Kwamamaza

Imare amatsiko ku mikorere ya Rwanda Stock Exchange

Yanditswe kuya 28-07-2016 saa 08:21' na Cyprien Niyomwungeri


Byumvikana nk’indoto cyangwa kwizerera mu byifuzo, iyo Umunyarwanda Nyakabyizi yihandagaje akavuga ko ashobora kuba nk’umunyemari Dangote cyangwa Bill Gates, bamamaye ku Isi yose kubera ubutunzi burenze ubw’abandi.

Icyo gihe ntibazuyaza kumwita umurwayi ndetse wo mu mutwe ariko iyo witegereje neza umuvuduko w’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda n’amahirwe ahari mu ishoramari rirambye, ntushidikanya kwemeza ko uwayabyaza umusaruro yakibona mu ruhando rw’abanyamigabane mu bigo bikomeye nka Bralirwa n’ibindi ejo bundi akaba nka ba Dangote.

Aya mahirwe afasha Abanyarwanda kwigira, Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yayateye imboni mu mwaka wa 2008, itangiza Isoko ry’imari n’imigabane (Rwanda Stock Exchange), nk’imwe mu nzira nyabagendwa iganisha ku bukire bw’Abanyarwanda n’igihugu muri rusange.

Iri soko rigenzurwa n’Ikigo gishinzwe isoko ry’imari n’imigabane (Capital Market Authority,CMA), ni uburyo bushya bw’ishoramari bwifashishwa mu kuzahura ubukungu bw’igihugu n’abagituye, hagamijwe kwigira no kwishakamo ibisubizo mu bukungu.

Iyo wumvise iri soko, ushobora kurigereranya n’irya Nyagasambu ricuruza imyenda, ibijumba n’ibindi, gusa aho waba wibeshye kuko nta kindi ricuruza uretse imigabane y’ikigo runaka cy’ubucuruzi.

Ku isoko ry’u Rwanda, wasangayo imigabane y’ibigo by’ubucuruzi nka Banki ya Kigali ‘BK’ iya CTL (Crystal Telecom), Bralirwa, KCB, NMG, Equity, UCL n’ibindi.

Si ibigo byonyine biryiyambaza kuko na Leta ishyiraho impapuro mvunjwafaranga z’umwenda. Izi mpapuro zishyirwaho na Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda hakaboneka amafaranga yo gushyira mu bikorwa, imishinga n’igenamigambi rya Leta y’u Rwanda.

Impapuro mvunjwafaranga ku batabizi, ni impapuro abashoramari batandukanye (abantu ku giti cyabo, ibigo by’imari, amashyirahamwe, ibigo byigenga,…) bashobora gushoramo amafaranga baguriza Leta cyangwa se ibigo byigenga. Mu gihe izo mpapuro zishyizwe ku isoko abaziguze bakajya bahabwa inyungu zibarwa ku mwaka, bakazasubizwa amafaranga batanze bazigura igihe zagenewe kirangiye. Muri make, umuntu aba agurije leta ikazajya imuha inyungu ku mafaranga ye.

Kimwe no ku masoko asanzwe, igiciro cy’umugabane kigenwa n’ihame ry’ingano y’igura n’igurisha.

Rimariye iki igihugu n’abaturage

Iri soko ni umusingi utajegajega wo gushingiraho ishoramari kuko aho ryateye imbere, rifasha amabanki kubona imari irambye bityo gutanga imyenda y’igihe kirekire bikoroha, ubucuruzi buto bukabona inguzanyo, n’imishinga y’ubwubatsi n’ibindi igakorwa.

Rifatiye runini ubukungu bw’igihugu kuko dufashe urugero nko mu mezi icyenda ya 2015, ryinjije miliyari 34.4 z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda. Iyi mibare yerekana ko amafaranga yinjijwe yiyongereye ku kigero cya 45.7% ugereranyije na miliyari 23.6 zinjijwe mu mezi icyenda y’umwaka wa 2014.

Mu mwaka wa 2015 wose, isoko ry’imari n’imigabane ry’u Rwanda ryari rifite agaciro k’amafaranga y’u Rwanda Tiriyari 2.82 (ajya kungana n’amadolari ya Amerika Miliyari 3.75).

Tukivuga ku kamaro abaguze imigabane, bashobora kubona inyungu uko imigabane yabo igenda yongera agaciro cyangwa yunguka, dufashe urugero ku banyamigabane ba Bralirwa bayiguze isoko rigitangira, icyo gihe yaguraga 136, ubu umugabane uragura 170.

Buri mwaka kandi ikigo cy’ubucuruzi gishobora kungukira abanyamigabane. Banki ya Kigali iherutse gutangaza ko igiye kwishyura miliyari 8.2 z’inyungu ku migabane, umushoramari akazahabwa amafaranga 12 y’u Rwanda ku mugabane, ku buryo ufite imigabane 1000 ahabwa ibihumbi 12.

Ntitwakwirengagiza ko ari igisubizo ku rubyiruko ruhorana umusonga wo kubura ingwate ngo rutangire kwihangira imirimo. Iyo uri umunyamigabane ushobora kuyitangaho ingwate ukabona inguzanyo cyangwa wakwifuza gusubizwa ayawe ukayahabwa binyuze kuri iri soko ry’imari n’imigabane.

Uko wagura imigabane ku isoko ryayo

Iri soko ni irya buri wese ari uwifite n’utifite ntawe baheza mu kugura imigabane, ni imwe mu nzira z’ishoramari zishobora kubyara umusaruro ku buryo burambye.

Ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane haba abahuza hagati y’abagurisha n’abagura, ushaka imigabane yegera umuhuza, akamubwira umubare w’imigabane ashaka mu kigo cyayishyize ku isoko n’agaciro agenera buri mugabane.

Ugurisha imigabane nawe yegera umuhuza, akamubwira umubare w’imigabane agurisha ndetse n’agaciro ka buri mugabane.

Nyuma y’ibyo abahuza (brokers) bahurira ku isoko ry’Imari n’imigabane (Rwanda Stock Exchange) bagaciririkanya ibiciro.

Ibyo abahuza bumvikanyeho bikusanywa n’Ubuyobozi bw’Isoko ry’Imari n’imigabane (Rwanda Stock Exchange) ari naryo rikurikirana imirimo y’iyimurwa ry’imigabane iva ku wayigurishije ijya ku wayiguze.

Kuba Abanyarwanda bagiseta ibirenge muri iyi nzira y’ubukire, bifite ingaruka ku gihugu kuko amabanki yacyo abura ubushobozi bwo gutanga inguzanyo z’igihe kirekire.

Umuyobozi wa CMA, Robert Mathu, avuga ko kuba isoko ry’imari n’imigabane ry’u Rwanda ritaratera imbere, bituma igihugu kijya kwifashisha amabanki yo hanze cyangwa ibigo by’imari kugirango gishore imari mu mishinga y’igihe kirekire.

Isoko ry'imari n'imigabane ni uburyo burambye bwo kwizigamira mu gihe kirekire

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