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Hakorwa iki kugira ngo guhererekanya amafaranga byorohere Abanyafurika? Ikiganiro na Claude James uyobora Global Voice Group

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 1 Ugushyingo 2021 saa 07:19
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Ku muntu uri mu Rwanda, ufite konti ye ya Mobile Money ku murongo wa MTN Rwanda, ntashobora kuherereza amafaranga mugenzi we babana cyangwa baturanye ukoresha umurongo wa Airtel Rwanda.

Iki kibazo kirenga imipaka, kuko niba nta buryo buhari bwo guhererekanya amafaranga ku bantu bari mu gihugu kimwe, ariko bakoresha imirongo y’itumanaho ibiri itandukanye, birumvikana ko bidashoboka ku bantu bari mu bihugu bitandukanye, banakoresha imirongo y’itumanaho itandukanye.

Ikibazo ariko ntabwo ari ubushobozi, kuko ikigo cy’itumanaho gifite amashami mu bihugu birenze kimwe, gishobora gushyiraho uburyo abakiliya bacyo bashobora kohererezanya amafaranga yambukiranya imipaka mu buryo bworoshye, nubwo bidashoboka ku bakiliya b’ikindi kigo bisangiye igihugu.

Muri rusange, nubwo Afurika iri gutera imbere cyane mu bijyanye no gukoresha ikoranabuhanga muri serivisi z’imari, haracyari ikibazo cy’ingutu cy’uko ibigo by’itumanaho, za banki ndetse n’ibindi bigo bifitanye aho bihuriye na serivisi z’imari, bitarabasha guhuza neza uburyo bw’imikoranire bikagira ingaruka ku bakiliya kuko bituma batabasha koroherwa no kubona serivisi nko mu gihe bakeneye kwishyura no guhererekanya amafaranga.

Kugera mu mwaka ushize, Abanyafurika miliyoni 562 bakoreshaga serivisi za mobile money, inyongera ya 12% ugereranyije n’umwaka wari wabanje.

Ibi bitanga amahirwe y’uko abacuruzi bo muri Afurika, bafite uburyo bwo kwishyurwa hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga (nka mobile money n’ubundi butandukanye), bashobora gucuruza kuri aba bantu bose bakoresha iryo koranabuhanga, mu gihe ibigo by’itumanaho bitandukanye, byashyiraho uburyo bwo korohereza abantu kwishyurana no guhererekanya amafaranga mu buryo bworoshye.

Ibi ni yo mpamvu koroshya uburyo bwo kwishyurana hagati y’ibigo bitandukanye, nk’uko bimeze ahandi ku Isi, bifatwa nk’umutima w’ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’amasezerano y’isoko rusange rya Afurika (AfCFTA), kuko nubwo umuguzi wo muri Nigeria yabona igicuruzwa cyiza mu Rwanda akifuza kukigura ndetse akaba azi neza ko RwandAir ishobora kukimugezaho mu gihe gito, igihe atazabona uburyo bumworoheye kandi buhendutse bwo kukishyura, ntabwo azirirwa abikora.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ikigo Global Voice Group, Umunya-Haiti, James Claude, yavuze ko hari byinshi ikigo cyabo kiri gukora kugira ngo gifashe Leta zo muri Afurika kugira ikoranabuhanga ryatuma guhererekanya amafaranga hagati y’Abanyafurika byoroha, bikihuta kandi bigahenduka.

Iki kigo nyafurika cyatangiye mu 1998, gikorana n’ibigo bitandukanye bifite aho bihuriye n’urwego rw’ikoranabuhanga mu by’imari mu bihugu 11 birimo n’u Rwanda, aho gikorana na RURA.

Uyu muyobozi yavuze ko ikoranabuhanga rikenewe kugira ngo Abanyafurika boroherwe no kwishyurana rihari, ikibazo kikiri mu buryo abayobozi b’ibihugu bitandukanye bagiseta ibirenge kugira ngo ibi bikorwa bishyirwemo imbaraga, nubwo benshi mu bayobozi bo kuri uyu Mugabane batangiye kubona akamaro k’ikoranabuhanga mu guteza imbere urwego rw’imari ndetse n’ubukungu muri rusange.

IGIHE: Ni iki Afurika ihomba bitewe no kutimakaza ikoranabuhanga mu rwego rw’imari?

James Claude: Sinavuga ko Afurika ifite ibyo ihomba, mu myaka mike ishize, twabonye iterambere mu bijyanye no gukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu rwego rw’imari, twabonye serivisi nyinshi zifasha mu kwishyurana, ziyongera kuri Mobile Money, ubu urebye ibyo bikorwa byose biri kuzamukira rimwe, hasigaye guhuza ibikorwa kugira ngo abafatanyabikorwa batandukanye bakorane, yaba banki nkuru z’ibihugu, abikorera, buri wese akeneye kubigiramo uruhare.

Ni ibikorwa byahagurukiwe n’inzego nyinshi, aho buri wese atekereza uko yashyiraho uburyo bwafasha abaturage kwishyurana bitabagoye.

U Rwanda ruherutse kwemeza itegeko ryemerera Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu kugira uruhare mu bikorwa bishishikariza ibigo bitanga serivisi z’imari gusangira uburyo bwo kwishyurana. Ibyo ntibishobora kwitiranywa no kwivanga mu bucuruzi bw’ibigo byigenga?

Ni byiza, biragana mu murongo mwiza, banki nkuru z’ibihugu n’ubundi zisanganywe izo nshingano zo gushyiraho amabwiriza n’amategeko atuma ibyo bikorwa bishoboka, ni ibintu byiza kandi ntabwo mbibonamo ikibazo, ni amahirwe ku guteza imbere ubukungu bw’igihugu.

Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ikigo cya Global Voice Group, Claude James, yavuze ko Afurika ikwiye guteza imbere ibikorwa byo guhererekanya amafaranga kugira izagere ku iterambere

Nta mpungenge z’uko icyo cyemezo gishobora kuzitira ihangwa ry’udushya, rikaba ryanabangamira ibigo bito bitanga serivisi zisa nk’iz’ibigo binini?

Sinavuga ko biteye ubwoba, kuko bishobora no kugira ingaruka nziza ku bigo bito, kuko abakiliya babyo babona serivisi bifuza batiriwe bajya gukorana n’ibigo binini, hakwiye kujyaho amategeko arengera inyungu za buri kigo ariko ntekereza ko ari ibintu byiza.

Ikindi, nk’ubu ibigo byitwa ko ari bito, biramutse bihawe amahirwe yo kugera ku isoko rinini, byaba byiza kurushaho kuko bishobora kwagura amasoko yabyo, urumva ko ari byiza.

Ku bijyanye no guhanga udushya, nabyo bikeneye amategeko agena uburyo agashya kazanywe n’ikigo runaka gashobora kujya kuri serivisi zacyo [bititiriwe ibindi bigo bitanga serivisi zimwe cyangwa byahuje umuyoboro mu koroshya kwishyurana], ubwo nibwo buryo twatuma ibyo bikorwa bitanga umusaruro wifuzwa. Ntekereza ko bishobora kugira ingaruka nziza ku bigo bito.

Afurika isanganywe ibibazo birimo ruswa, amafaranga ajyanwa hanze yayo n’ibindi. Uku guhuza uburyo bwo kwishyurana bishobora kugira uruhare mu guhangana n’ibyo bibazo?

Guteza imbere serivisi z’imari zikagera kuri benshi, bishobora gukemura ibibazo byinshi, nubwo atari byose. [Biragoye ko hari byakorwa] ku byaha birimo kwiba amafaranga akajyanwa mu bindi bice by’Isi, gusa kuri bimwe mu byaha birimo ubujura n’ibindi nk’ibyo, kugira urwego rw’imari rushingiye ku ikoranabuhanga bishobora kugira uruhare mu gukemura ibyo bibazo.

Tuzi ko ikigo cyanyu kiri kugira uruhare muri ibi bikorwa…

Nibyo, twifata nk’ikigo kiri mu biyoboye mu bijyanye n’ikoranabuhanga muri Afurika [rikubiyemo n’irikoreshwa mu rwego rurimo urw’imari]. Tumaze gukorera mu bihugu byinshi mu myaka 20 ishize, twatangiye dutanga serivisi ku bigo bito by’itumanaho.

Rero ibigo bigenzura ibigo by’itumanaho (nk’uko wavuga Urwego Ngenzuramikorere, RURA, runasanzwe ari umukiliya w’imena wa Global Voice Group) byabaga bikeneye ikoranabuhanga ryabifasha gukurikirana amakuru ashobora gutuma bigena ibiciro, bikagenzura imitangire ya serivisi n’ibindi nk’ibyo.

Nk’uko ubuzi, ibigo by’itumanaho bifite uruhare runini mu iterambere mu guteza imbere ikoranabuhanga ry’urwego rw’imari, ari naho hanyuzwa serivisi nka mobile money. Twashyizeho ikoranabuhanga rikenerwa n’ibigo bigenzura ibigo by’itumanaho, yaba irifasha mu ihererekanya ry’amafaranga, irifasha mu kureba ubuziranenge bwa serivisi zitangwa n’ibindi. Dufite n’ikoranabuhanga rigenzura serivisi za mobile money, kugira ngo harebwe uburyo amabwiriza yubahirizwa n’ibindi.

Turi gukora kandi ku ikoranabuhanga rizafasha mu kumenya abantu, kuko uyu ni umutima w’ikoreshwa ry’ikoranabuhanga mu bijyanye n’imari, uba ukeneye kumenya imyirondoro y’abantu. Turi gukora ku buryo ikoranabuhanga ryakoreshwa mu ndangamuntu rishobora guhuzwa n’ikoreshwa muri serivisi z’imari.

Turi gushyira imbaraga kandi mu gufasha Leta gukoresha mobile money, ku buryo zishobora kwishyura no kwishyuza hifashishijwe mobile money. Ibyo bizafasha na serivisi zirimo guhabwa ubwizigame n’ibindi, nk’uko Leta ziri inyuma mu gukoresha serivisi za mobile money nubwo ibishishikariza abandi.

Ubona Leta zo muri Afurika zifite ubwo bushake?

Yego, ubu tumaze gukorana na Leta 15 zo muri Afurika. Hari n’ibindi bihugu turi kwinjira mu mikoranire birimo Zimbabwe, ibyo muri Afurika y’Epfo no muri Afurika y’Iburengerazuba, birimo Ghana na Senegal. Buri uko tuvuganye n’abayobozi bo muri ibyo bihugu, ibyo tubereka twabafasha ni ibijyanye no gukusanya amakuru, agasesengurwa, agatuma hafatwa ibyemezo byiza.

Leta zifite ubushake bwo gukoresha amakuru mu bikorwa byazo, rero bafite ubushake bwo gukoresha amakuru ndetse no gukoresha ikoranabuhanga kugira ngo bamenye uburyo ibyemezo bishobora kugira ingaruka ku bihugu byabo.

Gukoresha amakuru ntibigira umumaro gusa iyo ufite amakuru menshi cyane, nubwo nabyo ari byiza, ariko icy’ingenzi ni uburyo ukoresha ayo makuru.

Byigeze bibaho ko mwanga kwakirwa mu bihugu runaka kubera ko mutari ikigo cyo mu Burayi?

Oya, turi ikigo cyo ku rwego rwa Afurika, kandi dufite ubumenyi dukura hirya no hino ku Isi. Dufite ibigo byacu muri Espagne no muri Estonia, rero dufite ubumenyi buturuka ku rwego rw’Isi. Ariko dufite umwihariko wa Kinyafurika kuko ari ho dukomoka, ahubwo iyo tuvuganye n’abayobozi b’ibihugu bya Afurika, usanga batwishimira kurusha abandi kuko baba bumva ko ibibazo tuje gukemura tubizi nk’Abanyafurika, bakatwizera kurushaho.

Ese ibi bisubizo byose twavuzeho bishobora kugira uruhare mu gukemura ibibazo birimo kuba abantu bari hanze ya Afurika bahendwa no kohereza amafaranga muri Afurika?

Cyane. Ibyo bibazo biterwa n’uko ibigo bitanga izo serivisi ari bike. Mu gihe twagira ibigo byinshi byakuririra ku kuba urwego rw’imari rwahujwe n’ikoranabuhanga, birashoboka ko icyo kibazo cyarangizwa vuba. Uko dukomeza gushyiraho uburyo bworohereza ibigo bito kwaguka, bizagira uruhare mu gukemura icyo kibazo…Twatangiye kubona ibindi bigo bishya biri kuza kuziba iki cyuho kandi ni ibintu byiza.

Ni gute ikoranabuhanga mu rwego rw’imari rizafasha mu ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’amasezerano y’isoko rusange rya Afurika?

Ikintu cy’ingenzi ni uburyo ku rwego rw’imiryango y’ubukungu no ku rwego rwa Afurika muri rusange, hakwiye kubaho guhuza uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga kugira ngo byorohe ko umuntu uri muri Gambia yakohereza amafaranga mu Rwanda bitamugoye.

Hakenewe ko abafata ibyemezo bakorana, imiryango y’ubukungu muri Afurika (COMESA, EAC, ECOWAS), ikabanza kwihuza, noneho bikazagera ku Mugabane wose…ibikorwa nka Smart Afurika n’ibindi bihuza abafata ibyemezo kuri uyu Mugabane bizaba ingenzi cyane mu kubahuriza hamwe kugira ngo izi ngingo ziganirweho.

Ubona ibyo bizagerwaho ryari?

Ntabwo turi kure cyane ariko haracyari ibintu byinshi byo gukora, ntekereza ko hakenewe gusa ibi bikorwa byose, hakabaho gukorera hamwe, tugafatanya kugenzura amafaranga no kurinda umutekano wayo kugira ngo hongerwe icyizere.

Ni ibintu bisaba ubushake bwa politiki ariko inzego nka Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu na zo zikwiye kubyinjiramo, zigakorana kugira ngo hashyirweho imirongo ituma bigerwaho.

Ndabizi ko hari inzego ziri gukora kugira ngo ibi bintu bizagerweho ku rwego rwa Afurika, ariko birakwiye ko ibihugu bya Afurika ubwabyo bikwiye gukorana no gushyira hamwe.


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