka y’u Rwanda mu iherekanyamurage, ubuyobozi n’iyororoka ry’imiryango.

Umwambari w’umwana agenda nka se, isuku nayo ikagira isoko umwanda ukagira akazu. Niba Gihanga yarakoze ibi, abamukurikiye bakazungura ibitekerezo bye, ni ikimenyetso gikomeye gihamya iby’amateka ya Gihanga, benshi babona nk’urujijo kuri bo, niba umwana akora ibi, nuko aba afite amaraso y’abakurambere be yabivomyemo.

Ikimenyetso gikomeye kuruta ibindi, nuko Abatabazi b’Abacunguzi bagiye barohora u Rwanda rugeze kure habi bakongera kurusubiza ubuzima, bagiye bahurira ku mugambi umwe wo guhamya icyizere ntagamburuzwa cy’ahazaza h’igihugu cy’u Rwanda nk’igihugu gifite ubusugire bwacyo kandi gifite abaturage n’abayobozi bashinze imizi bagahamya intsinzi z’ibihe byose. Uwo mugambi bagiye bagiye bawuhurizaho mu gushyiraho ibirango by’igihugu cy’u Rwanda.

Abatabazi b’Abacunguzi b’u Rwanda, kenshi nibo bagiye bashyiraho ibirango by’igihugu biranga imyumvire n’intego bafitiye umuryango nyarwanda n’igihugu cyabo by’umwihariko. Bakunze guhuriza kenshi ku bisobanuro by’ibirango by’ingoma (Ubutegetsi cyangwa igihugu gitegetkwa n’umwami), haba mu gihe cy’abami no mu gihe cya Repubulika.

Impamvu nyamukuru yatumaga bashyiraho ibirango by’igihugu, ni ukugira ngo bagaragaze ikirango cy’ibyo batekereza n’umugambi bifiteho w’ahazaza habo n’igihugu cyabo, kuko iyo usobanuriye umuntu wese ibirango by’igihugu, ahita amenya neza amateka y’aho kivuye n’aho kifuza kugera.

Ibirango by’igihugu bivugira umuryango mugari w’abenegihugu, icyo batakubwiye ugahita ukibwira. Bimwe mu biranga ihuzabitekerezo kuri uwo mugambi wo gukomeza icyizere cy’ahazaza h’igihugu cy’u Rwanda, ni ibirango by’igihugu bagiye bashyiraho.

Duhereye ku birango by’igihugu ku ngoma ya Gihanga mbere yuko ashyiraho ingoma ngabe Rwoga nk’ikirango cy’igihugu, ibyo birango by’ihuzabitekerezo mu guharanira icyizere cy’ahazaza h’igihugu, bagiye babihuza muri ubu buryo:

Mu iyima rya Gihanga Ngomijana, Umutabazi w’Umucunguzi w’imbanza, ibirango by’igihugu byarimo: Urusengo nk’igikoresho cy’umuziki cyari kimeze nk’ifirimbi, rwitwaga “Nyamilinga” cyashushanyaga ubwisanzure, ubusugire n’ibitaramo by’abaturage bafite amahoro rukungirizwa n’ibindi bibiri birimo Inyundo yitwaga “Nyarushara” bavugaga ko ari “Inyundo yacuze Abami, inyundo nk’ikimenyetso cyo guhanga igihugu” igikoresho gikoreshwa mu gucura ibikoresho bishya, nk’uko Gihanga yahanze igihugu gishya, kizajya gihora kiyungura ibishya bicyubaka.

Hakurikiraho Umuriro wa Gihanga, washushanyaga uburambe bw’umwami, ubusugire bw’igihugu n’ubumwe bw’abaturage.

Nyamilinga niyo yari nkuru muri ibyo birango by’igihugu byose byo ku ngoma ya Gihanga, iryo zina rikaba rikomoka ku nshinga ya kera yitwa “Kulinga” bishaka kuvuga “Kwiringira” cyangwa “Kugira icyizere” naho izina ryose rya Nyamilinga, rikaba rishaka kuvuga “Inkingi y’Icyizere Gihanitse Ntagamburuzwa”

Impamvu Gihanga yahisemo gushyiraho icyo kirango cy’ubwami bwe akagiha iryo zina, ni uko yari yamaramaje guhanga igihugu nka gakondo y’umuryango we by’iteka ryose.

Nyuma yo kumara imyaka myinshi mu busembere mu ngoma y’Abazigaba bo mu Rweya, basanze batazongera ibyo gukomeza kwimuka bya hato na hato, bagisha inka zabo, ni uko ahanga igihugu bimugoye dore ko cyari hagati y’ibindi biganje imyaka myinshi, yiha intego ko nta n’umwe ushobora kuzamutsimbura ku butaka bw’Ingoma y’i Gasabo yari amaze guhanga.

Nyuma yo abonye koko ko imigambi ye yashobotse, yashyizeho Ingoma Ngabe “Rwoga” bisobanura “Kogera”. Icyo gihe yari amaze guhamya icyizere ko igihugu yagihanze kigahama, igisigaye ari ukucyagura kikaba kigari, kigashinga imizi gihamije ubusugire n’ubudahangarwa.

Ruganzu Ndoli, Umutabazi w’Umucunguzi wabonetse nyuma y’imyaka 386 (1124-1510) Gihanga Ngomijana abayeho, yaje igihugu kimaze imyaka 11 kitagira Umwami kubera amahari y’ibikomangoma byo kwa Yuhi Gahimba byarwaniye ingoma ku butegetsi bwa se Ndahiro Cyamatara, rumara icyo gihe cyose ruri mu maboko y’Abanyabungo, Abagara n’Abanyabyinshi.

Mu kubunduka kwe avuye i Kalagwe k’Abahinda aje kwima ingoma ya se Ndahiro Cyamatara, yasanze Ingabe y’u Rwanda “Rwoga” Abanyabungo barayinyaze hamwe n’ingabekazi yayo yarabunze. Icyo gihe yiyemeje gushyiraho ibirango bishya birimo Ingoma Ngabe ndetse n’Ingabekazi yari iyungirije, yimika Ingabe “Kalinga” ngo isimbure Rwoga yari yaranyazwe n’Abanyabungo, anongeraho n’izindi ziyungirije nk’Ingabekazi “Nangamadumbu” yasimburaga Cyimumugizi (Igihugu cyima Umugizi wa neza)

Iyo usesenguye neza ibirango bya Ruganzu Ndoli, amaze kuzahura igihugu kigarutse ku murongo, usanga bifite inyito ihuje neza n’ibyo ku ngoma ya Gihanga. Byose bikomeza gushimangira icyizere cy’ahazaza h’igihugu n’abaturage ba cyo.

Ingoma Ngabe Kalinga, nayo yiswe izina rikomoka ku nshinga “Kulinga” ikaba ifite igisobanuro gisa nk’icya Nyamilinga, Urusengo rwa Gihanga. Kalinga bisobanura “Inkingi y’Icyizere” naho Ingabekazi Nangamadumbu igakomeza gushimangira intego Abanyiginya bimye bafite yo kwanga akajagari k’uduhugu twinshi tudafite kiyobora n’imigambi ihamye yo kutwubaka, bityo bakaba bagomba kuduhuriza hamwe tukaba igihugu kimwe gihamye kandi gikomeye.

Iyo ntego yo gukomeza kwanga akajagari byimakajwe n’Ingoma Nyiginya, Ruganzu yayishimangiye ubwo yimikaga Ingabekazi Nangamadumbu isimbura Cyimumugizi. Nangamadumbu bishatse kuvuga “Nanga Akajagari”. Kuva ubwo, Ruganzu Ndoli, yakomeje guhamya no gushimangira icyizere cy’ikirenga kandi ntagamburuzwa cy’uko u Rwanda rugomba guhamya igitinyiro, rukagira ubusugire nk’ibindi bihugu biri ku Isi, iherezo kandi kikazaba igihugu kimwe n’abaturage bunze ubumwe bafite icyerekezo kimwe.

Aha niho habera benshi ikiyoberabaswa, cyane cyane ku batemera neza ukuri kw’amateka y’u Rwanda ashingiye kuri Gihanga I Ngomijana nk’umuhanzi wacyo aho benshi batemera ko yabayeho. Hari abikorera mu kurushaho gupfobya u Rwanda, aho bagaragaza ko ari akana kadafite uburambe mu buyobozi no mu kwiyubaka kavutse ejo bundi mu kinyejana cya 16.

Icyo kinyejana cyageze hihiritse imyaka isaga 500, u Rwanda ruriho rushinze imizi rwiyubaka kandi rufite ubuyobozi bufite umurongo uhamye wo kwiyubaka, ndetse hari n’amateka agaragaza ko na mbere y’uko rubaho ahasaga mu wa 300 nyuma ya Yezu Kirisitu, ubu butaka rufite bwari bugandagajeho ibihugu 29 byose biganje.

Ibyo bihugu byari bifite ubutaka bibarirwaho, bifite umwami uganje, ingabo n’ingoma ngabe nk’ikirango cy’igihugu nk’uko bigaragara mu gitabo “Imizi y’u Rwanda” cy’Amateka yo kuva mu wa 300 kugeza mu wa 1900. Niba amateka agaragaza umuryango mugari w’abantu aba n’aba, nuko baba bafite inkomoko.

Ibindi byimbitse ku mateka yaranze abo Bacunguzi b’u Rwanda n’ibikorwa by’ubutwari byagejeje igihugu aheza bikubiye mu bitabo “Intwari z’Imbanza, zubatse u Rwanda rugahamya igitinyiro” Umutumba wa mbere, n’igitabo “Intwari y’Izahabu, yakebanuye u Rwanda rukongera kubaho” Umutumba wa Kabiri, by’amateka y’umushinga wo kubaka u Rwanda umaze imyaka 926 (1091-2017).

Byose byanditswe n’Inzobere mu Busizi, Umuco n’Amateka y’impitabihe ku Rwanda, Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu (Intiti Itekerereza Ingoma) yashyize ahagaragara uburyo Abayobozi b’u Rwanda bahurije ku murage w’ibihe byose ku cyizere cy’ahazaza h’u Rwanda

Mu gice gikurikira iki, tuzabagezaho ibindi birango by’abandi batabazi babiri, Kigeli Rwabugili na Kagame Paul, bashyizeho bihamya neza icyizere ntagamburuzwa cy’ahazaza h’u Rwanda bahurijeho n’abandi batabazi b’abacunguzi bakomeje kuronda umurage w’Umutabazi w’Umucunguzi w’imbanza Gihanga Ngomijana.


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