Iherezo ry’iminsi ntarengwa 60 Amerika yahaye u Rwanda ku kibazo cyo guca caguwa

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 28 Gicurasi 2018 saa 06:03
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Mu mezi abiri ashize nibwo Perezida Donald Trump yatangaje ko mu minsi 60 Amerika izahagarika inyungu u Rwanda rwakuraga muri gahunda ruhuriramo n’ibihugu bimwe bya Afurika, bikemererwa koherezayo ibicuruzwa bimwe bitatswe imisoro, AGOA.

Ni icyemezo cyatangajwe ku wa 29 Werurwe 2018 mu ibaruwa Trump yoherereje Inteko Ishinga Amategeko, ko iminsi 60 nishira ntacyo u Rwanda ruhinduye kuri gahunda zarwo zikumira caguwa, inyungu zarwo muri AGOA zizavaho. Iyo minsi irarangira kuri uyu wa Mbere, tariki ya 28 Gicurasi.

Agoa yashyizweho na Amerika igamije kongerera imbaraga ubucuruzi bw’ibihugu bya Afurika, ngo bigeze ku isoko ryayo ibicuruzwa bigera ku 6500, hakagenda hasuzumwa ibipimo bituma igihugu cyakirwa muri iyo gahunda.

Minisitiri w’Ubucuruzi n’Inganda, Munyeshyaka Vincent, yabwiye IGIHE ko nubwo hatekerezwaga ibiganiro hagati y’u Rwanda na Amerika, biracyameze uko byari biri hagitangazwa kurufatira ibyemezo.

Yagize ati “Ni ukuvuga ngo u Rwanda sirwo rufata icyemezo, icyemezo gifatwa na Amerika kandi twakomeje kugaragaza ko twiteguye ibiganiro nta kibazo. Ubu rero bimeze nk’uko byari bimeze, nta cyahindutse.”

Abajijwe niba hari ibiganiro byabaye, Munyeshyaka yakomeje agira ati “Kereka kuganira na Ambasaderi mushya wa Amerika ariko bimeze nk’uko byari bimeze mbere. Umwanzuro wa nyuma bari batarawufata, bari batugaragarije ko mu minsi 60 bazawufata, dutegereza ko haba ibiganiro. Ntabwo navuga ko byabaye bigari, twerekanye icyo dutekereza nk’igihugu,”

Munyeshyaka Vincent asimbuwe ku mwanya wa Minisitiri w’Ubucuruzi n’Inganda nyuma y'iminsi 413 ayobora iyi minisiteri

Ni iki gikurikira?

Ubwo Trump yatangazaga ko umwanzuro wa nyuma uzatangazwa mu minsi 60, Minisiteri y’Ubucuruzi n’inganda yashimangiye ko gukuraho u Rwanda muri AGOA ari icyemezo kiri mu bubasha n’uburenganzira bya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Minisitiri Munyeshyaka yakomeje agira ati “Ubwo iminsi 60 yageze ngira ngo nibwo bafata icyemezo noneho ariko nibo bakivuga ntabwo ari twe tukivuga.”

Umuyobozi Mukuru ushinzwe Ubucuruzi n’Ishoramari muri Minicom, Robert Opirah, aheruka kuvuga ko kuvana u Rwanda muri AGOA bitafatwa ko hari igikuba cyacitse, kuko AGOA yashyizweho mu 2000 nk’impano kuko nta biganiro byabayeho ngo hagenwe icyo buri gihugu kizatanga kugira ngo ibeho.

Ikindi ngo ntibyakwitwa igihombo kuko nubwo ibyo bicuruzwa byajyaga muri Amerika bidaciwe imisoro, nibiyishyirirwaho ntibivuze ko u Rwanda rutazabijyana ku isoko rya Amerika.

Yakomeje agira ati “Icyo tugiye guhomba ni 2% y’ibyo twohereza mu mahanga biri muri AGOA. Twohereza hagati y’ibicuruzwa bya miliyoni hagati ya 25 $ na miliyoni 40 $ muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika. Muri ibyo 2 % gusa nibyo bijyanwa muri gahunda ya AGOA, ibindi byose bijyanwa mu buryo busanzwe bigasorerwa.”

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ivuga ko imaze gutera intambwe mu kubaka urwego rw’inganda zikora imyenda kuko mu mwaka ushize umusaruro wazo wazamutseho 21 % n’inyungu ivamo izamuka ho 14%.

Ibihugu byo mu karere byatereranye u Rwanda

Umwanzuro watangiranywe n’ibihugu byose bya EAC bishaka kubaka inganda z’imyenda n’inkweto, ngo bizabashe guca caguwa kugeza mu 2019. Ku wa 1 Nyakanga 2016 u Rwanda rwazamuye imisoro, ku myenda yambawe uva ku madolari 0.2 ku kilo ugera kuri 2.5$, naho ku nkweto zambawe uva kuri 0.2 $ ugera kuri 5 $ ku kilo.

Amerika yabaraga ko guca caguwa burundu muri EAC bishobora gutuma abanyamerika ibihumbi 40 babura akazi n’inganda zimwe na zimwe zigahomba, havuka ikirego cyatanzwe n’ishyirahamwe ry’inganda zituganya caguwa (Secondary Materials and Recycled Textiles Association, SMART).

Raporo y’Ikigega cya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika Gishinzwe Iterambere Mpuzamahanga, USAID, mu 2015, yerekana ko muri EAC honyine haje 13% bya caguwa yoherejwe ku Isi hose, ifite agaciro ka miliyoni274 $. Byongeye, 67 % by’abaturage muri EAC baguze imyenda ku masoko ya caguwa.

Amerika yahise izanamo ko ishobora gufata ibihano maze ibihugu bimwe byisubiraho, bitandukanye n’u Rwanda rwashimangiye ko rudashobora guteza imbere inganda zikora imyeda rwarahaye rugari caguwa.

Intumwa ya Amerika Ishinzwe Ubucuruzi ivuga ko Trump atazavanaho inyungu za Tanzania na Uganda kuko byateye “intambwe ziganisha ku gukuraho imisoro ku myenda n’inkweto byambawe byinjizwa mu gihugu, byemera no kudahagarika izinjizwa mu gihugu.”

Nka Kenya ifite ishingiro kuko ifite n’inyungu zikomeye muri AGOA, kuko mu gihe ibyo yohereza muri Amerika muri iyo gahunda byabarirwaga muri miliyoni 600 $ mu 2017, u Rwanda rwo rwabaraga muri miliyoni 43 $.

Caguwa yasenye inganda za Afurika

Nubwo imibare yerekana ko aka karere kamaze kuba isoko rya rutura ry’imyenda yambawe, siko byahoze kuko ibihugu bimwe bya Afurika byahoranye inganda zikomeye ariko nyuma y’ibibazo zanyuzemo na caguwa yinjiye ku isoko ihendutse bidasanzwe, byazisize aharindimuka.

Nko muri Ghana, ahagana mu 1980 inganda zari zikomeye ariko nyuma y’uruvangavange rw’imyambaro ku isoko, zarashegeshwe ndetse ziva ku gutanga imirimo ku bantu 25,000 mu 1977 bagera ku 5000 mu 2000.

Ibihugu by’Afurika biri kongera kwisuganya, harimo n’u Rwanda rumaze kugira ibigo 22 bikora imyenda n’udukiriro dutandatu.

U Rwanda rwihagazeho ku cyemezo cyo guca caguwa hagamijwe guteza imbere inganda

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