Impinduka zikomeye zitegereje banki zo mu Rwanda mu 2018

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 3 Mutarama 2018 saa 07:49
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Umwaka wa 2018 witezwemo impinduka mu buryo bwo kugenzura imikorere ya banki mu Rwanda, zitezweho kongera igitutu ku mari shingiro ya zimwe, ku buryo zisabwa ubushishozi mu bikorwa byazo n’uburyo zirekura amafaranga.

Zimwe mu mpinduka ziheruka gutangazwa na Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru y’igihugu, John Rwangombwa, zirimo ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya gahunda yo kuzigamira inguzanyo (general provisions), ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’ibipimo mpuzamahanga ku micungire ya banki (Basel II & III) n’uburyo bwo gucunga imari, IFRS9.

Ni amabwiriza asaba banki kwitegura bihagije, kuko azashyira igitutu ku iteganyabikorwa ryazo mu by’imari, bidasize kuyasaba imari shingiro irenze iyari isanzwe.

Mu kiganiro cyihariye yagiranye na IGIHE, Umuyobozi Mukuru muri BNR ushinzwe kugenzura imikorere ya Banki, Kagoyire Françoise, yavuze ko izi mpinduka zitaje kubangamira abagenerwabikorwa ba serivisi za banki, ahubwo zizatuma bazihabwa mu buryo bunoze kurushaho.

Kuzigamira inguzanyo rusange

Mu 2011 nibwo BNR yashyizeho amabwiriza agamije gushyiraho uburyo amabanki amenya byihuse umwenda utishyurwa neza no gufata ingamba zo kuwugaruza, anagena ko imyenda ishyirwa mu byiciro bitanu.

Birimo icyiciro cya (1) cy’imyenda yateza igihombo ariko yakwihanganirwa; (2) imyenda ikurikiranwa; (3) imyenda itujuje ibigenderwaho; (4) itizewe (5) n’imyenda yahombye.

Biteganywa n’itegeko ko banki zihorana amafaranga y’ingoboka zihariye arebana n’imyenda itishyurwa neza, ni ukuvuga amafaranga abitswe adakorwaho ateganyirizwa igihombo kizwi cyangwa gishobora kuba.

Ubusanzwe hajyaga hateganyirizwa imyenda iri mu cyiciro cya gatatu kigizwe n’abantu baba batangiye kugaragaza intege nke mu kwishyura mu mezi atatu, icya kane kirimo abamaze amezi atandatu batishyura n’icya icya gatanu kirimo ababa bamaze umwaka, bageze aho ingwate zitangira gushyirwa ku isoko.

Gusa guhera mu mwaka utaha, n’icyiciro cya mbere kirimo abishyura neza n’icya kabiri kirimo abishyura ariko bakeneye gukurikiranirwa hafi, bizatangira kuzigamirwa.

Kagoyire yakomeje agira ati “Ubu kugira ngo bazigamire cya gihombo gishobora kuba, ku cyiciro cya mbere barashyiraho amafaranga y’ingoboka zihariye hagati ya 1-2%, ku cya kabiri bashyireho hagati ya 3-5%.”

“Ubusanzwe ku byiciro bya mbere nta cyari gihari, abateganyirizwaga ni ukuva kuri gatatu batishyura neza, abo nta n’igihindutse. Uwo ni uguteganyirizwa 20%, muri kane ni 50% naho gatanu ni 100%.”

Bivuze ko niba banki itanga inguzanyo nyinshi igomba kugira n’ubwizigame bwinshi.

Kagoyire yatanze urugero ko niba nka banki itanze inguzanyo ya miliyari imwe ku nyungu ya 17.5%, itangira kubara inyungu ya miliyoni 175 Frw. Izajya ibara ubwizigame ibuvanye ku nyungu no mu kwishyura umusoro ubarwe bwa bwizigame buvuyeho.

Kagoyire yakomeje agira ati “Ubu bigitangira bumva biremereye, ariko wa muntu aramutse atishyuye, birabafasha. Baba batarishyuye umusoro mwinshi, noneho bigatuma no guteganyiriza ba bantu bitaremera. Biri mu nyungu zo kugira ngo bateganyirize ibihombo bishobora kubabaho, hakiri kare.”

“Ibi bintu twabiganiriye nabo, bamaze igihe [babizi] ku buryo basabwa kureba ngo bizadusaba kuba twateganya amafaranga angahe.”

Umuyobozi Mukuru muri BNR ushinzwe kugenzura imikorere ya Banki, Kagoyire Françoise

Ibiteganywa na Basel II & III

Amasezerano mpuzamahanga ya Basel ya II na III yagiye ashyirwaho mu bihe bitandukanye, agamije gutsura ubutajegajega bw’urwego rw’amabanki ku Isi, ku buryo banki abasha gutanga inguzanyo kandi agasigarana n’amafaranga yayafasha mu gihe habaye ikibazo runaka.

Ubusanzwe banki zibeshwaho no gucuruza amafaranga ava mu baturage cyangwa ashyirwamo na leta, ku buryo haba hakenewe ko nubwo banki yahomba, wa muturage nakenera amafaranga ye azayabona.

Banki zisaba kuzigamira amafaranga zikoresha kuri 15% (Capital Adequacy Ratio), hakiyongeraho n’ikindi gice zisabwa giteganyirijwe kunganira imari shingiro (conservation buffer) ngo zigire ukwiteganyiriza guhagije.

Kagoyire yakomeje avuga ko mu ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’amasezerano ya Basel II&III, hazanarebwa, hejuru y’amafaranga asabwa nko mu gutanga inguzanyo, niba banki ifite ikoranabuhanga rikumira abajura n’indi mikorere inoze “kuko iyo bamwibye ntabwo yabwira abantu ngo amafaranga barayatwaye nta kundi.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Muri ibyo rero barakubwira bati wajyaga ureba inguzanyo, ariko noneho urareba niba n’uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga bwubakitse neza, niba ari nabi biragutwara amanota. Niba utanga inguzanyo uko ubonye biragutwara amanota, bitandukanye na wa wundi wagerageje uko ashoboye, undi akajya abireba mu kirere.”

Yavuze ko nk’uko banki zikora ishoramari, ushora imari nabi mu buryo bugaragaza ko ayo mafaranga ashobora kutazagaruka nawe azajya ashyirirwaho amabwiriza yihariye akora ku mari shingiro.

Yakomeje agira ati “Imari shingiro yawe izaba nini. Imari shingiro y’ufite imikorere mibi n’imari shingiro y’ufite imikorere myiza, bitandukane, habeho uburyo bwo kubipima.”

Gasore Edouard ukora mu bijyanye no kugenzura imikorere y’amabanki, yavuze ko ibi bipimo bishya byaje byunganira ibyariho mbere byarebaga ku kuzigamira imari shingiro no ku gutanga inguzanyo gusa.

Yakomeje agira ati “Ya mari shingiro ikenewe ngo ibe yakuzuza bya bihombo isa n’aho yavuguruwe kugira ngo habeho kunoza icyitwa imari shingiro, kuko icyitwa ko cyose si ko gishobora gufasha banki mu gihe cy’igihombo.”

Bivuze ko mu gihe bigaragaye ko banki ifite imikorere idahwitse izajya ihita itegekwa kongera imari shingiro, mu igenzura ryimbitse rikorwa nibura buri mezi atatu.

Kagoyire yavuze ko ubusanzwe hari ikibazo nko kuba abantu badatanga inguzanyo kimwe kandi bagasabwa imari shingiro ingana, ugasanga nta gutandukanya ukora neza n’ikora nabi.

Yongeyeho ati “Ni ukuvuga ngo rero turagusaba imari shingiro nini ukayivana mu rwunguko wagombaga gukoresha ibindi, bitavamo tukamusaba kujya kuyazana. Byamunanira, dufite ubushobozi n’uburenganzira bwo kumubwira ngo wowe byakunaniye igirayo hazemo abandi bakunganire.”

“Icyo tugamije ni uko wa muturage waje kubitsa hano atazaza ngo bavuge ngo amafaranga yawe nayahaye abantu barayajyanye ayandi barayibye ayandi nayajyanye ku isoko ashiramo.”

Ni ibintu ngo bizagera no ku mpungenge zigenda zigaragaragara nko kuba banki yagira inguzanyo nyinshi zitishyurwa, nayo izajya isabwa imari shingiro nini.

Uburyo bushya bwa IFRS 9

Ubu buryo bushya bwo gucunga imari n’imitungo ya banki, bwatangiye gukoreshwa ku rwego mpuzamahanga muri Nyakanga 2014, icyo gihe busimbura IASB.

Buteganya ibintu bitandukanye, birimo kugabanya igihe nka banki zajyaga zifatira ingwate z’abakiliya mu gihe bananiwe kwishyura inguzanyo, zajya kuyigurisha ntizibonemo amafaranga akenewe.

Kagoyire yakomeje agira ati “Banki ishobora kuvuga ngo aho kugira ngo uru ruganda turuteze duhombe, rufite agaciro ka miliyari, baraduha miliyoni 500, reka turwifatire, banki igure ingwate. Bibaho [banki] ikagura ya ngwate ikayibika noneho ikazayiteza yitonze.”

“Twajyaga tubaha igihe ntarengwa cy’imyaka ibiri, ariko IFRS9 irabaha igihe gito cy’umwaka umwe, kuko ni uburyo bwo kujya babika ibintu bidafite agaciro kuko ushobora kubona impamvu uyifashe warabuze abakiliya cyangwa yarayihaye agaciro katari ko.”

Yavuze ko hari banki zajyaga zibyihisha inyuma, ariko ubu zigomba kujya zigurisha ingwate bitarenze umwaka umwe, bitabaye ibyo banki zikayivana mu bitabo zikerekana ko zahombye.

Edward Gasore yongeyeho ko harimo n’ingingo zireba abategura ibitabo by’imari, aho IFRS9 izajya ibafasha kwerekana uburyo inguzanyo yatanze zari zihagaze mu myaka ishize.

Yakomeje agira ati “Ni uburyo bwo kugira ngo amabanki atazagira kwirarira ko inguzanyo bafite ubu ari nziza kandi nyamara harimo n’iza kera zishobora kuba zanatera ibibazo ku mari shingiro ya banki. Ni muri ubwo buryo bahinduye imikorere yo kuba bategura icungamutungo cyangwa ubwizigame ku nguzanyo ziri imbere.”

Ibyo bizajya bifasha mu gusesengura ubwiza bw’inguzanyo haba mu kureba ibibazo bishobora guterwa n’ihindagurika ry’ibihe n’ibindi, ku buryo bigomba gufasha banki mu kugena ubwizigame.
Si ibintu bitunguranye

Kagoyire yavuze ko izo mpinduka zose atari ibintu bitunguranye kuko babiganiriye na banki cyane cyane nka Basel II na III, ndetse amabanki agira n’umwanya wo kureba ingaruka bizayagiraho ngo yitegure kare.

Gusa kuri IFRS9 ho ngo bisa n’ibitunguranye. Kagoyire yakomeje agira ati “Yo turacyigana n’amabanki ngo turebe ngo ese twakora iki ngo bye kubaremerera cyane, mu by’ukuri ntabwo byo twabiganiriye bihagije, turateganya kongera kuvugana nabo ngo ese byabagiraho ingaruka ku buhe buremere, ngo ese byabaha iyihe mari yo kongera.”

Nubwo ibi bipimo ari mpuzamahanga, aba bayobozi bahamya ko udashobora gufata ibintu nk’uko bikoreshwa i Burayi ngo abe ariko bikorwa mu Rwanda, ahubwo “ni utuntu duke twagiye dufatamo.”

Kagoyire yakomeje avuga ko gukurikiza amabwiriza mpuzamahanga bizatuma nka banki zo mu Rwanda zizerwa kurushaho. Ati “ Iyo baje bakavuga bati ibi bintu aba bakora ni ibya kera, ntabwo ashobora gushyiramo amafaranga ye. Hari n’uza akaguramo imigabane. Kandi niba wari ufite imari shingiro ya miliyari 15, umuntu akakuzanira miliyari 50, ubwo urumva ubushobozi ufite ushobora gushyira mu mishinga minini itandukanye.”

Gasore Edouard ukora mu bijyanye no kugenzura imikorere y’amabanki muri BNR

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