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Kuva ku ikarayi kugera ku mashini: Irandaranda ry’ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro mu Rwanda

Yanditswe na Muhonzire Sylvine
Kuya 8 Nzeri 2021 saa 12:18
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Hari ubwo ujya wishuka, bavuga amabuye y’agaciro ukumva ni ibintu bya kure, bireba abandi wowe utarimo! Amabuye y’agaciro ni ubuzima, ni yo twiberamo abuze twashira.

Nukebuka iruhande rwawe ni yo gusa. Kuva kuri telefone iri mu biganza byawe, urufunguzo rutuma usohoka cyangwa winjira mu nzu yawe, televiziyo cyangwa radiyo, iryo tara ucana mu nzu byose ni urubyaro rw’amabuye y’agaciro.

Amabuye y’agaciro ni ubukire, uyafite aba afite byinshi. Nta gihugu ku Isi kitayagira ariko byose ntibiyafite mu kigero kimwe. N’u Rwanda ruremwa rwarayahawe, nubwo wenda atari menshi nk’ayo hakurya y’umupaka urenze Kamembe na za Rubavu.

Nko mu mwaka wa 2019, ayo mabuye adasanzwe yinjirije u Rwanda arenga miliyoni 412$ [miliyari 417Frw] nkuko bigaragazwa na raporo y’ikigo cy’igihugu cy’ibarurishamibare, NISR ya 2020. Ayo mafaranga yinjiye agize hafi 15% by’ingengo y’imari y’umwaka wa 2019-2020.

Amabuye acukurwa ku bwinshi mu Rwanda ni ayo mu bwoko bwa Coltan, Gasegereti na Wolfram. Bwa mbere mu mwaka wa 2019, u Rwanda rwacukuye ndetse runohereza hanze Zahabu itunganyije ifite agaciro ka miliyoni 276$, arenga kimwe cya kabiri cy’amafaranga yavuze mu yandi mabuye. Ni nyuma yo kubaka uruganda rutunganya zahabu, ruzi mu zigezweho muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba.

Ibi byose ntabwo byavuye mu masengesho, ahubwo byaturutse mu mbaraga igihugu cyashyize mu bucukuzi, rushyiraho Ikigo gishinzwe Ubucukuzi bw’Amabuye y’Agaciro (RMB) mu 2017. Ubucukuzi bw’u Rwanda bwaravuguruwe, buva kuri bumwe bwifashishaga ibikarayi n’amapiki, buba bumwe bugezweho bwifashisha imashini, bahereye ku gupima bakamenya aho amabuye aherereye aho kwirirwa barimagura imisozi bikarangira nta kibonetse.

Kugeza ubu ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro ni ubwa kabiri mu kwinjiriza akayabo u Rwanda, nyuma y’ubukerarugendo.

Mu 1930 nibwo ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro bwatangiye mu Rwanda butangijwe n’Ababiligi bari bamaze kubona ko mu Karere u Rwanda ruherereyemo harimo amabuye y’agaciro menshi, cyane ko babanjirije muri Repubulika iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo ubu iri mu bihugu bya mbere muri Afurika bikungahaye ku mutungo kamere.

Kuvo ubwo ubucukuzi bwarakomeje ariko abakoloni bamaze kugenda bucika intege, bwongera kuzuka nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 ariko bukorwa mu buryo gakondo. Nta mategeko abugenga yariho, nta munsi w’ubusa washiraga hadatambutse inkuru z’abacukuzi bagwiriwe n’ibirombe, ubucuruzi bw’ayo mabuye bukorwa mu kajagari.

Ubucukuzi mu isura nshya

Francis Gatare wayoboraga RMB kuva yashyirwaho mu 2017, uherutse guhindurirwa imirimo, yigeze kuvuga ko iki kigo cyashyize ingufu mu bushakashatsi bugamije kureba aho amabuye y’agaciro aherereye mu gihugu hose, no gukusanya amakuru y’ibanze ayerekeyeho hakoreshejwe indege. Mu 2018 hashyizweho itegeko rishya ribugenga.

Mu 2019 hashyizweho amabwiriza agamije korohereza abashoramari no guca akajagari mu bucukuzi n’ubucuruzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro ndetse no gushyira imbaraga mu gukusanya amakuru no kuyanoza kugira ngo abashoramari bayashingireho bakora imishinga ibafitiye akamaro.

Muri uwo mwaka kandi, u Rwanda rwacyuye amakuru ku bucukuzi yari amaze imyaka mu Bubiligi, ashingiye ku bushakashatsi iki gihugu cyakoze mu gihe cy’ubukoloni.

ibi byose byavanye ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro ibuzimu bibuzana ibuntu, ndetse benshi mu babikoramo barabishimangira.

Matevz Pavlic ucukura amabuye mu Rwanda yagize ati “Mbona RMB iri gukora akazi keza cyane, iri kugerageza guteza imbere uru rwego ndetse inazana abantu bafite ubumenyi ku bucukuzi no mu bucuruzi bwabwo.”

Gakondo yatumaga umusaruro uba iyanga

Ubucukuzi bwakorwaga mu buryo bwa gakondo, abantu bahingisha amapiki bakayungururira amabuye mu bikarayi ni kimwe mu byahombyaga ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro mu Rwanda kuko byatwaraga umwanya munini kandi hafi kimwe cya Kabiri cy’amabuye agatakarira mu ivangurwa ryayo n’itaka cyangwa umucanga.

Francis Gatare ati “Ubucukuzi bwakorwaga mu buryo bwa gakondo, abantu bakabikora nabi, bakabikora bibavunnye, byangiza ibidukikije, ndetse n’umusaruro uvamo wari uciriritse cyane.”

Ubu hashyizweho inganda n’imashini ziyatunganya mu buryo bwabugenewe ku buryo umusaruro uvamo uba ushimishije ugereranyije n’uwavagamo mbere.

James Mudahunga wakoze mu bucukuzi kuva kera bagikoresha gakondo, ubu ushinzwe ibikorwa muri ETI Nyakabingo. Yagize ati “Ubu njye biramfasha cyane kuko ubuzima bwo gukoresha gakondo nabubayemo none ndi kubuvamo njya mu bucukuzi bugezweho bukoresha imashini, biroroshye!.”

“Abacukuzi bacu ubu bahemberwa muri SACCO, abacukuzi bose ubona aha ngaha buri kwezi babona hagati ya miliyoni 65 na 80 Frw bikigenda neza.”

Andi mavugurwa yakozwe mu bucukuzi ni ukorohereza abashoramari bagana mu bucukuzi ndetse no kugabanya impushya ku babukoraga mu buryo bw’akajagari kugira ngo burusheho gutera imbere no kugirira igihugu akamaro.

Gatare yagize ati “Twabanogereje uburyo bahabwa impushya, kugira ngo uhisemo kujya mu bucukuzi, amenye neza uburyo ashobora kubona uruhushya kandi arubone bitamugoye. Igihe yarubonye hari n’amategeko amurengera, amufasha kugira ngo ashobore kugira inyungu ishingiye ku ishoramari aba yakoze.”

Kaminuza ya mbere yigisha ibijyanye n’ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro
Nkuko riho nzima itura mu mubiri muzima, niko n’ubunyamwuga mu bintu runaka buturuka mu burezi buzima. Ntiwarota iterambere nta bushakashatsi cyangwa ubumenyi mu bijyanye n’ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro.

Niyo mpamvu mu 2015 muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Koleji ya siyansi n’ikoranabuhanga [UR-CST] hatangijwe Ishami ryigisha Ubucukuzi bw’Amabuye y’Agaciro n’Ubumenyi bwo mu Nda y’Isi (Mining and Geology).

Mu Ishuri rikuru ry’Imyuga n’Ubumenyingiro rya IPRC Kigali naho hatangijwe amasomo ajyanye n’ubucukuzi, ndetse abarenga 200 bamaze kurangiza muri aya mashuri yombi kandi bamwe banatangiye kubukoramo.

U Rwanda rwanohereje abanyeshuri hanze kujya kwiga ibijyanye n’ubucukuzi ndetse ubu ni urwego rwitezweho byinshi mu iterambere ry’igihugu cyane ko uko imyaka igenda ihita umusaruro ugenda wiyongera, ari nako ruvugururwa.

Gatare yavuze ko iby’ingenzi byakozwe, ndetse n’ubushakashatsi bwagaragake ko amabuye y’agaciro ari henshi mu gihugu kandi y’ubwoko butandukanye.

Ati “Ubu ngubu intambwe ikurikiraho ni ugukorana n’abashoramari kugira ngo habeho ubushakashatsi bwimbitse ndetse hashobore no kubaho gucukura mu buryo bwa kinyamwuga, kuyatunganyiriza mu Rwanda no kuyageza ku isoko mpuzamahanga kugira ngo ashobore kugirira akamaro igihugu cyacu.”

Hamwe mu hacukurwa amabuye y’agaciro mu Rwanda ni mu Karere ka Gicumbi ahitwa Miyove hacukurwa Zahabu, mu Karere ka Burera hacukurwa Wolfram, Rutsiro ibonekamo Wolfram nyinshi Gasegereti na Coltan, Bugesera n’ahandi.

Muri buri Karere k’u Rwanda haba abakozi ba RMB bagenzura uko ubucukuzi bukorwa umunsi ku munsi.

Kugeza ubu mu Rwanda hari ibirombe birenga 500 hirya no hino mu gihugu na sosiyete zikora n’izitunganya aya mabuye zisaga 250.

Bitandukanye no mu myaka yashize, ubu abakora mu mabuye y'agaciro bahabwa ibikoresho bitandukanye bibakingira birimo n'uturindantoki
Hifashishwa uburyo bwose bushoboka ku buryo nta mabuye y'agaciro asigara mu kuyungurura
Imashini nizo rutirigongo rw'ubucukuzi bw'amabuye y'agaciro bugezweho mu Rwanda
Sosiyete zemewe zicukura amabuye y'agaciro mu Rwanda mubyo zisabwa kuba zifite harimo n'imashini zikoresha ikoranabuhanga
Mu byo abacukuzi kuri ubu basabwa harimo gukora ubucukuzi bubungabunga ibidukikije
Kubera imbaraga zashyizwe mu bucukuzi bw'amabuye y'agaciro, byatumye urwo rwego ruza mu za mbere zinjiriza u Rwanda akayabo
Uretse gucukura amabuye y'agaciro, u Rwanda rwabonye inganda ziyatunganya cyane cyane gasegereti na zahabu
Mbere yo gucukura, habanza gutunganywa inzira zizewe abazacukura bazakoresha
Imashini zisigaye zikora imirimo myinshi mu bucukuzi yakorwaga n'abantu benshi ariko nta musaruro ufatika
Abakozi bakora mu bucukuzi abenshi babanza kubihugurirwa
Inzobere zibanza kugenzura ahazakorerwa ubucukuzi kugira ngo hatagira ikibazo kiba nkuko mbere byajyaga bigenda
Gasegereti iri mu mabuye acukurwa cyane mu Rwanda
Amabuye azwi nk'amabengeza cyangwa gemstone aboneka mu Rwanda. Yifashishwa mu gukora imitako itandukanye
Imashini zigira uruhare runini mu kazi k'ubucukuzi bw'amabuye y'agaciro
Urubyiruko rwiganjemo urwabyize mu mashuri nirwo ruri kwinjira cyane mu bucukuzi
Bamwe mu bakora ubucukuzi bemeza ko bwavuye ku bw'amaramuko, bari kwinjira ku bucukuzi bw'umwuga
Umutekano w'abakozi bakora mu birombe ni inshingano zikomeye ku masosiyete akora ubucukuzi bw'amabuye y'agaciro
Wolfram ni rimwe mu mabuye aboneka mu Rwanda

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