Ububasha bwo kuyobora abandi no kuyobokwa buturuka he?

Yanditswe na Dr. Gasana Sebastien
Kuya 6 Kanama 2017 saa 06:05
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Mu buzima bw’abantu, hari ibintu byinshi dushobora kubona biba ariko ntitwibaze impamvu bigenda gutyo aho kugenda ukundi! Uruhare rw’abahanga rero, muri rusange, rukaba gufasha abantu baba badafite ubumenyi buhambaye bwo gusesengura ibiriho kubasha gusobanukirwa no kumva impamvu ibintu bigenda uko babibona.

Mu bibazo abantu bashobora kwibaza, hari nk’icyo kumenya aho abantu bamwe bakomora ububasha bwo gushobora kuyobora abandi kandi bakayobokwa na bagenzi babo muri sosiyete iyi n’iyi y’abantu, nyamara nta ngufu cyangwa agahato babashyizeho.

Abahanga banyuranye mu bumenyi bwerekeye imiterere n’imibanire y’abantu muri sosiyete (human and social sciences) badufasha kumva no gusobanura mu buryo buhamye, aho ubwo bubasha buturuka.

Mu bisobanuro batanga rero batwereka ko ububasha umuntu agira bwo kuyobora abandi kandi bakamuyoboka koko, mu yandi magambo bagakora ibyo yifuza ko bakora, hatarimo agahato, bukomoka ahantu hatatu tugiye kuvuga muri make:

* Ububasha bushingiye ku ruhererekane rw’imigenzo n’umuco (traditional legitimacy): Umuntu ufite ubu bubasha ashobora kuyobora abandi, muri sosiyete iyi n’iyi, kandi bakamuyoboka, kuko ubwo bubasha ndetse n’umwanya w’ubuyobozi aba arimo abibona bishingiye kuri gahunda iba yarateganijwe mu muco wabo w’ubuyobozi (cyangwa ubutegetsi) ugena uko abayobozi bagenda basimburana. Mu yandi magambo, ubu buyobozi umuntu araburagwa.

Aha twatanga urugero rw’umuntu uba umwami bishingiye gusa ko se cyangwa nyina yari umwami cyangwa umwamikazi; nk’uko biba bisanzwe biteganyijwe muri gahunda yo gusimburana ku ngoma.

Ikindi twavuga ni uko akenshi impinduka mu buyobozi nk’ubu zikunda kugorana kubera ko haba hari abantu banyuranye baba bumva ko ibintu bigomba gukomeza kugenda uko byahoze.

* Ububasha bushingiye kw’itegeko (legal legitimacy / rational legitimacy): Ubu bubasha umuntu abubona binyuze kandi bishingiye ku mabwiriza n’amategeko sosiyete cyangwa igihugu kigenderaho. Mu by’ukuri twavuga ko ari ububasha bwa politiki, cyangwa se uburyo bwo kuyobora igihugu cyangwa sosiyete.

Umuntu ufite ubu bubasha, mu gihe cyose akibufite, ayobora abandi, kandi bakagomba kumuyoboka, bishingiye ku mategeko ; ndetse ayo mategeko akaba agomba kubahirizwa kimwe na bose no kuri bose muri sosiyete (igihugu).

Nk’uko bigaragara hirya no hino mu mitegekere cyangwa imiyoborere ya za sosiyete cyangwa ibihugu, kugira ngo hatagira umuyobozi ugira ububasha bukabije, hamwe na hamwe bukaba bwanakoreshwa nabi, niyo mpamvu mu rwego rwa politiki habaho gusaranganya ubwo bubasha mu nzego eshatu: urwego Nshingamategeko, Nyubahirizategeko n’urw’Ubutabera.

* Ububasha bushingiye ku budashyikirwa mu mibereho y’umuntu (charismatic legitimacy): Ubu bubasha bwo kuyobobora abandi muri sosiyete kandi bakayoboka ubufite twavuga ko buba bushingiye ku buhanga budasanzwe ndetse n’imyitwarire y’agaciro gahebuje by’uwo muyobozi.

Nk’uko bikunze kugaragara kandi, muri sosiyete zinyuranye no mu bihe binyuranye, abantu bafite ubu bubasha bushingiye ku buhanga, imyitwarire n’imibereho yabo by’indashyikirwa bakunze no kubona ububasha bushingiye ku mategeko, binyuze mu nzira zemewe nyine n’amategeko, tumaze kuvugaho mu mirongo yo hejuru.

Mu gusoza, nk’uko abahanga mu bumenyi mu byerekeye imibanire y’abantu muri sosiyete babyerekana, ubu bubasha turangirijeho (charismatic power) bufite umwihariko kuko umuntu ashobora kubugira bwonyine, cyangwa se akabugira icyarimwe hamwe na buriya twahereyeho (traditional power) cyangwa ubwo twakurikijeho (legal/rational power).

Niyo mpamvu abantu banyuranye bashobora gutegeka cyangwa se kuyobora ariko abo bayobora ntibabayoboke cyangwa se ngo babakunde kimwe. Umuyobozi twakwita “charismatic leader” akundwa bihebuje na benshi, abo ayobora ndetse n’abo atayobora, ku buryo hari n’abemera kuba batanga ubuzima bwabo kugira ngo bagere kubyo uwo muyobozi aharanira muri sosiyete!

Dr Gasana Sebastien, Umwarimu muri Christian University of Rwanda (CHUR)


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