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Ingamba z’u Rwanda mu guhangana na SIDA yari yarahahamuye abantu: Ikiganiro na Dr Rwibasira

Yanditswe na Akayezu Jean de Dieu
Kuya 14 Kanama 2021 saa 07:16
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Mu myaka ya 1990 uwavugaga ko runaka arwaye ‘SIDA’ benshi bahitaka batekereza urupfu dore ko n’ijambo ‘SIDA’ ubwaryo ryandikishwaga wino itukura, bishatse kuvuga ko uwayirwaye nta wundi muti cyangwa urukingo yabaga ategereje uretse urupfu na rwo rwabaga ruri bugufi ye cyane.

Abavuzi gakondo benshi tuzi nk’abapfumu bayiburiye inzuzi, abahanga mu bya siyansi n’ubuvuzi bakubita hirya hino biranga biba iby’ubusa, rubanda rurakangarana, uvuzweho iyo nyagwa abantu be bakamugendera kure kugeza ubwo n’abavandimwe cyangwa abamukomokaho bamuhaga akato.

Uko imyaka yagiye ishira ni ko Leta y’u Rwanda yagiye ikora ibishoboka byose ngo nibura abaturage basobanukirwe n’iyi ndwara yari yaramaze kuba icyorezo, uburyo bwo kukirinda ndetse n’uburyo abacyanduye bashobora kwitabwaho abaturage bakumva ko nta gikuba cyacitse.

Mu myaka ya 2001, hashyizweho Komisiyo y’Igihugu yari ishinzwe kurwanya SIDA, CNLS, kuva ubwo hatangira urugamba rwo kurwanya ubwandu bw’agakoko ka VIH, gatera iyi ndwara ndetse no gushyiraho uburyo bwo guha imiti igabanya ubukana ku bagize ibyago byo kuyandura.

Kuva icyo gihe kugeza uyu munsi hari byinshi byakozwe ndetse nko mu 2010, byagaragaraga ko abicwa na SIDA bagabanuka, ibi kandi bikajyana n’abayandura kuko kuva mu mwaka wa 2015 kugeza ubu , Abanyarwanda babana na virusi itera SIDA bari bakiri ku kigero cya 3% ku bari hagati y’imyaka 15-64.

IGIHE yaganiriye n’Umuyobozi w’Ishami risinzwe kurwanya SIDA mu Kigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ubuzima, RBC, Dr Rwibasira Gallican agaruka ku rugendo rwagejeje igihugu ku kugabanya umubare w’abandura ndetse n’abahitanwa n’iki cyorezo.

IGIHE: Ubundi SIDA yageze mu Rwanda ryari?

Dr Rwibasira: Sida ni indwara imaze imyaka itari mike imenyekanye. Ubundi SIDA mu magambo arambuye ni uruhurirane rw’indwara zifata umubiri iyo ubwirinzi bw’umubiri bwagabanyutse. Ariko tuvuga Sida twabanje kuvuga Virusi iyitera iyo twita HIV.

Ni virusi ikuze cyane muri iyi si by’umwihariko muri Afurika kuko kuva mu myaka ya za 1980 nibwo Sida yatangiye kumvikana ariko by’umwihariko mu Rwanda kuva mu 1983, kuko amateka atwereka ko umurwayi wa mbere yagaragaye mu 1983, mu bitaro bya CHUK.

Kugeza ubu umuntu yavuga ko icyorezo cya Sida gihagaze gute mu Rwanda?

Dr Rwibasira: Biba byiza iyo dutangiye kuvuga ku buryo icyorezo gihagaze muri iyi minsi, uburyo bwo kukirinda ndetse n’uburyo bwo kwita ku bafite virusi itera Sida mu rwego rw’imiti, iyo tugiye mu myaka yashize icyorezo kigera mu Rwanda ubona ko byari bigoye.

Tubona ko gahunda ya mbere yatangiye gusa n’ijyaho mu 1987, ariko icyo gihe nta miti yari ihari n’uburyo bwo kwirinda ntabwo bwari buzwi, ubundi umuntu yumvaga Sida kiriya gihe akumva urupfu kuko kuyirwara byari bivuze ko utegereza ibyuririzi, ukaremba ugahita upfa.

Ikindi twanakwibukiranya ni uko n’uburyo bwo gupima nta bwari buhari, ku buryo n’abantu benshi baranapfaga ari yo bazize ariko kuko nta wapimye, bagapfa ntumenye n’icyabishe.

Ni ukuvuga ko icyo gihe kurwara Sida byanganaga n’urupfu?

Dr Rwibasira: Niko byari bimeze niba munibuka neza mu bihugu duturanye hari nk’ahantu wasangaga umudugudu cyangwa urusisiro rwose rwashizeho kubera virusi ya Sida.

Ikindi hari ikintu cy’akato ku buryo nta muntu watinyukaga kuba yavuga ngo yarwaye Sida ngo byumvikane no mu muryango iyo babimenyaga baranaguhishaga, umuntu akarembera aho agapfa.

Muri za 1990, abantu batangiye kwigishwa ukwirinda, batangiye kumenya uburyo buhari bwo kwirinda ariko cyane cyane ubyibuke ko nta bikoresho byari bihagije bihari n’abarwayi kwa muganga babashyiraga ahantu ukwabo, ubwo ni mu bitaro kwa muganga.

Kubera ko nta buryo bwo kwirinda buhari no kwanduzanya hagati y’abarwayi n’abaganga byanabagaho, ugasanga abarwayi ba Sida babashyiraga ahantu ukwabo bategereje gupfa.

Ubwo se igihugu cyaje kubona ubushobozi bwaba ubw’imiti cyangwa gupima Sida ryari?

Dr Rwibasira: Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri za 1996 ubwo igihugu cyari gitangiye kongera kwiyubaka nubwo na bwo nta bikoresho bihagije twari dufite ariko hatangiye kongera gushyirwaho za gahunda zo kurwanya Sida.

Aho ngano na ho nta miti [igabanya ubukana] twari dufite, iyo turebye mu mibare tubona ko nko muri za 1999, abantu bari bafite ubushobozi bwo kwigurira imiti bari bake pe kandi nibura ubushobozi bwo gupima bwari butangiye kugenda buboneka ariko nta miti ihari.

N’imiti mike yari ihari abantu biguriraga wasangaga umuntu ayifata ari myinshi no kubasha kwita ku bantu bagizweho ingaruka n’imiti na byo byari bigoye ku buryo umubare w’abicwa na Sida wakomezaga kwiyongera.

Kugeza nibura mu 2000, nibwo twatangiye kuzana gahunda zitandukanye nyuma yaho mu 2001, havuga Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo kurwanya Sida, CNLS, igenda igezwa hirya no hino mu turere ariko nanone aho ngaho imiti yari ikigoye, abafataga imiti bari bakeya ariko nanone n’ibigenderwaho byari byinshi.

Byagenze gute kugira ngo ibyo bihe birangire n’imiti itangire kuboneka ku bwinshi?

Dr Rwibasira: Ni gahunda zagiye zikomatanyirizwa hamwe, abaterankunga bagenda baba benshi, habashije kuboneka imiti kuri bose kuko guhera nyuma ya 2004 nibwo twatangiye kubona abantu benshi bakeneye imiti bagiye kujya bayifata.

Icyo rero ni ikintu cyagaragaye ku buryo bufatika kuko n’impfu zahise zigabanuka kugera nibura kuri 81%.

Guhera 2004, twatangiye noneho gutekereza ko indwara ishobora kuva mu bitaro bikuru, ishobora kuva mu mavuriro akomeye noneho bikajya bihera hasi, abantu bari bafite impungenge birumvikana kuko indwara irakomeye kandi yaje ihita iba icyorezo.

Umwihariko w’u Rwanda ntabwo uza mu buzima gusa ni mu nzego zose ariko cyane cyane bikava ku buyobozi bukuru bw’igihugu n’uko abantu bakora ibyo bashinzwe kuba bakora. Ibyo rero nibyo byafashije kugira ngo tugere ku rwego turiho uyu munsi.

Ikindi twabashije gukora njye mbona cyanadufashije cyane ni ukwihutira kwegereza serivisi hasi mu baturage mu bigo nderabuzima.

Gahunda yo gutanga imiti igabanya ubukana yatangiye ryari?

Dr Rwibasira: Mu 2004 twatangiye gutanga imiti ku bantu bose bafite ibyo twagenderagaho, birimo abasirikare bagabanutse ariko batari munsi ya 350, abana bari munsi y’imyaka itanu ndetse no kuzamura.

Kugeza ubwo nibura mu 2010 twari tumaze kubona ko abicwa na virisi itera Sida bari batangiye kugabanuka ndetse n’ubwandu butangiye kugabanuka kuko mu myaka ya mbere twabonaga ubwandu buri hejuru ariko nk’ubushakashatsi bwakozwe guhera mu 2015 bwagaragaje ko ubwandu buri kuri 3%.

Ariko kandi ikindi kintu gishya cyajemo […], mu kintu kigaragara cyagabanyije ubukana bw’icyorezo ni uguhabwa imiti, abantu iyo bafata imiti ubushakashatsi bugaragaza ko baramba imyaka ingana n’iy’umuntu udafite virusi.

Indwara z’uruhererekane zavaga kuri virusi itera Sida zaragabanyutse, nk’ubu ba bantu twabonaga barembye bazahajwe na Sida bafite za Mugiga, za Macinya ziva kuri Sida, bafite za ndwara zo ku ruhu zitwaga Zona ntabwo zikigaragara kubera ko abantu baratangira imiti hakiri kare.

Ubundi se gufata imiti igabanya ubukana bifasha iki urwaye Sida?

Dr Rwibasira: Guhera mu 2016, twatangije gahunda yo guha imiti abantu bose ku buryo ubu ugiye kwa muganga ukipimisha bagasanga urwaye Sida, uwo munsi cyangwa mu gihe kitarenze icyumweru ugomba kuba watangiye imiti.

Bivuze ngo ufashe imiti igabanya ubukana umubiri utarazahara, icyo gihe mu mezi nk’atandatu uba umaze kugabanya amavirusi ya Sida ari mu mubiri wawe kuko virusi iyo igeze mu mubiri irororoka, uko yororoka niko ica intege abasirikare b’umubiri.

Icyo gihe rero iyo utangiye imiti abasirikare bo mu mubiri wawe barazahaye nta bwirinzi uba ufite, na bya byuririzi birakuzahaza ariko ubu ngubu abantu benshi dufite muhuye [..] niyo mpamvu tuvuga ngo Sida ntipimishwa ijisho, ntabwo ushobora kureba umuntu ngo umenye ko afite virusi itera Sida.

- Incamake ku bigaragazwa n’ubushakashatsi

Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Buzima, OMS [UNAIDS], rigaragaza ko ku rwego rw’Isi, ibijyanye n’akato n’ihezwa bikorerwa abafite virusi itera Sida, byagabanyutse ku rugero rwa 80%.

Inzego z’ubuzima mu Rwanda, ziyemeje gukuraho icyuho kikigaragara mu buvuzi bw’umwuga buhabwa abafite Virusi itera Sida ku buryo buri wese bizajya bimworohera kumenya uko ahagaze hanyuma agatangira kunywa imiti.

Ubushakashatsi bwa RBC bwo mu Ugushyingo 2020, bwagaragaje ko ubwandu bushya bwa virusi itera Sida, bwagabanutse kugeza kuri kimwe cya kabiri guhera mu 2015 kugeza mu 2019, na ho guhererekanya ubwo bwandu hagati y’umubyeyi n’umwana bigera munsi ya 2% mu myaka ine ishize.

Nubwo hari intambwe ishimishije yatewe mu guhangana n’icyo cyorezo, inzego z’ubuzima mu Rwanda zihangayikishijwe n’uko 84% by’abanduye ari bo bazi uko bahagaze, iyo ikaba ikiri imbogamizi ikomeye mu rugamba rwo kuyihashya.

Dr Rwibasira yavuze ko nka RBC bakomeje gukora ibishoboka byose kugira ngo umubare w’abapimwa iyo virusi urusheho kwiyongera

Intego ya UNAIDS mu mwaka wa 2020 yari iyo kugera ku bantu 90% bafite Virusi itera Sida bazi uko bahagaze, 90% by’abazi uko bahagaze bahabwa imiti ku buryo buhoraho, ndetse na 90% by’abanywa imiti bakaba barubatse ubudahangarwa bwo guhangana n’icyo cyorezo.

Mu gihe u Rwanda rwageze kuri 84% ku ntego ya mbere, intego ya kabiri rwarayirengeje rugera kuri 97.5% ndetse no ku ya gatatu rugera kuri 90.1%.

Umuyobozi w’Ishami rishinzwe kurwanya SIDA mu Kigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ubuzima, RBC, Dr Rwibasira Gallican, avuga ko u Rwanda rukomeje gushyira imbaraga mu guhashya Sida kandi umusaruro wigaragaza kuva mu myaka 10 ishize

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