Byinshi kuri "PrEP", umuti ufasha uwunyoye kutandura SIDA kabone n’iyo yabonana n’uyirwaye

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 29 Mutarama 2021 saa 08:50
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Umuti uzwi nka PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) ukozwe mu binini bikoreshwa mbere cyangwa nyuma y’uko umuntu akorana imibonano mpuzabitsina n’undi ufite ubwandu bw’agakoko gatera SIDA (HIV), cyangwa akawitera mu rushinge kugira ngo atandura ako gakoko.

Hari ubwo kandi ukoreshwa mu gihe umuntu atekereza ko ashobora kugira ibyago byo kwandura HIV mu buryo bumwe cyangwa ubundi, ndetse uri no mu miti igabanya ubukana abasanzwe bafite ako gakoko bafata.

Wemejwe n’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Buzima (OMS) mu 2015, ko ukora neza mu kurinda abantu kwandura HIV ndetse no kugabanya ubukana ku bayisangaywe.

Ni umuti ariko ushobora no kugira ingaruka mbi kuri bamwe mu bawukoresha, zirimo kurwara impiswi, kuribwa umutwe, kugira umunaniro, kurwara igifu ndetse n’ibicurane.

Abantu bagirwa inama ko mu gihe bawufashe ukabagiraho ingaruka mbi, bakwegera muganga bakabimusobanurira akabaha ubufasha.

Umuti wa PrEP urimo amoko abiri: umwe witwa Truvada ushobora gukoreshwa n’abantu bose, n’undi witwa Descovy ugenewe abagabo gusa.

Mu mikorere yawo, uwo muti ugabanya ibyago byo kwandurira HIV mu mibonano mpuzabitsina ku gipimo cya 99% iyo wafashwe neza nk’uko amabwiriza abivuga.

Nubwo nta makuru yimbitse ku bijyanye n’uko uwo muti ukora iyo utewe mu rushinge, ubushakashatsi bwerekana ko ugabanya ibyago byo kwandura nibura ku gipimo cya 74% iyo ufashwe uko bikwiye.

Ubushakashatsi buheruka gukorwa na Plos Medecine mu bihugu bitatu bya Afurika birimo Malawi, Mozambique na Zambia, bwagaragaje ko uwo muti ugira uruhare runini mu kugabanya ubwandu bushya bwa HIV.

Icyakora hagaragazwa ko mu gihe uwo muti udafashwe neza nk’uko amabwiriza abiteganya nta kamaro ugirira uwawukoresheje.

Hasobanurwa ko uwo muti ushobobora kurinda byuzuye uwawukoresheje nyuma yo gukora imibonano mpuzabitsina, hashize iminsi 21 awufata buri munsi cyangwa awitera mu rushinge.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko abashakashatsi bavuga ko nubwo umuti wa PrEP urinda umuntu kuba yakwandurira HIV mu mibonano mpuzabitsina, ntibikuraho ko akwiye gukoresha agakingirizo. Impamvu ni uko kazamurinda kwandura izindi ndwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina zinyuranye.

Ni nde ukwiye gukoresha PrEP?

Umuti wa PrEP ukwiye gukoreshwa n’umuntu udafite ubwandu bwa HIV wakoze imibonano mpuzabitsina mu mezi atandatu ashize, akayikorana n’umuntu ufite ako gakoko badakoresheje agakingirizo, cyangwa nyuma yo kuyikorana nawe akagaragaza ibimenyetso by’indwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina muri ayo mezi.

Ushobora kandi gukoreshwa n’umuntu utarandura HIV wasangiye ibikoresha bikomeretsa n’umuntu uyifite mu gihe kitarenze amezi atandatu ashize.

Ku mugore wakoranye imibonano mpuzabitsina n’umugabo ufite ako gakoko kandi akaba akeka ko yaba atwite, ni ngombwa kwegera muganga mbere yo gukoresha PrEP, kuko iyo uwo muti ukoreshejwe neza uba uburyo buboneye bwo kurinda umubyeyi n’umwana kwandura HIV mu gihe cyo gutwita, atwite, ndetse n’igihe cyo konsa.

Ku ngimbi n’abangavu bakoranye imibonano mpuzabitsina idakingiye n’umuntu ufite ubwandu bwa HIV cyangwa bagasangira nawe ibikoresho bikomeretsa, mu gihe bifuza gukoresha uwo muti ni ngombwa ko baba bafite ibilo biri hejuru ya 35.

Uko umuti wa PrEP ugomba gufatwa

Mbere yo gutangira gufata ibinini bya PrEP hatangwa inama ko ugiye kubikoresha yaba yabiganije muganga akabimwemerera, ndetse akaba yafashwe ibipimo bikagaragaza ko nta HIV arwaye.

Mu gihe uwo muti ufatwa kandi, uwukoreshe asabwa kujya ahura na muganga buri mezi atatu, hakarebwa uko umuti uri gukora, agafatwa ibipimo harebwa niba atandura HIV, ndetse agakomeza kuganirizwa ari nako ahabwa amabwiriza.

Uwufata asabwa kuvugana na muganga akamusobanurira ibijyanye no kwisuzuma (self-testing) n’izindi serivisi z’ubuvuzi zitangirwa kuri telefoni bikajyana no guhura imbonankubone.

Mu gihe kubonana na muganga imbonankubone bidashobotse, ntacyo bitwaye gukoresha serivisi z’ubuvuzi zitangirwa kuri telefoni, cyangwa mu bundi buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga burimo kwandikirana, ufata umuti akaba yanakwisuzuma.

Iyo ukoresha umuti wa PrEP akeneye kubihagarika ku mpamvu zinyuranye zirimo kuba waba uri kumugiraho ingaruka, kuba adashoboye kubahiriza amabwiriza agenga ikoreshwa ryawo, cyangwa abona ibyago byo kwandura HIV bigenda bigabanyuka bitewe n’impinduka ziri kuba ku buzima bwe, agirwa inama yo kwegera muganga akamuhitiramo ubundi buryo bunoze yakoresha butamubangamiye.

Uwahahagaritse gufata uwo muti nyuma akifuza kongera kuwukoresha, agomba kubiganiza muganga ndetse akabanza gufatwa ibipimo hakarabwa niba nta HIV iri mu maraso ye.

Umuti wa PrEP ni mwiza ku muntu ufite ibyago byinshi byo kwandura HIV, ariko si byiza kuwukoresha mu masaha 72 yanduye ako gakoko, ahubwo akwiye kuganira na muganga hakarebwa uko afashwa.

Abahanga mu by’ubuzima bavuga ko uwo muti ushobora no gukoreshwa bisanzwe nk’ igihe umuntu agiye gukora imibonano mpuzabitsina idakingiye, bitandukanye no kuba afite ibyago byinshi byo kwandura.

Icyo gihe ngo ashobora gufata ibinini bibiri mu masaha 24 mbere yo gukora imibonano, hashira amasaha 24 nyuma yo kubinywa agafata ikindi kimwe, hashira andi 24 nabwo akanywa ikindi kimwe.

Ibyo ariko nta bushakashatsi bwimbitse burakorwa ngo hagaragazwe neza igipimo cy’ubwirinzi bitanga.

Umuti wa PrEP ucuruzwa muri za farumasi zitandukanye mu gihugu, ndetse no mu mavuriro n’ibigo nderabuzima kimwe n’ibitaro biwuha abawukeneye.

Kugeza ubu mu Rwanda habarurwa abari hagati ya 5000 na 5500 bakoresha uwo muti.

Ibinini bya PrEP bigabanya ibyago byo kwandura HIV ku gipimo cya 99% iyo bikoreshejwe hubahirizwa amabwiriza

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