Uko FPR yahoze ni ko iri, ni na ko izahora (Igice cya 13)

Yanditswe na Tom Ndahiro
Kuya 26 Ukwakira 2017 saa 03:28
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Nyuma yo gusohoka kwa raporo y’iperereza Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana yakoresheje nka fondateri wa MRND, hakurikiyeho kureba ikigomba gukorwa. Ku wa 5 Nyakanga 1990, Habyarimana yamenyesheje Abanyarwanda ko azashyiraho Komisiyo y’igihugu yo gukusanya ibitekerezo ku mpinduramatwara ya politiki y’iryo shyaka rimwe rukumbi.

Habyarimana yavuze ko yifuza ko imbaga y’Abanyarwanda yazatanga ibitekerezo byayo kandi bikakirwa. Icyo abantu bumvise muri iyo mbwirwaruhame ni uko inzira igana demokarasi ishingiye ku mashyaka menshi yashobora kuba igiye gutangira mu Rwanda.

Ku wa 1 Nzeri 1990, iyo Komisiyo yagiyeho iyobowe na Édouard Karemera, bahimbye ‘Rukusanya’ kubera inshingano komisiyo yari ihawe yo kwegeranya cyangwa ‘gukusanya’ ibitekerezo. Ibitekerezo byakiriwe n’iyo komisiyo ni byo byabyaye imbanzirizamushinga y’Itegeko Nshinga ryo muri Kamena 1991 n’Itegeko ryemera amashyaka menshi.

Mu gihe Perezida Habyarimana yashyiragaho iyo Komisiyo, uwo munsi nibwo Abanyarwanda 33 bandikiye ‘Rukusanya’ bagaragaza ko bashaka ko ibintu bihinduka muri politiki y’u Rwanda. Urebye neza, si ‘Rukusanya’ bandikiye ni Habyarimana kuko ari we wari nyiri ububasha.

Abasinye iyo nyandiko ni aba bakurikira: Bisalinkumi Ezéchiel, Dusabyinema Révocat, Funga François, Gasimba François-Xavier, Gatwa Tarcisse, Hitimana Déogratias, Kambanda Jean, Kameya André, Kanyabugoyi Fidele, Karemera Gaspard, Kayibanda Hildebrand, Mbugulize Ephrem, Mugesera Antoine, Musabyimana Tatien, Musare Faustin na Mutagwera Frédéric.

Abandi bari Ntagwirumugara Egide, Ntazinda Charles, Nyagahima Faustin, Nzeyimana Ambroise, Ransoni Philbert, Rugenera Marc, Rugwizangoga Théoneste, Rutikanga Canisius, Rwambonera Evergiste, Sendashonga Seth, Seruvumba Anastase, Sibomana André, Simburudali Theodore, Twagiramungu Faustin, Twagirayezu Joseph na Ayirwanda Jean.

Abasinye iyi nyandiko hafi ya bose bavuye muri MRND bajya mu yandi mashyaka ndetse bayabamo abayobozi. Uretse bamwe bahindutse bagasanga MRND mu gihe cyo gukora Jenoside, hari abatari bake bafatanyije na FPR-Inkotanyi mu rugamba rwo kubohora igihugu ndetse bamwe baricwa.

Inzira y’ibibazo by’inzitane

Aba bagabo 33 bashyize ibyifuzo byabo mu ngingo icyenda. Mu ngingo ya munani basabye “Kwemerera abaturage gushyiraho amashyirahamwe ya politiki n’ayo kurengera abakozi bashatse yose, uretse ayaba avangura amoko, uturere n’amadini”.

Mu mwanzuro w’iyo nyandiko bagaragaje impungenge, bati “Tuzi neza ko hazagomba ubushake n’ubwitange bwinshi kugira ngo demokarasi yiyongere kandi ishinge imizi mu gihugu cyacu, kuko hatazabura abazagerageza kuyitambamira kubera inyungu zabo bwite.”

Ibyo uko hazaba kudahinduka kwa MRND na politiki yayo, FPR yari yarabibonye. Nyuma yo gutangira kw’amashyaka menshi icyo cyifuzo cyaheze mu kwifuza guza. Ariko no mubyavuye mu iperereza twakomojeho, harimo ibimenyetso by’ibihe bibi byari imbere.

Urebye ibyo MRND yabazaga mu iperereza ryayo mucyo bise ‘Aggiornamento’ byerekana ko guhinduka kwabo byari kure nk’ukwezi. Nko kubijyanye n’ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda, nta cyerekanaga ko babonaga u Rwanda nk’igihugu ahubwo bakibonagamo amoko n’uturere.

Umunyarwanda n’umunyarwandakazi ubyiruka ubu kumubwira ibyaberaga mu Rwanda mbere ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, kubyemera bigomba kuba bimurushya. Biranashoboka ko ubivuga aterekanye ibimenyetso bamuhindura umusazi.

Ivangurabwoko mu burezi n’akazi

Repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri zashyize imbere ikintu bise iringaniza. Izo Repubulika zombi, zafashe uburyo abakoloni bakoresheje bwo gutonesha bamwe mu banyarwanda bugapyinagaza abandi zibugira inkingi y’ubutegetsi. Mu gihe cy’ubukoloni igice kimwe cy’abanyarwanda mu bo bitaga Abatutsi, baratoneshejwe ari mu guhabwa amashuri ndetse no mu butegetsi, mu gihe abiswe Abahutu n’Abatwa bahezwaga ku buryo bugaragara.

Urugero ni ivangurabwoko (racial discrimination) ryakorwaga n’abakoloni bafatanyije n’abamisiyoneri. Mu nyandiko ya Prof. Gamaliel Mbonimana yo mu 1998, yerekana uburyo iryo vangura ryakorwaga. Nafashe ingero nke ry’ibyakozwe muri iryo vangura mu mashuli.

Mu mwaka wa 1924 ubwo Musenyeri Leon Classe yandikiye Abapadiri b’i Kigali “bagomba kwita ku mashuli y’Abatutsi kurusha ay’Abahutu”. Mu mwaka ukurikiyeho wa 1925 Mgr Classe yarenze i Kigali yandikira ibarwa abapadiri bose bo mu Rwanda abategeka kwita ku mashuli y’Abatutsi. Iyo politiki y’ivangura yashimangiwe n’igisonga cya Mgr. Classe, Padiri Laurent Déprimoz, waje kuba umushumba wa Vikariyati y’u Rwanda.

Inyandiko ya Prof. Mbonimana yerekana ko hari paruwasi zabyitabiriye cyane kurusha izindi, arizo Kigali, Kansi, Save, Mibirizi na Zaza. Muri izo paruwasi, “bagiraga n’umwaka wa mbere w’Abahutu, bakagira n’uwa mbere w’Abatutsi , kandi hamwe na hamwe Abatutsi bagahabwa inyigisho zisumbye iz’Abahutu.”

Prof. Gamaliel nawe yemeza ko nyuma y’ubwigenge iryo vangura ryakorewe Abatutsi. Akanongeraho ngo: “Binumvikane ko no mu gihe cy’Ubukoloni atari Abatutsi bose batoneshwaga.” Binabaye ari na byo ko Abatutsi bose batoneshejwe n’abakoloni ku nyungu zabo, ntabwo leta y’Abanyarwanda yari gukoresha ubwenge bw’abayirimo kwigana imikorere y’abakoloni.

Bigeze igihe cya Repubulika ya kabiri, icyo cyo gupyinagaza hashingiwe ku bwoko byaragutse bifata n’akarere, biba politiki y’igihugu ifite n’inzego zibikurikirana. Umututsi yakomeje gupyinagazwa hiyongeraho n’uturere twari twaratoneshejwe mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwa Repubulika ya mbere.

Muri rya perereza ryakozwe na MRND mu 1990, abangana 68.4% by’abantu babajijwe bavuze ko bashyigikiye politiki y’iringaniza mu gutanga imyanya mu kazi, abatayishyigikiye baba 28% mu gihe abifashe ari 3.6%.

Iryo perereza kandi ryerekana ko 68.6% by’ababajijwe bavuze ko bashyigikiye politiki y’iringaniza mu gutanga imyanya mu mashuri, abatayishyigikiye baba 29.4%, abifashe ari 2%.

Mu myanzuro yatanzwe n’abakoze ubushakashatsi, hari abifuje ko iyo politiki y’iringaniza mu mashuri no gutanga akazi yavaho “hagakurikizwa ubwenge n’ubushobozi. Banerekanye ko n’abatayishyigikiye atari bake.

Ibyo abo bitwa bake bifuzaga, ni nabyo FPR-Inkotanyi yashyize imbere kuva yabaho kugeza ubu. Ni nabyo Repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri zagombaga gukoresha zitagiye kwigira kuri politiki mbi ‘bateranye ubategeke’ y’abakoloni b’Ababiligi bakoresheje mu nyungu zabo. Politiki yadindije u Rwanda ku buryo kuzanzamuuka byakeneye imbaraga nyinshi.

Isaranganywa ry’inguzanyo za banki

Ubutegetsi bwa MRND bwari bwarimitse politiki yo gutanga inguzanyo za banki no gukwirakwiza imishinga hashingiwe ku ivangura ry’akarere n’ubwoko. Ibyo bikagaragazwa n’uko ari kimwe mu bibazo byabajijwe mu iperereza bakoze nk’inzira yo gushaka kwivugurura.

Iryo vangura ntibaryise ‘iringaniza’ nk’ibyo mu mashuri no gutanga akazi, ahubwo baryita ‘Isaranganywa rikorwa mu gutanga inguzanyo mu mabanki”. Dore uko ababajijwe bashyigikiye isaranganywa ry’inguzanyo za banki mu rwego rw’imyuga: Abahinzi-borozi 57.3%; abanyeshuri 46%; abarimu 67.8%; abakozi ba Leta 51.9%; abakozi bo mu bigo byigenga 68%; abanyapolitiki 49.2%; abikorera ku giti cyabo 58.3%; abanyamadini 60% n’abasirikare 72%. Abifashe kuri iki kibazo bendaga kungana n’abatabishyigikiye.

Ukurikije ibyavuye muri iryo perereza, ubona ibintu bibiri: Icya mbere ni uko abanyarwanda bari baramunzwe n’ingengabitekerezo y’ivangura cyangwa bari bafite ubujiji bukabije. Icya kabiri ni uko bari barabonye iryo “saranganywa” rigera kuri bamwe rigasiba abandi, ababajijwe bararishyigikiye batekereza ko na bo amaherezo ryazabagereho.

Igitangaje ni uko abanyapolitiki babaye aba nyuma mu gushyigikira iryo “saranganya”, mu gihe mu bindi byose birimo ivangura babaga aba mbere kimwe n’abasirikare. Ikikubwira ko inguzanyo za banki zari mu ngengabitekerezo yishe u Rwanda, ni uko Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi itegurwa guha cyangwa kwima abanyarwanda inguzanyo za banki.

Itegeko rya kane mu mategeko ikinyamakuru Kangura yise ay’Abahutu iby’inguzanyo za banki byarimo. Iryo tegeko rivuga ko bimwe mu bigira umuhutu umugambanyi ari “Kuguza cyangwa kuguriza amafaranga Umututsi; Gukora ibikorwa bifasha Abatutsi (kubaha impushya zo gutumiza ibintu mu mahanga, kubaha inguzanyo z’amabanki, kubaha ibibanza byo kubakamo, kubaha amasoko n’ibindi...”

Uko kuvangura abahabwa n’abadahabwa inguzanyo za banki, bivugwa ko biri mu byahombyaga amabanki na za Koperative mu Rwanda kubera guha inguzanyo abatabikwiye kubera ubwironde. Bimwe mu bigo by’ubucuruzi byahombejwe n’iyo politiki mbi ni Koperative TRAFIPRO (Travail, Fidélité et Progrès) na Caisse d’Epargnes du Rwanda. Mubabajijwe mu iperereza bakagaya iby’ivangura mu gutanga inguzanyo mu mabanki, bavuze ko “umuntu aguriza ufite ubushobozi bwo kwishyura”.

Umuco w’ubuhake

Kimwe mu bintu byakoreshejwe n’abateguye Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda gushishikariza abantu kwitabira gukora icyo cyaha ndengakamere, byari ugukumira Abatutsi ngo batazagarura ubuhake bwaciwe n’Abahutu. Ibyo byavuzwe n’abanyapolitiki bicyo gihe, bihereye ku gihe cya Kayibanda kugeza kuri Habyarimana.

Hari indirimbo ya Bikindi Simon yise “Twasezereye” yaciye ibintu guhera mu mwaka w’1987 u Rwanda rwizihiza ubwigenge ku nshuro ya 25 kugeza muri Jenoside mu 1994. Iyo ndirimbo icyo ivuga cyasezerewe ni “ingoma ya gihake na gikoroni”.

MRND yivuguruye mu 1991 yavugaga ko mu byo baciye ari “ubuhake” n’icyo ari cyo cyose bijyana. No gushingwa kw’ishyaka CDR n’icyo byashimangiraga. Uwo batwereraga ko ashaka kugarura ubuhake ni FPR-Inkotanyi kandi ari ikinyoma.

Iyo urebye ibyavuye mu iperereza rya MRND bitandukanye n’ibyo babeshyeraga ubwo buhake. Abantu babajijwe niba “umuco wo guhaka, guhakwa no guhakirizwa wacitse mu Rwanda.” Mu babajijwe bose 42.6% bemeje ko uwo muco wacitse, 55.4% bemeza ko ukiriho cyane, 2% bavuga ko ntacyo babivugaho.

Ishusho nziza y’ibyavuyemo uyibona mu babajijwe mu rwego rw’imyuga bakavuga ko uwo muco utaracika: Abahinzi-borozi 37.3% ; abanyeshuri 58% ; abarimu 69.5% ; abakozi ba Leta 62.3% ; abakozi bo mu bigo byigenga 56% ; abanyapolitiki 55.7% ; abikorera ku giti cyabo 66.7% ; abanyamadini 63.3% n’abasirikare 60%.

Hagati ya1991-94 MRND/CDR yakanguriraga abaturage ko bagomba kurwanya FPR-Inkotanyi kubera ko uwo muryango uharanira kugarura ubuhake. Iperereza ryo mu 1990 rikerekana ko abanyapolitiki, abasirikare, abakozi ba leta n’abandi bose uretse abahinzi borozi bemeje ko ubwo buhake bwabaye umuco.

Icyo kinyoma muri politiki cyicishije abantu benshi. Habaye aha FPR yiyemeje kubobora u Rwanda igatsinda ubwo bugome bwihishe mu kinyoma nk’uko tuzabisobanura.

Umushakashatsi Tom Ndahiro

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