Sobanukirwa ‘Umushinga 985’ w’u Bushinwa ugamije gushyira kaminuza zabwo ku rwego mpuzamahanga

Yanditswe na NGABONZIMA François Xavier
Kuya 1 Gashyantare 2021 saa 01:42
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Ibihugu bitandukanye bishobora kugira imishinga migari igenewe uburezi, bigashoramo akayabo k’amafaranga kajyana n’impamvu nyinshi zishingiye ku ntego biba bifite n’iterambere byifuza kugeraho.

Mu nyandiko ya Prof. Phillip Altbach (2021) agaragaza ko nk’u Burusiya bucyiga ukuntu buzashora miliyari 2.3$ mu kongerera ingufu umushinga 5-100. Ikigamijwe ni ukugira ngo byibuze kaminuza eshanu muri 21 zisanzwe zizabe zishobora kugaragara muri kaminuza 100 za mbere ku Isi.

Muri Vietnam ho, 20% by’amafaranga igihugu gikoresha kiyashora mu burezi kuva mu mwaka wa 2008 nk’uko Global Partneship for Education ibigaragaza.

U Bushinwa na bwo ntibwatanzwe mu migambi nk’iyi. Mu ntangiriro za 2021, umunyamakuru Joyce Lau wa Times Higher Education yanditse ko kaminuza n’amashuri makuru byo mu Bushinwa byashowemo miliyari 210$ mu mwaka wa 2019, bisobanuye ubwiyongere bwa 12% ugereranyije n’umwaka wari wabanje.

Imibare y’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Burezi, Ubumenyi n’Umuco (UNESCO), yerekana ko u Bushinwa bwari bufite kaminuza n’amashuri makuru 2956 mu 2019.

Kaminuza zimwe muri izi zikorana n’imishinga migari ya Leta igamije kuziteza imbere by’umwihariko. Imwe muri yo ni nk’umushinga 211 ugamije guteza imbere izitari munsi ya kaminuza 100 mu kinyejana cya 21 kugira ngo hasubizwe by’umwihariko ibyo sosiyete y’u Bushinwa ikeneye. Hari kandi n’umushinga 985 ari wo tugarukaho muri iyi nyandiko.

-  Kuki wiswe umushinga ‘985’?

Umushinga 985 uzwi mu ndimi z’amahanga nka ‘985 project’ cyangwa ‘Jiǔbāwǔ gōngchéng’ (九八五工程). Kugira ngo dusobanukirwe neza inkomoko y’iri zina, ni ngombwa ko dusubira mu mateka ya kera na vuba ku mibereho ya kaminuza zo mu Bushinwa.

Twifashishije igitabo ‘Higher Education in China’ [tugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda twavuga ‘amashuri makuru na kaminuza mu Bushinwa’], abanditsi Jianmin Gu, Xueping Li na Lihua Wang (2018) bavuga ko amateka agaragaza ko kaminuza zo mu Bushinwa zatangiye mu mwaka 1600-1100 mbere y’ivuka rya Yezu/Yesu n’ubwo iyi myaka itemeranywaho n’abanyamateka.

Uko zagiye zitera imbere byageze mu mwaka wa 1862 haramaze kuvuka Imperial College, kaminuza ya mbere igezweho. Iyi yatangiranye ishami rimwe ry’ihinduranyandiko yakomeje gukura yongera amashami yihuza n’izindi, ihindura amazina n’imikorere kugeza ubwo mu mwaka wa 1898 yavagamo Kaminuza imwe ya Peking.

Ibi ni ibisanzwe mu kongerera imbaraga kaminuza nk’uko byagenze mu 2013 ubwo amashuri makuru 6 n’iyari Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda byihuzaga bigakora Kaminuza y’u Rwanda.

Kaminuza ya Peking iha agaciro uwa 4 Gicurasi (ushobora kwandika 4/5) nk’umunsi wizihizwaho isabukuru y’ivuka ryayo.

Mu kwizihiza isabukuru y’imyaka 100 kaminuza yari imaze ivutse, mu mwaka wa 1998, Perezida w’u Bushinwa wariho icyo gihe, Jiang Zhemin, yagize ati ‘U Bushinwa bugomba kubaka itsinda ry’amakaminuza ari ku isonga afite ibyangombwa bikenewe ku makaminuza mpuzamahanga kugira ngo tugere ku iterambere ryabwo’.

Hagati y’umwaka wa 1999 na 2006, kaminuza 34 zari zimaze kwemezwa na Minisiteri y’Uburezi ko zikwiriye kuwujyamo. Uko ni ko izina ryahawe uwo mushinga ryahujwe n’umwaka wa 98 n’ukwezi kwa Gicurasi.

-  Intego ijyana n’ikiguzi...

Umushinga 985 ugamije gushyira ku rwego mpuzamahanga kaminuza zatoranyijwe. Mu kugerageza kubigeraho, izo kaminuza zishorwamo ingengo y’imari nini ugereranyije n’izindi hagamijwe kubaka ibikorwa remezo, ubushobozi bwo gukora no gutangaza ubushakashatsi n’ibindi. Kubera ubugari bw’umushinga, wagiye ukorwa mu byiciro.

Mu cyiciro cya mbere harimo kaminuza icyenda zibumbiye mu itsinda ryiswe C9 League, ryari rigizwe na Kaminuza ya Peking, Fudan, Nanjing, iya Zhejiang, Tsinghua, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, University of Science and Technology of China na kaminuza ya Xi’an Jiao tong.

Mu gutangira, izi kaminuza zari zifite abashakashatsi bangana na 3% by’abari mu gihugu, zigafata amafaranga angana na 10% by’amafaranga agenewe ubushakashatsi.

Mu mwaka wa 2004 haje icyiciro cyawo cya kabiri ugenda ukura kugeza ubwo ubu habarizwamo kaminuza 39. Umuryango uhuza kaminuza hagamijwe inovasiyo (Global University Network for Innovation) uvuga ko izi kaminuza zari ziteganyirijwe gushorwamo miliyari 3.67$) mu myaka icumi.

Kaminuza uko ari 39 ni Beijing Institute of Technology, China Agricultural University, National University of Defense Technology, kaminuza ya Sun Yat-sen, iya Wuhan n’iya Xiamen. Izindi ziri muri uyu mushinga ni kaminuza ya Beihang, Chongqing, Central South, iya Hunan, Lanzhou, Nanjing, Jilin, Nankai, Northeastern, Shandong, Sichuan, Tianjin, Tongji.

Harimo kandi Beijing Normal University, Central University for Nationalities, Dalian University of Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, National University of Defense Technology, Northwest A&F University, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Ocean University of China, Renmin University of China, South China University of Technology, Southeast University, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China ndetse na East China Normal University.

Usibye uyu mushinga hari n’imigambi itandukanye igamije kuzamura inzego za kaminuza hakaba ivugwa cyane, iba ikiri mu mavugurura cyangwa se igitekerezwaho. Twavuga nk’umushinga wiswe ‘Double first class University plan’ [uyu ufite amazina menshi]; ugamije kugira amasomo byibuze 100 ari ku rwego mpuzamahanga bitarenze mu mwaka wa 2050.

Tunasanga ko kaminuza imwe yo mu Bushinwa ishobora kuba muri iyo mishinga yose ariko ntibisobanuye guhita zigera ku rwego mpuzamahanga: ni intambwe iterwa gahoro gahoro. Uko iyi mishinga iteza imbere kaminuza yagenewe, ni ko n’ibindi bihugu bihazamukira.

Ikigo British Council n’abafatanyabikorwa bacyo bakoranye ubushakashatsi bwo mu mwaka wa 2014 bureba uko abanyeshuri bazaba bava mu bihugu bajya mu bindi, bateganya ko umwaka wa 2024 uzajya kugera u Bushinwa buri ku mwanya wa gatatu mu bihugu bizaba bifite abanyeshuri benshi baza kubyigamo.

Bimwe mu bikurura abanyeshuri habamo n’ingamba zituma umunyeshuri w’ahandi abona ko hari ubumenyi yakungukira ahandi bukazamugirira akamaro we n’igihugu cye.

Nko mu 2019, umubare w’abanyeshuri b’Abanyafurika babaruwe na Minisiteri y’Uburezi y’u Bushinwa wari 81,562 bangana na 16.57% by’abanyamahanga bose.

Mu gihe mu mwaka wa 2020, Abanyarwanda bigaga mu Bushinwa kuri buruse zitandukanye barengaga 1200 nk’uko imibare ikinyamakuru University World News gikesha Ihuriro ry’Abanyarwanda biga mu Bushinwa ibigaragaza. Amasomo aba bahakura akoreshwa cyane mu mibereho ya buri munsi iyo bageze mu buzima butandukanye n’ubwo ku ishuri.

-  U Rwanda rushora akayabo muri kaminuza ku nyungu z’ubushakashatsi

U Rwanda nk’igihugu giteza imbere uburezi busubiza ibibazo, ubushakashatsi ni kimwe mu bituma iyi ntego igenda yagura intambwe itera uko imyaka ihita indi igataha.

Ku rupapuro rwa 60 rw’igitabo cy’imigambi ya Leta y’u Rwanda ijyanye n’uburezi kuva mu mwaka wa 2018 kugeza mu wa 2024 (Education Sector Strategic Plan 2018-2024) hagaragara ko kimwe mu bikorwa muri iki gihe ari ugukangurira abantu umuco w’ubushakashatsi, kongerera ubumenyi n’imbaraga ababukora.

Mu mwaka wa 2016, kaminuza n’amashuri makuru byazaga ku mwanya wa kabiri mu kugenerwa amafaranga menshi y’ubushakashatsi. Raporo ya 2015/2016 y’Inama y’Igihugu y’Ubumenyi n’Ikoranabuhanga mu Rwanda ivuga ko amafaranga yagenewe ubushakashatsi yari muri rusange yari 44, 457,113, 816 Frw.

Ibyo bisobanura ko rwashoye 0.66% ugereranyije n’intego y’ibihugu bya Afurika yo kugenera ubushakashatsi amafaranga angana na 1% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’imbere mu gihugu. Kuri iyi ngingo Afurika y’Epfo yakoreshaga 0.80% ; Sénégal 0.75% na ho Misiri igakoresha 0.72%.

Raporo ivuga ko muri icyo gihe mu mafaranga yashowe mu guteza imbere ubushakashatsi, harimo 3, 503,584, 922Frw yahabwaga kaminuza n’amashuri makuru. Yongeraho ko byari ibya mbere mu bufatanye n’ibindi bigo hanze aho byari ku rugero 19.68%.

Mu nyandiko yo muri Kamena 2020, igaragaza politiki y’Ubumenyi, Ikoranabuhanga na Inovasiyo, hagaragaramo ko urwego rw’Ubumenyi, Ikorabuhanga na Inovasiyo mu Rwanda rwatijwe imbaraga n’ishingwa ry’ibigo by’icyitegererezo. Muri byo hari nka AIMS, Kaminuza ya Cargenie Mellon n’ibindi.

Muri make, buri gihugu kigira imigambi igamije iterambere y’uburezi bwacyo, hagashyirwamo ingengo y’imari yabyo. Politiki zibigenga zishyirwaho, ubufatanye mpuzamahanga bukajyaho mu rwego rwo kwigira ku bindi bihugu.

Umushinga 985 w’u Bushinwa ni urugero rumwe kandi mu gihugu kimwe. N’ubwo twibanze kuri bimwe mu bikorwa n’ibyakozwe haba mu Rwanda cyangwa mu bindi bigaragara muri iyi nyandiko, hari byinshi uburezi butandukanye bwagezeho bubikesha ingamba leta zagiye zishyiraho.

Beijing Institute of Technology
Kaminuza ishobora guterwa inkunga n’imishinga irenze umwe -Iya Peking iri mu mushinga 985 na 211 n’indi itandukanye
Kaminuza ya Xiamen iri mu Ntara ya Fujian. Hari Abanyarwanda bayigamo

Ngabonzima François Xavier, Umunyeshuri wiga Uburezi bugereranya (Comparative Education/PhD student)

Twitter: @Frantisekx


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