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Abadashobora kwandura, ubwiganze bwa Sida mu Mijyi n’ababana umwe yaranduye: Ikiganiro na Dr Rwibasira

Yanditswe na Akayezu Jean de Dieu
Kuya 17 Kanama 2021 saa 08:55
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Abahanga basobanura Sida nk’indwara iterwa n’agakoko ko mu bwoko bwa virusi, aka gakoko kakaba kagenda kakamunga ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri, bugacika intege ku kigero gikabije ku buryo byorohera uburwayi bwose kuba bwazahaza umuntu.

Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Buzima, OMS/WHO, rigaragaza ko Sida ari icyorezo gikomeye cyane kandi gikomeje kwibasira abatuye Isi kuko nibura kimaze guhitana abarenga miliyoni 36.6.

Kugeza ubu ariko, nta muti ndetse ntan’urukingo biraboneka ngo bibashe guhangana n’iki cyorezo cyamenyekanye ko kiri mu Isi mu myaka ya 1980. Kugeza ubu igisubizo gihari na cyo gitanga icyizere gike uyu munsi ni imiti igabanya ubukana ihabwa abarwaye iki cyorezo ndetse n’uburyo buzwi bwo ku kirinda ari bwo kwifata, ubudahemuka no gukoresha agakingirizo.

OMS kandi igaragaza ko nibura abagera kuri miliyoni 37.7 ku Isi ari bo babana n’ubwandu bw’agakoko gatera Sida [kitwa VIH], mu gihe abangana na kimwe cya gatatu ari abo muri Afurika nk’uko ibarura ryo mu mpera za 2020 ribigaragaza.

Muri uwo mwaka wa 2020, abantu 680.000 nibo bahitanywe n’indwara ya Sida cyangwa indwara ziterwa na yo mu gihe abandi miliyoni 1.5 ari bo barangije uwo mwaka banduye iki cyorezo.

Muri rusange mu Rwanda, Ubushakashatsi bw’Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe Ubuzima, RBC bwo mu Ugushyingo 2020, bwagaragaje ko ubwandu bushya bwa virusi itera Sida, bwagabanutse kugeza kuri kimwe cya kabiri guhera mu 2015 kugeza mu 2019, na ho guhererekanya ubwo bwandu hagati y’umubyeyi n’umwana bigera munsi ya 2% mu myaka ine ishize.

Ikindi ubwo bushakashatsi bwerekanye ni uko mu Rwanda ubwandu bushya bwa virusi itera SIDA ari abantu 5,400 ku mwaka, mu mijyi akaba ari ho hari abanduye benshi kurusha mu cyaro, kuko mu mijyi habarirwa abagera kuri 4.8%, na ho mu cyaro hakaba habarirwa abagera kuri 2.5%.

Kuba ubushya bwa Virusi itera Sida, usanga bwiganje mu bice by’Imijyi biterwa n’uko ari navho kenshi usanga hari ibyiciro byibasiwe cyane n’ubwandu bwa virusi itera Sida birimo abakora umwuga w’uburaya, abaryamana bahuje ibitsina, urubyiruko n’ibindi.

Mu kiganiro yagiranye na IGIHE, Umuyobozi w’Ishami risinzwe kurwanya SIDA mu Kigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ubuzima, RBC, Dr Rwibasira Gallican yavuze ko kuri ubu iki cyorezo cyamaze no gukwirakwira mu bice by’icyaro ahanini bitewe n’iterambere rigenda rikwira hose.

Dr Rwibasira ati Ati “Sida isa n’iyibasira cyane abantu bari mu Mujyi ugereranyije n’abari mu cyaro n’imibare ni ko igaragaza. Ariko icyorezo cya Sida byo bitandukanye no mu myaka yashize cyagiye gikwirakwira no mu bice twakwita iby’icyaro kuko n’iterambere rigenda rigera hose, aho twitaga ibyaro habaye imijyi.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Ariko icyorezo cya Sida uko giteye n’uburyo abantu twakwita ko bafasha kugikwirakwiza abenshi baba mu mijyi, rwaba rwa rubyiruko, baba abakora umwuga w’uburaya kuko ibyo ni byo byiciro byibasirwa na virusi itera Sida.”

Ati “Ikindi n’ubuzima bwo mu mijyi, gushakisha imibereho […] cyera twajyaga tuvuga abagabo batwara amakamyo bari mu bantu baba bafite ibyago byo kwandura no kwanduza, hari abitera ibiyobyabwenge kuko ibyo na byo ni bimwe mu bikwirakwiza icyorezo cya Sida, uko izo nshinge z’ibiyobyabwenge zikoreshwa.”

Habaho umuntu udashobora kwandura cyangwa kwanduza Sida?

Ni kenshi usanga hari abantu bavuga ko bafite ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri ku buryo uba usanga nk’umugabo uteye utyo aba ashobora kuryamana n’umugore cyangwa umukobwa ufite ubwandu bwa virusi itera Sida ariko wa mugabo ntiyandure.

Ni ibintu bikunze kubaho cyane ariko n’abahanga mu by’umuvuzi ugasanga bavuga ko bishoboka ko umuntu agira ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri nubwo nta muntu ushobora kubigenderaho ngo akore imibonano mpuzabitsina idakingiye.

Dr Rwibasira ati “Njyewe nk’umuganga birangora kubyemera ko nta muntu utandura Sida cyane ko nta rukingo rwayo turabona, gusa hari ijanisha rito ry’abantu […] kuko virusi ya Sida iyo igeze mu mubiri ifite ukuntu yororoka vuba cyane, rero hari igihe umuntu aba ashobora kugira ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri butuma ishobora kugera muri we ntiyororoke vuba.”

Ku rundi ruhande ariko abari muri ibyo byiciro usanga ari abagabo, ibintu Dr Rwibasira avuga ko akenshi hari n’ababa barwaye Sida ariko kubera ukutipimisha ntibamenye ko bayirwaye.

Ati “Cyane cyane abagabo bari mu byiciro bitipimisha, ndetse n’abari ku miti ntabwo bayifata neza cyane ugereranyije n’abagore, abagore bo bakurikirana cyane ubuzima bwabo ariko tubona ko abagabo baracyari mu byiciro bigoye. Impamvu ni iyo abagabo ntabwo bipimisha.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Buriya mu bijyanye no kwandura icyorezo cya Sida, imiterere y’umugore itandukanye n’iy’umugabo. Mu gukora imibonano mpuzabitsina, umugore aba afite ibyago byinshi byo kwandura kuko we arakira ku buryo umugabo aba afite ibyago bike byo kwandura ugereranyije n’iby’umugore.”

Dr Rwibasira avuga ko ari na yo mpamvu bashishikariza abagabo kwambara agakingirizo kuko bituma birinda kwanduza abo baba bari gukorana imibonano mpuzabitsina ndetse bakaba basabwa kwisiramuza kuko na byo bigabanya ibyago byo kwandura ku kigero cya 60%, gusa ntibisobanuye ko kwisiramuza birinda SIDA kuko 40% isigaye ni nyinshi.

Urubyiruko n’abashakanye barugarijwe

Mu Ukuboza 2020 kandi RBC yerekanaga ko hejuru ya 60% by’ubwandu bushya buri mu miryango, aho abashakanye babanye neza ku buryo ntawe ukeka undi ko yamwanduza, ariko ugasanga baranduye bombi cyangwa umwe muri bo.

Dr Rwibasira ati “Iyo tuvuga ukuri kw’icyorezo cya virusi itera Sida ntabwo duca hirya cyangwa ku ruhande, turabizi ko umuntu ufite umugore babanye ashobora kuryamana n’undi ku ruhande, ni na yo mpamvu dukomeje gushishikariza abantu kugaragaza abo bakorana imibonano mpuzabitsina kugira ngo bipimishe bamenye uko bahagaze.”

Ikindi ubwo bushakashatsi bwerekanye ni uko abantu bakuru ari bo bitabira kwipimisha virusi itera SIDA kuko bari ku kigero cya 76.9% by’abipimishije, mu gihe mu rubyiruko ruri hagati y’imyaka 15 na 24, abipimishije ari 52.4% gusa.

Dr Rwibasira ati “Ijanisha rinini ry’abandura Sida ni mu mibonano mpuzabitsina idakingiye kandi ntitwakwirengagiza ko iyo myaka, ari yo myaka mu by’ukuri urubyiruko rwishora mu mibonano mpuzabitsina ari na ho tuba tugomba gushyira imbaraga.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Cyane cyane urubyiruko rw’abakobwa, abakobwa bari mu mashuri yisumbuye ndetse na za kaminuza ndetse n’abatari ku ishuri, turabibona imibare igaragaza ko ni ho bakora imibonano mpuzabitsina cyane. Ikinateye impungenge kurushaho ni uko banayikorana n’abagabo bafite imyaka ikuze.”

Dr Rwibasira avuga ko kuva mu 2020, hari gahunda zashyizweho zo gufasha abakobwa bari mu myaka 14 kugeza muri 25 kumenya uburyo bwo kwirinda bakoresha agakingirizo n’ubundi buryo butandukanye cyane ko kubabuza gukora imibonano mpuzabitsina biba bigoye.

Igihugu cyateye intambwe igaragara mu kurwanya icyorezo cya SIDA. 3% gusa y’abantu ni bo babana n’agakoko gatera SIDA, kandi uyu mubare ntujya uhinduka muri iyi myaka icumi ishize. Abasaga 75% y’ababana n’agakoko gatera SIDA bafata imiti yabugenewe.

Abasaga 95% ry’abagore batwite babana n’agakoko gatera SIDA bafata imiti yabugenewe ngo bakumire kwanduza agakoko abana babo. Bikanzura ko kwanduza umwana bivuye ku mubyeyi agakoko gatera Sida mu myaka 3 ishize ari 2%.

Guverinoma ikomeje gushyiraho gahunda z’ubukangurambaga bugamije gushishikariza abantu by’umwihariko abafite ibyago byo kwandura no kwanduza kuba bakwipimisha baba babonetse ko banduye bagatangira gufata imiti igabanya ubukana.


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