Ingaruka za Covid-19 ku bukungu, kuyobora Board ya I&M Bank: Ikiganiro na Niyibizi Bonaventure

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 1 Mata 2021 saa 11:26
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Umwaka urashize ubukungu bw’Isi buri aho umwanzi ashaka ndetse icyizere cyo kubuzahura gisa n’ikiri kure nk’ukwezi kuko icyorezo kitaratuza.

Hejuru y’ubuzima bw’abasaga miliyoni ebyiri n’ibihumbi 700 bamaze kwicwa na Covid-19, ubukungu bw’Isi ntibworohewe kuko bwasubiye inyuma ho 3,5% mu 2020 nk’uko byatangajwe n’Ikigega Mpuzamahanga cy’Imari (IMF).

Muri uwo mwaka, ubw’u Rwanda bwasubiye inyuma ho 3,4%. Banki y’Isi igaragaza ko uyu mwaka buzazamuka ku kigero cya 4% hashingiwe ku ngamba zafashwe zirimo gushyiraho Ikigega Nzahurabukungu gifasha ubucuruzi bwahungabanye, gukingira abaturage no gufata ingamba zigamije kwirinda.

Urwego rw’Imari ni rumwe mu zihanzwe amaso mu gufasha u Rwanda kuva muri icyo gihirahiro rwasizwemo n’icyorezo. Kugira ngo bigerweho, hakenewe abagabo ‘bakuru’, inararibonye mu bukungu nka Niyibizi Bonaventure uherutse kugirwa Perezida w’Inama y’Ubutegetsi wa I&M Bank, Ishami ry’u Rwanda.

Uyu mugabo afite uburambe bw’imyaka isaga 30 mu bijyanye n’ubukungu. Yabaye Minisitiri w’Ubucuruzi, Inganda n’Amakoperative kuva mu 1997 kugeza mu 1999. Guhera uwo mwaka kugeza mu 2000, yabaye Minisitiri ushinzwe Amazi n’Ingufu. Yayoboye RIEPA, Ikigo cyari gishinzwe Ishoramari n’ibyoherezwa hanze, ayobora ikigo cyari gishinzwe kwegurira ibigo bya Leta abikorera.

Guhera mu 2006 kugeza mu 2009, Niyibizi yayoboye Cogebanque ari nabwo yagiraga uruhare mu ishingwa ry’Ihuriro ry’Amabanki mu Rwanda (Rwanda Bankers Association).

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Niyibizi yavuze ko yashimishijwe no kwemezwa nka Perezida w’Inama y’Ubutegetsi y’imwe muri banki zikomeye mu Rwanda, nubwo bitamutunguye kuba ari we Munyarwanda wa mbere uyiyoboye.

Yavuze ko Abanyarwanda bashoboye, ibyo bikagaragazwa n’uko mu nama y’ubutegetsi ya I&M Bank hasanzwemo abandi Banyarwanda barimo Crystal Rugege na Alice Nkulikiyinka.

Yagize ati “Ntabwo ari ubwa mbere mbaye mu nama y’ubutegetsi ya banki kuko nigeze no kuba mu buyobozi bwazo. Ntabwo ari ibintu bishya bimfashe ngo numve ari ibintu bintunguye.”

Uyu musaza wabaye mu Nama y’Ubutegetsi ya I&M Bank imyaka ibiri guhera mu 2015, yavuze ko Abanyarwanda bagaragaje ko bashoboye ku buryo bitafatwa nk’igitangaza kuba yagirwa umuyobozi w’inama y’ubutegetsi muri banki.

Ati “Ntabwo wazana miliyoni zawe z’amadolari ngo ujye kuzitera inyoni. Ugomba kuba wizeye aho hantu ugiye gushora imari yawe, wizeye ko izunguka, wizeye imicungire y’igihugu, umutekano, ibyo byose urabireba mbere yo kujya gushora imari yawe aho ahantu. Mbere y’uko baza muri iyo banki, basanze u Rwanda ari igihugu cyiza, bashobora no kuhabona abakozi beza b’Abanyarwanda.”

Kugeza ubu mu bakozi ba I&M Bank basaga 400, batatu bonyine ni bo b’abanyamahanga. Niyibizi avuga ko ari ikimenyetso cy’uko u Rwanda rwateye imbere mu nzego zitandukanye, cyane cyane mu kubaka ubushobozi.

Banki zicarane n’abakiliya…

Guhera muri Werurwe 2020, ibikorwa bitandukanye mu Rwanda byarahagaze kubera ubwandu bwa Covid-19. Ubucuruzi bufatiye runini urwego rw’amabanki ni bumwe mu byahungabanye cyane.

Byatumye na za banki n’ibigo by’imari bihura n’ibibazo kuko benshi mu bakiliya bazo babuze uko bishyura amadeni bari baragiye bafata kuko hari abafite ibikorwa byari byahagaritswe.

Niyibizi yavuze ko hakenewe imbaraga z'ibigo by'imari kugira ngo u Rwanda rushobore kwigobotora ingaruka Covid-19 yagize ku bukungu

Niyibizi yavuze ko azihatira gukorana n’abandi kugira ngo inshingano yahawe zigerweho by’umwihariko hitabwa ku bakiliya ba banki kugira ngo babashe guhangana n’ingaruka zatewe na Covid-19.

Ati “Muri banki natwe turasabwa kwegera abakiliya tukamenya ibibazo bahuye na byo, byaba ibijyanye n’amasoko, mu gutunganya ibyo bacuruza, ibibazo by’abakozi, imbogamizi zikomoka ku hantu bakorera n’ibindi byose. Tugomba tubegera tukaganira na bo, tukabimenya. Ikintu tugomba kumenya no gutekereza ni uko abakiliya ari abafatanyabikorwa ba banki.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Banki igomba kwegera umukiliya, ikareba imishinga ye, ibikorwa bye, ikamwumva hanyuma bakanumvikana kuri gahunda zatuma umuntu akomeza ibikorwa bye.”

Leta y’u Rwanda yashyizeho Ikigega cyiswe ’Economic Recovery Fund’ kiri gufasha ibigo bito n’ibiciriritse, kubona ubushobozi bwo guhangana n’igihombo cyatewe na Coronavirus.
Iki kigega cyashyizwemo miliyari 100 Frw. Mu cyumweru gishize, Minisitiri w’Intebe, Dr Ngirente Edouard, yabwiye Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ko icyo kigega kigiye kongererwa ubushobozi ku buryo mu mpera za 2021 kizaba cyashyizwemo miliyari 350 Frw.

Niyibizi yavuze ko ibigo by’imari bifite uruhare runini kugira ngo ubukungu bw’u Rwanda busubire ku muvuduko bwari buriho mbere ya 2020.

Ati “Turasabwa kumva neza ubufasha Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu ishyiraho no gushakisha izindi gahunda zo gukorana n’abo bantu n’uburyo bakoreshaga amafaranga. Niba hari abakeneye ubundi bushobozi nk’abakeneye kongererwa igishoro, ni ugusuzuma ibijyanye n’inyungu bacibwa ku nguzanyo, ibyo byose ni ibintu banki igomba kwicara ikaganira n’abakiliya bayo.”

Icyakora, Niyibizi yavuze ko hakiri igihe kinini kugira ngo ibintu bisubire uko byahoze.

Ati “Ntabwo wavuga ngo birarangira ako kanya, kuko kugira ngo abantu bongere kugira icyizere biragoye […] Abantu baracyagenda biguru ntege, buri wese ashaka kwirinda, ntabwo za hoteli zizabona abakiliya mu mezi atatu cyangwa atandatu ari imbere nk’uko mbere byahoze, ariko hari icyizere ko ibintu bizagaruka mu buryo.”

Niyibizi Bonaventure avuga ko kuba umusaruro w’ubuhinzi utarasubiye inyuma umwaka ushize, ari intangiriro nziza ku Rwanda kuko ibiciro by’ibicuruzwa bya ngombwa bitazamutse cyane.
Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ibarurishamibare, NISR, giherutse gutangaza ko nubwo izindi nzego z’ubukungu umusaruro wamanutse mu 2020, ku buhinzi ho wazamutseho 1%, bituma ubuhinzi bugira uruhare rwa 26 % ku musaruro mbumbe w’igihugu (GDP).

Ati “Umusaruro w’igihembwe cya mbere cy’ubuhinzi wabaye mwiza. Uyu ni umusaruro ugira uruhare runini mu kwihaza mu biribwa kandi wabaye mwiza. N’ubwo hari ibishobora gutera ihungabana ry’ubukungu, ubuhinzi bwagerageje kuziba icyuho kinini kandi turabizi ko bugize igice kinini mu bukungu bwacu. Nitugira Imana n’iki gihembwe gikurikiho kikazagenda neza, nibura ku byerekeranye n’ibyo abantu bakenera buri munsi bikaboneka, nta kibazo.”

“Nubwo ibindi byahungabana ariko ibyo by’ibanze bikaba bihari. Iyo biza kuba bibi [kubera Covid-19] n’umusaruro ukaba mubi, byari kuba ibindi.”

Impinduka mu mikorere ya za banki

Niyibizi avuga ko agereranyije urwego rw’amabanki mu myaka 15 ishize n’uko ruhagaze ubu, habayeho impinduka nziza nyinshi.

Yibuka ko icyo gihe, muri banki nyinshi hari harimo ibibazo by’igishoro kidahagije n’ibihombo bya hato na hato kubera imikorere itanoze.

Hari hakiri ikibazo kandi cy’abashoramari mpuzamahanga, babonaga u Rwanda nk’igihugu cyabayemo Jenoside kidashobora kwizerwa.

Ati “Mu 2006 twari tumaze imyaka 12 gusa tuvuye muri Jenoside. Abantu benshi bari bakibona u Rwanda nk’igihugu cy’intambara, mbese kugira ngo uzavugane n’umuntu ngo umwumvishe ko ashobora kuza mu Rwanda, byasabaga imbaraga nyinshi kurusha ubu.”

Guhera mu 2005, ibigo by’imari byatangiye kwiyongera ariko igenzura ryabyo rigoranye.

Ati “Hari hari n’ibigo by’imari biciriritse byinshi bitabarika, kandi na byo ntabwo byari bifite umurongo uhamye. Ugereranyije n’ubu ntaho bihuriye.”

Niyibizi avuga ko impinduka zigaragara zabaye mu rwego rw’imari harimo ubwiyongere bwa za banki n’ibigo by’imari n’ubushobozi bwazo.

Ati “Urebye nko mu myaka icumi ishize, I&M Bank yatangaga inguzanyo ya miliyari 7 Frw cyangwa miliyari 8 Frw ku mwaka, none ubu iratanga miliyari zigera kuri 200 Frw. Uko ubukungu bw’igihugu bwagiye buzamuka ni nako na za banki zagiye zizamuka n’abazifitemo imari bagenda bazongera.”

Yavuze ko ikoranabuhanga n’ubunyamwuga bwa banki nabyo byiyongereye cyane no kuzana serivisi nshya kandi zitandukanye zituma habaho ihangana ku isoko.

Ati “Kera wajyaga guhaguruka uzi neza ko ufite kashi, ari ubu ntibikiri ngombwa. Imikoranire hagati ya za banki yariyongereye. Mbere buri saa Cyenda twahuriraga muri BNR kugira ngo duhererekanye amafaranga, ari za sheki n’ibindi. Ubu ntabwo bikibaho. Hasigaye hariho uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga kandi burakora neza. Ibi rero bivuze ko na serivisi zihuta.”

Imyumvire y’abaturage, Niyibizi avuga ko nayo yahindutse kuko mbere hari abumvaga umukozi wa banki ari umuntu udasanzwe, ugomba kwingingwa.

Ati “Abantu bari bazi ko bagomba kujya muri banki bakabaha agatabo ko kubikuza ubundi bakajya guhendahenda umukozi wa banki, mbese ukumva ko ari ukwinginga. Kuri ubu ntabwo umukozi wa banki ari umuntu wambaye karuvati wicaye mu ntebe gusa. Ubu ni umuntu ugomba gutanga serivisi kandi ni wa muntu ugomba guhaguruka akajya kureba umukiliya aho ari.”

Izo mpinduka kandi Niyibizi azishingira ku kwihuza kw’ibigo by’imari bikomeye kwabaye mu Rwanda mu myaka ishize, aho byongereye igishoro n’ubushobozi bwo kuguriza abakiliya bukiyongera.

Ati “Ukurikije amategeko ya BNR, kugira ngo banki ibeho muri iyo myaka [mbere ya 2006] byasabaga miliyari 3 Frw, na ho mu 2006 byasabaga igishoro cya miliyari 5 Frw. Ubu birasaba miliyari 25 Frw. Mu gihe ufite umutungo wawe w’ibanze mutoya n’ibikorwa uba ushobora gukora ni bitoya.”

Yongeyeho ati “Kwihuza kwa za banki bituma umutungo wazo uba munini, maze isoko banki imwe yari ifite rikiyongera ku ry’iyindi, maze isoko ryazo zombi rikaguka. Niba ku isoko banki ifite umutungo wayo w’ibanze wa miliyari 25 Frw, ibyo izakora ntaho bihuriye n’iyabaga ifite miliyari 5 Frw.”

Niyibizi agiye kuyobora Inama y’Ubutegetsi ya I&M Bank nyuma y’imyaka umunani iyi banki ikomoka muri Kenya iguze imigabane mu yahoze ari Banki y’Ubucuruzi, BCR, bikayigira imwe mu mabanki akomeye mu Rwanda.

Kurikira ikiganiro cyose twagiranye na Niyibizi Bonaventure

Niyibizi yavuze ko urwego rw'imari mu Rwanda rwateye imbere cyane mu myaka icumi ishize haba mu mikorere no mu bushobozi

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