Uko FPR yahoze ni ko iri, ni na ko izahora (Igice cya 12)

Yanditswe na Tom Ndahiro
Kuya 19 Ukwakira 2017 saa 07:56
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Inkotanyi zitangira urugamba rw’umuheto ku itariki ya mbere Ukwakira 1990, nabyise gutabara kurusha gutera kubera aho igihugu cyari kigeze muri politiki.

Kimwe mu bintu byibukwa mu mateka ya politiki y’u Rwanda icyo gihe, uretse gutangira kw’iyo ntambara, ni uko ku itariki ya mbere Nzeri uwo mwaka Abanyarwanda mirongo itatu na batatu (33) batinyutse kwandikira uwari Perezida Habyarimana Juvenal bamusaba ko politiki y’igihugu yava ku ishyaka rimwe ikaba iy’amashyaka menshi.

Igikomeye kurusha ibindi ni ibyari muri “Raporo y’iperereza rigamije kumenya ibitekerezo by’Abanyarwanda ku mivugururire ya politiki y’igihugu” yashyizwe ahagaragara muri Nyakanga 1990 na Perezidansi y’ishyaka ryari ku butegetsi—MRND. Bikaba byarakozwe ngo bihurirane n’imyaka 15 MRND yari imaze ishinzwe.
Ku itariki ya 15 Mutarama 1989, Perezida Habyarimana yavugiye mu mbwirwaruhame asa n’utanga amabwiriza ko MRND “igomba gusuzuma imiterere n’imikorere yayo kugira ngo ivugurure cyangwa ihindure ibigomba kuvugururwa cyangwa guhinduka.” Abakoze iryo perereza bibanze ku mahame ya MRND: UBUMWE, AMAHORO n’AMAJYAMBERE nk’insanganyamatsiko zo kwigwaho.

Habyarimana yakoresheje imvugo ya Papa Yohani XXIII (atangiza Umukubo wa II wa Vatican mu Ukwakira 1962) uwo mukoro yatekereje awita ‘Aggiornamento’. Yaje gushyiraho ‘Komite ishinzwe imivugururire ya Muvoma.’

Kimwe kandi cy’ingenzi iyo komite yakozemo iperereza ni “Uko Abanyarwanda babona imiterere ya politiki mu gihe gishize, muri iki gihe no mu gihe kizaza”. Ni iperereza ryabajije abantu hakurikijwe umurimo/umwuga, ikigero cy’imyaka, ubusumbane bw’imibereho, igitsina, uturere batuyemo (za perefegitura) n’aho abantu batuye (Umujyi cyangwa Icyaro).

Mu rwego rw’imirimo cyangwa imyuga yari muri ibi byiciro: Abahinzi, Abanyeshuri, Abarimu, Abakozi ba Leta, Abakozi bo mu bigo byigenga, Abanyapolitiki, Abikorera ku giti cyabo, Abanyamadini n’Abasirikare.

Amahoro nta mutekano

Mu babajijwe, 92.6% bashubije ko mu Rwanda muri rusange hari amahoro, ariko 91.2% bemeza ko mu Rwanda nta mutekano uhari. Bimwe mu byatumye benshi bavuga ko hari amahoro nta mutekano ni uko mu gihugu hari inzara bikemezwa n’ababajijwe 96% mu gihe 87.6% bavuze ko ubucamanza bumeze nabi kubera impamvu zitandukanye zirimo ruswa n’abacamanza badashoboye. Nk’igisubizo cy’ubucamanza bubi, 7.4% bifuje “gusubiza gacaca agaciro kayo”.

Mu bitera umutekano muke harimo kuba abanyarwanda batareshya imbere y’Amategeko byemejwe na 61.6%; abangana na 89.8% bemeza ko “ruswa yahawe intebe” harimo 11.2% bemeje ko “ruswa idashobora gucika”. Mu babajijwe ku kibazo cyo kwishyira ukizana mu gihugu, 58.8% bemeje ko nta kwishyira ukizana bihari 20.4% barifata.

Amahoro banayarebeye “mu gukemura ikibazo cy’impunzi z’Abanyarwanda” aho imitekerereze ya Leta yigaragaje. Mu babajijwe mu iperereza 69% bavuze ko “Impunzi zaguma aho ziri zigahabwa ubwenegihugu”; 11% bavuga ko muri izo mpunzi “abashobora kwitunga bagakora indi mirimo itari iy’ubuhinzi bagaruka”; 10.2% ni bo bashubije ko “ababishaka bagaruka”; 2.4% basubiza ko “babimurira mu bindi bihugu bifite ubutaka” naho abandi 2.4% basaba “imiryango mpuzamahanga n’ibihugu izo mpunzi zirimo” ko bafasha u Rwanda “gukemura icyo kibazo”.

Abangana na 0.6% bagaragaje ko batanazi ko hari ikibazo cy’impunzi u Rwanda rwari rufite, 2.4% badafite igitekerezo na kimwe kuri icyo kibazo cy’impunzi naho 2% barifata.

Iyo urebye iyo mibare neza, umubare wa 84.8% by’ababajijwe, ni uw’abatarashakaga ko Abanyarwanda bahunze bagaruka mu gihugu cyabo. Ari ukubashakira ubwenegihugu ahandi, ari ukubashakira ibihugu bindi babamo … ni ubushake bw’uko batagaruka bagaragazaga. Ubwo bushake buke bwajyanye na Leta zabyemeraga ari nazo zateguye zikanakora Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu w’i 1994.
Hari ikintu kidasanzwe cyakozwe n’abanditse raporo y’iperereza, cyatuma umuntu akeka ko hari icyo bashatse guhisha. Ntibigeze berekana uko ababajijwe bashubije ukurikije imyuga cyangwa amaperefegitura abantu bakomokamo nk’uko byagenze mu bijyanye n’UBUMWE n’AMAJYAMBERE.

Kudakemura ikibazo cy’ubuhunzi, ntibyari ubushake buke gusa, kuko byari muri politiki yari imaze igihe. Ari ubutegetsi bwa Gregoire Kayibanda n’ubwa Juvenal Habyarimana, bumvaga ko n’ubundi Abanyarwanda b’Abatutsi bakijije amagara bagahunga nta mpamvu yo kugaruka kuko n’ubundi batari Abanyarwanda.

Uretse n’Abatutsi, igisubizo cy’ibibazo byose bya politiki babishakiraga mu kwirukana, kwica no gushaka ko umunyarwanda yashakirwa ahandi aba akababisa. Ni politiki y’urukozasoni isi itigeze yitaho ngo iyamagane ku mugaragaro. Habaye aha FPR-Inkotanyi zabirwanyije ubu Umunyarwanda aho ari hose akaba afite uburenganzira ku gihugu cye.

Ubumwe butariho

Iki gice mu iperereza bakoze, cyerekanye impinduka mu mitekerereze ya bamwe mu Banyarwanda, ariko kinerekana ko byari bikomeye guhindura imitegekere y’igihugu ubutegetsi buriho bukomeje kubaho.

Muri iki gice ndibanda cyane ku bintu bitatu: 1) Ubwoko mu biranga Umunyarwanda 2) Politiki y’iringaniza n’uturere 3) Umuco wa gihake.

Ibirangabwoko

Mu gushaka gukora “Aggiornamento”, Abanyarwanda babajijwe mu iperereza niba ari ngombwa cyangwa atari ngombwa ko Umunyarwanda yakomeza kurangwa n’uko ari Umuhutu, Umutwa cyangwa Umututsi.

Mu babajijwe, 59.2% bemeje ko umunyarwanda akwiye gukomeza kurangwa n’ubwoko; abangana na 39.2% bavuga ko atari ngombwa; abantu 1.6% barifata. Kubera ko umubare w’abavuze ko ubwoko atari ngombwa mu biranga Abanyarwanda utabaye muto, nashatse kureba uko abantu bashubije mpereye ku rwego rw’imyuga: Abahinzi-borozi 32.3%, Abanyeshuri 58%, Abarimu 44.1%, Abakozi ba Leta 41.6%, Abakozi bo mu bigo byigenga 38%, Abanyapolitiki 27.9%, Abikorera ku giti cyabo 45.8%, Abanyamadini 50% n’Abasirikare 28%.

Mu babajijwe bafite hagati y’imyaka 18-28, abangana na 49% bavuze ko amoko mu bibaranga atari ngombwa mu gihe abari hagati ya 29-45 bari 37.7%, abari hejuru y’imyaka 46 babaye 28%.

Kuba Abanyarwanda bato n’abajijutse bari batangiye kumva ko amoko atari ngombwa mu bibaranga byabaye ikimenyetso ko hari imihindukire y’imitekerereze yari itangiye. Bisobanura ko abatari bake, babonaga ko nta makiriro cyangwa inyungu babona mu ubuhutu, ubutwa n’ubututsi. Ahubwo, ejo hazaza habo hari mu bunyarwanda.

Muri iryo perereza, abatuye mu mujyi 43% y’ababajijwe bavuze ko amoko mu bibaranga atari ngombwa mu gihe mu cyaro bari 36.6%. Iperereza ryanarebye mu busumbane bw’imibereho, basanga abo mu rwego rwo hejuru 44.9% batumva akamaro k’amoko mu bibaranga. Abo mu rwego rwo hagati bari 44.2% mu gihe abo mu rwego rwo hasi bari 34.5%.

Ku rwego rw’ibitsina, mu bagore babajijwe 49% bashubije ko amoko atari ngombwa mu biranga umunyarwanda mu gihe abagabo bari 34.9%.

Mu isesengura ry’abakoze raporo y’iperereza umubare utari muto (ugizwe ahanini n’abagore n’abato) w’ababajijwe bakavuga ko Umunyarwanda kurangwa n’ubwoko atari ngombwa, wabateye ikibazo bannyega abafite iyo myumvire.

Abakoze iyo raporo, aho kubona ibyiza mu byagaragajwe n’abagore bavuze ko amoko atari ngombwa mu byaranga umunyarwanda, barabannyeze. Bati: “Byaba biterwa n’uko abagore n’ubusanzwe batitabira gusesengura ibibazo bifitanye isano na politiki, bityo n’ikibazo cy’amoko ntikibashishikaze.”

Abato nabo barabagaye, bavuga ko babiterwa n’uko batazi amateka y’igihugu n’abagituye, ugereranyije n’ibyo abari hejuru y’imyaka 46 bazi bityo bigatuma babona ko “nta mpamvu yatuma amoko asibangana.”

Muri iyo raporo ariko, hanabaye no kwemera ko iyo myumvire y’abato yerekana ko “uko ibihe bigenda biha ibindi ari nako ibibazo byose bishingiye ku moko bizagenda bishira.”

Ibihe byarakunze biha ibindi, nyuma y’imyaka ine gusa iyo raporo isohotse, Umunyarwanda kurangwa n’amoko byararangiye aho abanyapolitiki n’abasirikare bari bayishyigikiye batsindiwe na FPR-Inkotanyi, abatsinzwe bamaze gukora Jenoside.

Hari abantu babiri bari aha mu Rwanda kandi bakurikiriraga hafi ibya politiki, bambwiye ko Habyarimana yasabye iryo suzuma kubera amabwiriza yari yahawe aturutse i Paris mu BUfaransa. Ari na yo ntandaro ya rya jambo ry’Igitaliyani ‘Aggiornamento’. Ntawabihamya ariko byashoboka kuko Perezida François Mitterrand yari afite akamenyero ko guha amabwiriza ba Perezida b’ibihugu bya Afurika bivuga Igifaransa.

Ese byari gushoboka ko iyo politiki ihinduka hari abanyapolitiki 72.1% n’abasirikare 72% bashyigikiye iryo rondakoko? Igisubizo ni uko bitari gushoboka kuko nyuma y’aho urugamba rutangiriye benyegeje urwango rushingiye ku moko aho kuruzimya.

Umushakashatsi Tom Ndahiro

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