Kwamamaza

Ibyo wamenya ku mikorere y’amabanki, ibigo by’imari n’iby’ubwishingizi

Yanditswe kuya 24-08-2016 saa 13:00' na Cyprien Niyomwungeri


Ubushakashatsi ndetse n’ibyegeranyo bitandukanye ntibihwema kugaragaza ko ubukungu bw’u Rwanda butera imbere ubutitsa, ari nako abaturage barushaho kwegerezwa no kwitabira serivisi z’imari.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe ku buryo Abanyarwanda bagerwaho na serivisi z’imari, FinScope Survey 2016, bwagaragaje ko abagera kuri 89% bagerwaho n’izo serivisi, nko gukorana n’amabanki, ibigo by’imari iciriritse, iby’ubwishingizi n’ibindi.

Uyu mubare ni ikimenyetso gishimangira uruhare runini ibyo bigo bifite mu rugendo rugana iterambere ry’igihugu.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko, ni ngombwa ko Abanyarwanda barushaho gusobanukirwa byimbitse imikorere y’ibyo bigo by’imari bisunga bakabiragiza imari yabo, cyangwa nabyo bikabizera bikabaha iyabyo ngo biteze imbere kandi banabyungukire.

Aha twavuga imikorere y’ibyo bigo nk’amabanki, ibigo by’imari biciriritse n’iby’ubwishingizi.

Imikorere y’amabanki

Banki ni ikigo gikora ubusanzwe imirimo yo kwakira amafaranga ya rubanda kandi kigatanga inguzanyo ku giti cyacyo. Icyakora hari ibindi bigo nk’iby’imari iciriritse; amakoperative yo kuzigama no kuguriza; ibigo byakira amafaranga yo kuzigama bitanga izo serivisi, ariko bitabarirwa mu mabanki.

Muri make yakira amafaranga y’abantu bakeneye kuyabitsa kugirango abe afite umutekano cyangwa abyare inyungu, nayo ikayaguriza abayakeneye bafite imishinga bagiye kuyakoresha.

Amoko y’amabanki

Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu igaragaza ko mu Rwanda hari amabanki 17 arimo 12 y’ubucuruzi, imwe y’iterambere, Koperative ikora nka Banki imwe n’ibigo by’imari biri ku rwego rwa Banki bigera kuri bitatu.

Izi banki zose zisa n’izikora akazi kamwe keretse Banki y’iterambere ikorana n’abantu bafite imishinga minini yishyurwa mu gihe kirekire. Iri ni itandukaniro kuko usanga izindi banki zidashobora gushora amafaranga muri iyo mishinga kuko ziba zabikiye abantu mu gihe gito.

Ikindi ni uko banki z’iterambere zitajya zakira amafaranga abantu babikijemo, zikoresha imari shingiro zatangiranye, zigafata andi mafaranga y’igihe kirekire mu yandi mabanki cyangwa mu bigo by’imari binini.

Amafaranga zunguka ava mu migabane, inyungu ku nguzanyo n’impano zishobora kubona. Mu Rwanda hari banki imwe y’iterambere, ariyo Banki Itsura Amajyambere y’u Rwanda (BRD).

Gutanga inguzanyo

Amafaranga yose banki cyangwa ikigo cy’imari kibikiye abantu ntibyemewe kuyatangamo inguzanyo yose. Amabwiriza ya Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu yemerera banki gutanga inguzanyo zingana na 80% by’ubwizigame naho ikigo cy’imari iciriritse kigatanga 80% by’umutungo wacyo.

Impamvu ni uko hari ayo ikigo gisigarana bitewe n’uko abantu bose baba batarakibikijemo by’igihe kirekire, bityo hagatekerezwa no ku bashaka kubikuza igihe bashakiye, hirindwa ko bazayabura.

Buriya buri banki hari amafaranga isabwa na Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu ngo iyibikire ku buryo yayitabara cyangwa agatabara iyindi yagira ikibazo. Aya mafaranga angana na 15% by’imari shingiro.

Hari izindi ngamba BNR iba yarashyizeho kugirango ababitse amafaranga y’abantu batazayihamo inguzanyo bagahombya ikigo.

Muri Koperative, abakozi, abayobozi ba koperative n’abo bafitanye isano, ntabwo bemerewe gufata inguzanyo zirenze 20% by’umutungo bwite wa koperative, ni ukuvuga imigabane, inyungu, impano, inkunga.

Ikindi ni hari ingamba zo kwirinda ko umutungo waba uri mu maboko y’abantu bake. Nko muri koperative yo kubitsa no kuguriza, umuntu umwe ntiyafata inguzanyo irenze 2.5% by’ubwizigame bwose, niba ari miliyoni 100 ntiyarenza 2.5 by’inguzanyo.

Muri Banki, imyenda y’umuntu ufitanye isano nayo ntishobora kurenga yose hamwe atanu ku ijana (5 %) y’imari bwite nyayo y’iyo banki. Abantu bafitanye isano na banki bose hamwe ntibashobora guhabwa inguzanyo irengeje makumyabiri n’atanu ku ijana (25 %) y’imari bwite yayo.

Hagenderwa kuki hagenwa inyungu ku nguzanyo

Amabanki agena inyungu ku nguzanyo agendeye ku bintu byinshi birimo ijanisha ry’inyungu Banki Nkuru ishobora kugurizaho ibindi bigo by’imari, irizwi nka‘Key Repo Rate’.

Iryo janisha iyo ryiyongereye bituma n’inyungu banki zica abantu ziyongera. Mu Rwanda iryo janisha ntirijya rirenga hagati ya 5 na 7%, bigatuma n’amabanki inyungu iba iri hagati ya 16 na 18%.

Inyungu na none yiyongera bitewe n’ibyo ikigo cy’imari gikoresha gicunga inguzanyo, nibyo gikoresha kugirango kibone ubwizigame bw’igihe kirekire kizatangaho inguzanyo.

Gusa Banki Nkuru y’igihugu ishobora kongera inyungu itangiraho amafaranga ku bigo by’imari, ishaka ko bica intege abaka inguzanyo bityo amafaranga ari mu bantu akagabanuka mu rwego rwo kwirinda izamuka ry’ibiciro.

Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu

Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu twayita umubyeyi w’andi mabanki kuko niyo ibikira Leta, niyo ikora amafaranga, ishinzwe gushyiraho amategeko agenga izindi banki n’ibigo by’imari biciriritse, ndetse niyo ishobora kuguriza izindi banki zagize ikibazo.

Yunguka iyo igurije amafaranga y’ingoboka [reserve: angana na 15% y’imari shingiro] iba yarahawe n’amabanki cyangwa ibigo by’imari, ibigo igenzura hari amafaranga igenda ibica ku mwaka cyangwa se mu gihe runaka kugirango ayifashe mu kazi kayo.

Gutangira ikigo cy’imari mu Rwanda

Ishoramari mu bigo bitanga serivisi z’imari mu Rwanda ni ikintu gishoboka cyane, iyo ikigo cy’imari ari Koperative [nka koperative yo kubitsa no kugurizanya], ushaka kugishinga ahera mu nzego z’ibanze (Umurenge, Akarere), akemerwa n’ikigo cy’igihugu gishinzwe amakoperative, agakomereza muri Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu.

Iyi Koperative [Urugero: Umwalimu Sacco] kuyishinga bisaba kuba ufite imari shingiro ya miliyoni 10 z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda.

Ushaka gutangiza Banki mu Rwanda, asabwa kwiyandikisha muri RDB, akuzuza ibisabwa na BNR, birimo imari shingiro, ubuyobozi, amategeko uzagenderaho, uko uzunguka, imikorere, umutekano w’amafaranga n’ibindi.

Banki y’Ubucuruzi isabwa imari shingiro ingana na miliyari eshanu z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda, mu gihe ikigo cy’imari iciriritse cy’abashoramari [urugero: Letshego Holdings Limited] gisabwa miliyoni 300.

Icyakora, hari serivisi Banki yemerewe gutanga n’izo ikigo cy’imari iciriritse gitanga, urugero ni uko ikigo cy’imari iciriritse kitemerewe gukoresha ATM n’Agatabo ko kubikuza [Chequiers], iyo bishatse gutanga izo serivisi, birabisaba.

Urugero nka Zigama CSS yari Koperative ariko isaba gukoresha ATM kuko ifite abantu benshi, iba Koperative ikora nka Banki.

Banki cyangwa ikindi kigo cy’imari byunguka bite?

Inyungu y’amabanki n’ibindi bigo by’imari ahanini ituruka mu nyungu ku nguzanyo batanga, icyakora hari n’andi aturuka muri serivisi batanga nk’izo kubikuza, guhererekanya amafaranga, guhuza abantu bashaka kugura imigabane n’ikigo gishaka kuyigurisha, kohereza amafaranga, gushora imari mu yindi mishinga n’ibindi.

Ibigo by’ubwishingizi

Ibigo by’ubwishingizi naryo ni ishoramari rikomeye ndetse ryinjiza amafaranga menshi. Bitewe n’uko abantu bafata ubwishingizi batazi neza ko bazahura n’ibibazo, iyo bitababayeho ibigo bishinganishijemo bibyinira ku rukoma.

Ibi bigo nabyo bishora imari mu mishinga nk’ubwubatsi, kugura imigabane mu bindi bigo by’imari no mu yindi ibyara inyungu.

Mbere ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, mu Rwanda hari amabanki atanu yonyine ariyo Banque Commerciale du Rwanda (BCR) [Ubu yahindutse I&M Bank], Bank of Kigali (BK), Banque Rwandaise de Développement (BRD) na Union of Cooperative Banks yaje guhinduka Banque Populaire du Rwanda mu 2008.

Mu myaka 22 ishize, amabanki yariyongereye cyane ava kuri atanu agera kuri 17. Hiyongereyeho Access Bank Rwanda Ltd yahoze ari BANCOR, Ecobank Rwanda Ltd yari BCDI, Cogebanque Ltd, Kenya Commercial Bank Rwanda Ltd (KCB), Equity Bank Rwanda Ltd, Urwego Opportunity Bank (UOB), Unguka Bank Ltd.

Hari kandi Bank of Africa Rwanda Ltd (yahoze ari Agaseke Bank), Zigama CSS , AB Bank Rwanda Ltd , Crane Bank Rwanda Ltd na BRD.

Icyicaro cya Banki ya Kigali, imwe mu zikorera mu Rwanda

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