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Ese u Rwanda rwaba ruri kubyaza umusaruro EAC nk’ibindi bihugu?

Yanditswe kuya 13-09-2016 saa 16:01' na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi


Kuwa 01 Nyakanga 2007 nibwo u Rwanda n’u Burundi babaye byuzuye abanyamuryango b’Umuryango wa Afurika y’u Burasirazuba, EAC. Hari byinshi ruhanze amaso ku isoko uyu munsi rigizwe n’abaturage miliyoni 158, aho gukomeza kwifungirana mu gihugu cyari gituwe na miliyoni 9.5 rwari rufite icyo gihe.

Guhuza za gasutamo byatangijwe muri Mutarama 2010, muri Nyakanga ibihugu bigize EAC byemeranya ku Isoko Rusange, ndetse mu 2013 byemeranya ku gutangira kunoza gahunda y’ifaranga rimwe mu karere, gahunda yahawe imyaka 10 ngo ibe imaze gushyirwa mu bikorwa.

Uyu muryango ubu ugizwe n’ibihugu bitandatu birimo Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, u Rwanda, Burundi na Sudani y’Epfo yakiriwe muri uyu mwaka wa 2016, intego ikaba ko urugendo ruzashimangirwa no kwishyira hamwe mu miyoborere.

Ubucuruzi mu karere bwariyongereye

Amasezerano y‘ibihugu bigize EAC aha rugari urujya n’uruza rw’ibicuruzwa, abantu, serivisi, imari n’uburenganzira bwo gushinga ibikorwa bibyara inyungu.

Minisiteri y’Ubucuruzi n’Inganda mu Rwanda igaragaza ko ibyo rwohereza mu mahanga byagiye byiyongera mu myaka ishize, mbere ya 2010, EAC ikaba yarihariraga kimwe cya gatatu cy’ibyo u Rwanda rwatumizaga mu mahanga.

Mu 2008, ubucuruzi hagati muri EAC bwiyongereyeho 38% bugera kuri miliyoni $2 715 ugereranyije na 2007. Gutumiza hanze ibicuruzwa ariko bigakorwa hagati muri EAC byiyongereyeho 42% bigera kuri miliyoni $ 1 173 mu 2008 ugereranyije na $ 825 yo mu 2007.

Ibicuruzwa byoherezwa hanze ariko hagati y’ibihugu byo muri EAC byagize agaciro ka miliyoni $ 1,542 mu 2008 ugereranyije na miliyoni $ 1,149 mu mwaka wari wabanje.

Ubucuruzi bukomatanyije u Rwanda rwakoranye n’ibindi bihugu bya EAC mu 2008 bwiyongereyeho 27% kuko bwageze kuri miliyoni $338 buvuye kuri miliyoni $238 zabarwaga mu 2007.

Gusa ibyo u Rwanda rwohereje muri ibyo bihugu bigize EAC byo nta cyahindutse kuko bwagumye kuri miliyoni $38 mu 2008.

Muri iki gihe ubucuruzi n’ibi bihugu bumaze kugira amafaranga menshi, aho ibicuruzwa byoherejwe mu bihugu bigize EAC mu 2015 byihariye 22.8% by’ibyo u Rwanda rwohereje mu mahanga byose, bikaba byari bifite agaciro ka miliyoni $127.76 nubwo mu 2014 byari bigeze kuri miliyoni $142.45, Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda ikavuga ko byatewe n’igabanuka ry’ibiciro ku isoko mpuzamahanga.

Ibyo u Rwanda rwatumije muri EAC mu 2015 byo byari byihariye 22.4% by’ibyatumijwe hanze byose, bikaba byarazamutseho 5% ugereranyije no mu 2014, kuko byavuye kuri miliyoni $519.4 bikagera kuri miliyoni $546.8.

Impuzandengo ku misoro mu karere

Minisitiri Ushinzwe ibikorwa by’Umuryango wa Afurika y’u Burasirazuba, Valentine Rugwabiza, aheruka kubwira abikorera ko ukwishyira hamwe k’u Rwanda n’ibindi bihugu bya EAC byagabanije igiciro cy’ubwikorezi ho 40%, binyuze mu guhuza za gasutamo ku mihora ya ruguru no hagati.

Igabanywa ry’ibiciro riteganywa n’amasezerano y’Isoko Rusange, agena ko nk’ikigo cyo mu Rwanda gishaka gutumiza mu bihugu bya EAC ibikoresho by’ibanze bikenerwa mu nganda, bitakwa imisoro.

Ibicuruzwa biba bidakozwe mu buryo burangiye biba bigifite ikigomba kongerwaho cyangwa bigahindurwamo ikindi kintu bisoreshwa 10%. Aha twavuga nk’isima iba igiye gukorwamo amakaro yubakishwa.

Ku bikoresho birangiye nk’umutobe w’imbuto, inkweto, matola n’ibindi bisoreshwa 25%. Ibi biciro kandi bikoreshwa no ku bacuruzi bakura ibicuruzwa byabo mu Rwanda.

Kugira ngo kandi ibicuruzwa byungukire muri aya masezerano ni uko biba bigaragaza icyemezo cy’uko byakorewe muri kimwe muri ibi bihugu byo muri EAC. Ibi bihugu kandi biheruka gushyira hamwe bizamura imisoro y’impu, hagamijwe guca intege abazohereza mu mahanga ngo zigume mu karere zikoreshwa muri gahunda yo guca caguwa.

Abakuru b'Ibihugu bya EAC bakomeje gushakira hamwe uburyo bwo kwagura isoko rirenze iry'igihugu ukwacyo

Ubukerarugendo

Ibihugu bigize umuryango wa Afurika y’u Burasirazuba byiyemeje kugira iki gice cya Afurika icyerekezo cya ba mukerarugendo.

Ibihugu bihurira ku muhora wa ruguru birimo u Rwanda, Uganda na Kenya, byafashe iya mbere mu gutanga visa ihuriweho, ku buryo uwayiherewe mu gihugu kimwe abasha gutembera muri ibyo bitatu byose.

Kuva mu Ukuboza 2014, ntibikiri ngombwa guhora bishyura $100 yagurwaga iyi visa izwi nka East Africa Tourist Visa (EATV), ubusanzwe imara iminsi 90 muri buri gihugu binjiyemo, kuko uyifatira mu gihugu kimwe ikaguhesha uburenganzira bwo kwinjira muri bitatu.

Muri Mutarama 2017 byitezwe ko ibihugu bya EAC bizanatangiza pasiporo nshya y’ikoranabuhanga ihuriweho n’ibihugu bigize uyu muryango. Ibi bihugu byahawe kuzageza mu Ukuboza 2018 bikazaba byamaze kwimakaza ikoreshwa ry’izi pasiporo nshya.

Izi pasiporo zizaba zifite uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga ryifashisha igikumwe cya nyirayo, Automated Fingerprint Verification System (AFIS), izafasha mu kugabanya ikoreshwa rya pasiporo nyinshi cyangwa mu kwima icyuho abashobora kuziyitirira.

Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe Iterambere, RDB, kivuga ko “kuva mu 2007 ubukerarugendo buri ku isonga mu kwinjiza amadevise menshi mu gihugu, aho mu mwaka ushize (2015) bwinjije miliyoni 326, 6 z’amadorali”.

Abikorera bo muri EAC bashinze imizi mu Rwanda

Imibare ya Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu ku ishoramari ry’abanyamahanga mu Rwanda, ‘Foreign Private Capital Census (FPC)’ rigaragaza ko mu 2008 mu Rwanda hari ishoramari ry’abanyamahanga rifite agaciro ka miliyoni $66.9. Aha hari nyuma y’amezi make u Rwanda rwinjiye muri EAC.

Mu 2009 ryageze kuri miliyoni $ 103.3 ; mu 2013 rigera kuri miliyoni $257.6 ; mu gihe mu 2014 zari miliyoni $ 458.9. Muri uwo mwaka igihugu cya Kenya mu karere nicyo cyashyizemo menshi angana na miliyoni $25.7.

Uyu munsi mu Rwanda hari ibigo byinshi bikomoka mu karere, nk’aho mu bijyanye n’amabanki harimo Crane Bank ikomoka muri Uganda, KCB na Equity Bank zikomoka muri Kenya; mu bijyanye n’ubwishingizi hakaba nka Britam na UAP nabyo byo muri Kenya.

Hari ibindi bigo bikomeye mu Rwanda nka Nakumat yo muri Kenya, Matelas Dodoma na Bakhresa Group ifite uruganda rwa AZAM, ikomoka muri Tanzania.

Mu bijyanye n’uburezi, Kenya na Tanzania bimaze gufata indi ntera kuko mu Rwanda bihafite kaminuza zisaga eshanu, mu gihe izo mu Rwanda zo zicyiyubaka.

Harimo nka Kaminuza y‘Ubuhinzi n’ikoranabuhanga ya Jomo Kenyatta (University of Agriculture and Technology, JKUAT), Kaminuza ya Afurika y’u Burasirazuba (The East African University), Ishuri rikuru ryigisha kubaga rya Afurika y’u Burasirazuba, iyo hagati n’Amajyepfo (College of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern Africa, COSECSA) zo muri Kenya.

Hiyongeraho na Kenyatta University nayo iri gushaka ibyangombwa na Open University of Tanzania. Uganda yo uretse kuba igenda ifungura ibiro byorohereza abashaka kujya kwiga yo, nta Kaminuza iratangirira imirimo yayo mu buryo buhoraho mu Rwanda.

Ubushobozi buracyari ikibazo ku Banyarwanda

Nyuma yo kwinjira muri EAC, u Rwanda rukomeje gushira imbaraga mu kwihuza n’ibindi bihugu hagamijwe ubucuruzi, nk’amasezerano ari kurebwaho ahuje imiryango itatu y’ubucuruzi irimo uw’Afurika y’u Burasirazuba (EAC), Afurika yo Hagati n’Amajyepfo (COMESA) n’Umuryango w’Iterambere rya Afurika y’Amajyepfo (SADC).

Ayo masezerano y’inyabutatu (The Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA) yashyiriweho umukono i Cairo mu Misiri muri Kamena 2015, agamije koroshya urujya n’uruza rw’ibicuruzwa mu bihugu 26 bihuriye muri iyi miryango itatu guhera Cape Town muri Afurika y’Epfo kugeza i Cairo mu Misiri, rikaba ari isoko ryagutse rigizwe na miliyoni zigera kuri 620 z’abaturage n’ibihugu byinshi bifite ubukungu buri kuzamuka cyane.

Hari kandi n’andi masezerano ya EAC n’Umurango w’Ubumwe bw’u Burayi u Rwanda ruheruka gushyiraho umukono, n’ubwo hari bimwe mu bihugu bigize EAC bitarayemera.

Umuyobozi w’Urugaga rw’abikorera mu Rwanda, Benjamin Gasamagera, yabwiye IGIHE ko hagendewe ku byo bamaze kubona muri EAC hari amahirwe ku ishoramari ry’Abanyarwanda bagera kuri iri soko ryagutse. Aha avugamo ko muri iki gihe Umunyarwanda yoroherejwe kumenyekanisha ibicuruzwa bye, nk’uko bigenda ku Munyakenya cyangwa Umugande.

Ati "Ntabwo navuga ngo ibigo byafunguye amashami hanze ni byinshi, ariko ibyo bifite ibisobanuro byabyo kuko urebye ingano y’ubukungu bwacu ukayigereranya n’ibindi bihugu, cyane cyane nka Uganda, Kenya na Tanzania, dufite ukuntu twaba tukiri inyuma ugereranyije nabo.’’

Gasamagera yavuze ko gutangira ishoramari hanze bisaba ingufu mu mafaranga n’imikorere usanga mu Rwanda bitariyubaka, nubwo hari ibihari ndetse byiyongera.

Umuyobozi w'Urugaga rw'Abikorera, Benjamin Gasamagera

Ati ‘‘Iyo washoboye guhangana hano, ni ukuvuga ko bifite uko bigushyira ku mitekerereze, ku buryo ugeze ku isoko rifite amategeko ari hasi ho gato, akazi kawe wagakora neza kurushaho. Ahubwo ikibazo kikaba cyarabaye ingano y’amafaranga twari dufite yagufasha mu gushora ishoramari. Ariko hari bamwe babigize, nka BK isigaye ikorera muri Kenya, hari ibigo bifasha mu bijyanye n’imizigo byagiye gukorera Mombasa."

‘‘Abikorera bacu ibintu bari gushoramo imari mu karere ni bya bintu bidakenera ishoramari rinini kuko nta bwizigame bufatika twari dufite. Ariko nk’ibijyanye n’ikoranabuhanga, hari nka ISPA batangiye gukora muri Uganda kandi numvise ko bari gukora neza kurusha abari bahasanzwe,’’

Gasamagera yavuze ko ‘‘hari abandi bafunguye amasoko i Kampala, muri Tanzania Abanyarwanda bajyanyeyo burusheti n’ibitoki mu bubari bwaho, hari abubatse amahoteli, … ku buryo uko ubushobozi bw’ishoramari buzagenda buza nabo bazitabira gushora imari mu karere. "


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