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Inyigo: Amacumbi yubakwa mu Mijyi y’u Rwanda ahabanye n’amikoro ya benshi

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 4 Ugushyingo 2021 saa 06:51
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Kuri chantier [Soma shansiye] zitandukanye hirya no hino, abakozi ntibaruhuka, bubaka amanywa n’ijoro, ibikarayi bya sima, imashini ziyivanga n’amatafari bibisikana umunota ku wundi kugira ngo haboneke inzu nshya 310.000 zikenewe ngo Abanyarwanda bazabe batuye neza kandi mu buryo buciriritse mu 2035.

Ni wo mwaka u Rwanda rushaka kuba rwavuye mu bihugu by’amikoro make, rwinjiye mu by’amikoro aringaniye (Middle Income Economy) aho umuturage umwe ku mwaka azaba yinjiza nibura miliyoni enye avuye ku bihumbi 800 Frw kuri ubu.

Uyu muvuduko mu iterambere uzajyana n’ubwiyongere bw’abaturage bazaba basaga miliyoni 17, muri bo kimwe cya kabiri cyabo gituye mu mijyi.

Ku wa Gatatu, tariki 3 Ugushyingo 2021, i Kigali hamuritswe raporo y’ikigo giharanira Ishoramari mu mishinga ijyanye n’Imyubakire y’amacumbi aciriritse muri Afurika, Center for Affordable Housing Finance in Africa (CAHF), 2021.

Iyi raporo yatangarijwe mu Nama African Union for Housing Finance igamije kwigira hamwe uburyo bwo guteza imbere urwego rw’imyubakire muri Afurika. Isesengura imyubakire y’inzu ziciriritse mu bihugu 54 bigize Afurika, ikerekana ahari ibyuho, ibyo kwishimira n’ibyavugururwa.

Buri gihugu cyagiye gisesengurwa ukwacyo, hakagaragazwa ibiri gukorwa mu kuziba icyuho cy’ubuke bw’amacumbi aciriritse n’uburyo byarushaho kunozwa.

U Rwanda ruri mu bihugu bishimirwa imbaraga zashyizwe mu guhagurukira ikibazo cy’ubuke bw’amacumbi aciriritse ajyanye n’amikoro y’abagituye, by’umwihariko abatuye mu mijyi ari naho hakunze kuba ibibazo nk’ibyo.

Muri 18 % by’Abanyarwanda batuye mu mijyi, raporo igaragaza ko 61 % batuye mu buryo bw’akajagari by’umwihariko mu mujyi wa Kigali na Rubavu.

Mu gukemura icyo kibazo, Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yashyizeho imishinga n’uburyo butandukanye bugamije gushakisha ishoramari ryorohereza abikorera mu kubaka inzu ziciriritse zijyanye n’amikoro y’abaturage.

Kuri ubu hari inzu nshya 22.000 ziri kubakwa hirya no hino muri Kigali ku bufatanye bwa Leta n’abikorera, kugira ngo intego z’iterambere igihugu cyihaye zigerweho. Raporo igaragaza ko inzu imwe nshya yuzuye nibura iba ifite agaciro ka 12.500.000 Frw [ku mpuzandengo].

Nubwo hari byinshi biri gukorwa, raporo igaragaza ko hari icyuho gikomeye cyo kujyanisha ishoramari riri gukorwa n’ubushobozi bw’umuturage mu kwigondera iyo nzu ‘iciriritse’.

Raporo yagaragaje ko abenshi mu bubaka inzu zabo zo guturamo mu Rwanda bakoresha amafaranga yabo, bikaba bigaragaza icyuho mu nguzanyo zigamije guteza imbere imyubakire igezweho

Raporo Scoping Rwanda’s Affordable Housing Sector and its Financing yakozwe na Access to Finance Rwanda, yagaragaje ko ingo nyinshi mu Rwanda zinjiza munsi y’ibihumbi 100 Frw ku kwezi.

Ubariye hamwe mu mijyi no mu byaro, ingo zibasha kwinjiza ibihumbi 100 ku kwezi ni 71 %, mu gihe mu mijyi zisaga 40 %.

Guverinoma ku bufatanye na Banki y’Isi yatangije gahunda yiswe Rwanda Housing Finance Project, igamije gufasha abaturage kubona amacumbi aciriritse binyuze mu nguzanyo z’inzu z’igihe kirekire.

Iyo gahunda ireba imiryango yinjiza ibihumbi nibura hagati ya 200 Frw na miliyoni 1.2 Frw ku kwezi. Bazajya bahabwa inguzanyo yo kugura inzu ziri hagati ya miliyoni icumi na miliyoni 35 Frw.

Raporo ya CAHF ivuga ko iki ari icyuho gikomeye kuko abaturage benshi binjiza ari munsi y’ayo, bivuze ko intego zo kugera ku macumbi aciriritse ku baturage bose zishobora kutagerwaho uko bikwiriye.

Bati “Ingo zinjiza munsi y’ibihumbi 200 Frw zizakomeza kugorwa no kubona amacumbi cyangwa inguzanyo izifasha kuyabona, ku buryo hakenewe izindi ngamba”.

Bongeyeho bati “Mu by’ukuri, amenshi mu macumbi avugwa ko aciriritse, ntabwo aciriritse kuri benshi mu bakabaye ari abagenerwabikorwa bayo.”

Raporo kandi ivuga ko n’abinjiza kuva ku bihumbi 200 Frw kugera ku bihumbi 700 Frw, abashobora gufata inguzanyo ya miliyoni 8 Frw bakayishyura neza ari mbarwa.

Bati “Inzu zigezweho mu Rwanda ziracyari nke mu gihe abazikeneye ari benshi. N’izo zigezweho zibasha kubakwa ntabwo zijyanye n’amikoro ya benshi mu Banyarwanda.”

Inguzanyo zo kubaka zirakosha

Nubwo icyiciro cy’abinjiza hejuru y’ibihumbi 200 Frw ku kwezi raporo ikigaragaza nk’icy’abishoboye, abatunze inzu zabo bwite na bo ni mbarwa.

Ni yo mpamvu guteza imbere imiturire byashyizwe mu ntego z’ibanze za gahunda ya Guverinoma y’imyaka irindwi izageza mu 2024, aho buri mwaka w’ingengo y’imari hari amafaranga Leta igenera guteza imbere imishinga igamije imiturire myiza, binyuze mu bikorwaremezo byorohereza abashoramari, korohereza abaturage kubona inguzanyo z’igihe kirekire n’ibindi.

Raporo ivuga ko banki 16 zemerewe gukorera ku butaka bw’u Rwanda zose zitanga inguzanyo z’inzu zishobora kwishyurwa ku myaka igera kuri 20. Icyakora izo nguzanyo zibarirwa inyungu ya 16 %.

Kugeza muri Kamena 2021, inguzanyo zo kubaka inzu zishyurwaga zari 44.767, zifite agaciro ka miliyari 386 Frw.

Ku gihugu gikeneye ko hubakwa inzu nshya nibura 26.000 buri mwaka, izo nguzanyo ni nke kandi ziri ku nyungu yo hejuru.

Raporo yashimye uburyo Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yahise itekereza Rwanda Housing Finance Project, umushinga wa miliyari 150 Frw, arimo azanyuzwa muri Banki itsura Amajyambere, BRD hagamije kuguriza ibigo by’imari ngo bibashe gutanga inguzanyo ku bantu benshi, mu gihe kirekire.

Muri iyi gahunda, hazatangwa inguzanyo ku mishinga 2299. Raporo ivuga ko hari banki eshanu zamaze gusinya amasezerano y’imikoranire na BRD kugira ngo zinyuzwemo izo nguzanyo.

Kugira ngo banki cyangwa ikigo cy’imari cyemererwe guhabwa aya mafaranga gisabwa ingwate, kugira inguzanyo zitishyurwa nke n’ibindi. Ibigo by’imari bizahabwa iyi nguzanyo ku nyungu ya 6 %, mu gihe byo bizajya bizitanga ku nyungu ya 11 %, zikishyurwa mu myaka 20.

Leta kandi irashaka gushyiraho sosiyete igamije gushakisha amikoro mu gushyigikira imyubakire y’amacumbi agezweho binyuze mu isoko ry’imari n’imigabane, kugira ngo amafaranga yo kuguriza ibigo by’imari ahoreho.

Mu bindi byashyizwemo imbaraga, ni ukorohereza abashoramari bashyirirwa ibikorwaremezo aho bagiye kubaka nk’amazi, amashanyarazi, imihanda n’ibindi kugira ngo igiciro cy’inzu nimara kubakwa kizabe cyoroheye uyikeneye.

Hari imbaraga kandi zashyizwe mu kubaka imbere mu gihugu inganda zikora ibikoresho by’ubwubatsi bikenerwa nka sima, amatafari, amabati n’ibindi.

Abakoze raporo batanze inama zo kuvugurura no kongera gahunda yo kubaka amacumbi aciriritse. Bavuga ko kugira ngo byorohe, imbaraga zikwiriye gushyirwa mu “kuvugurura ahantu hasanzwe utujagari cyangwa imiturire y’ubucucike, hakagenda hubakwa inzu ziciriritse zijyanye n’amikoro y’abahatuye ariko nanone zigezweho.”

Umushinga w’Agatare muri Nyarugenge ni umwe mu yashyizwe mu bikorwa muri ubu buryo, aho ahantu hasanzwe imiturire y’akajagari hagiye havugururwa, hubakwamo imihanda, ruhurura, inzira z’abanyamaguru n’amatara ku mihanda, abahafite inzu bagasabwa kuvugurura.

Hashimwe kandi uburyo Leta yatangije bwo kwemera ko rukarakara yubakishwa mu mijyi, kuko bizatuma abafite amikoro make bashobora gutunga inzu zabo bwite.

Mu Rwanda habarizwa inzu miliyoni 2.8 ziganjemo izubatswe n’abantu ku giti cyabo, nkuko FinScope Report 2020 ibigaragaza.

Amacumbi aciriritse i Gacuriro, ni umwe mishinga y'Urwego rw'Igihugu rw'Ubwiteganyirize, RSSB
Ku Ruyenzi muri Kamonyi ni hamwe mu hari kubakwa amacumbi y'abantu ku giti cyabo

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