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Ni izihe nyungu Human Rights Watch ifite mu kuvugira abaryamana bahuje ibitsina mu Rwanda?

Yanditswe na Urinzwenimana Mike
Kuya 7 Ukwakira 2021 saa 11:11
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Kimwe mu bimaze iminsi bivugwa ku Rwanda mu ruhando mpuzamahanga ni inkuru zagarutse kuri raporo yasohowe n’Umuryango Mpuzamahanga wita ku Burenganzira bwa muntu, Human Rights Watch (HRW), aho watangaje ko uburenganzira bw’ababarirwa mu itsinda rya LGBTQ bubangamiwe.

Iyi raporo ivuga ko abaryamana bahuje ibitsina mu Rwanda bakunze kwitwa abatinganyi bahohoterwa ndetse bagafungwa, bagatukwa, bagakubitwa n’ibindi. Igaragaza ko ibi byose babikorerwa aho bita kwa Kabuga ariko nyuma yo gutangaza iy raporo, Leta y’u Rwanda yarayamaganye ivuga ko yuzuyemo ibinyoma ndetse n’abarengera inyungu z’ababarirwa mu itsinda rya LGBTQ mu Rwanda, bagaragaje ko iyi raporo irimo ibinyoma kuko nta wuhorwa iby’iyumviro bye.

Urugero ni urwa Albert watangaje ko amaze imyaka itatu yarashyize ku mugaragaro ko ari umutinganyi ariko nta hohoterwa na rimwe yigeze akorerwa na Leta gusa agaragaza ko umuryango Nyarwanda usa nk’utiteguye kwakira icyo bita ishyano rishaka kugwira umuco Nyarwanda, agasaba ko hakwiye gukorwa ubukangurambaga bukangurira umuryango Nyarwanda kwakira abafite ibyiyumviro nk’ibyagize itsinda rya LGBTQ.

Aha umuntu akaba yakwibaza inyungu HRW ifite mu gusohora raporo yibasira u Rwanda ariko na none iburanira abaryamana bahuje ibitsina n’abihinduza imiterere y’imibiri yabo (Transgender).

Isura nshya ya ba gashakabuhake mu gusenya Afurika

Nk’uko bigaragara mu mateka y’u Rwanda na Afurika, abazungu baba bafite gahunda kirimbuzi ihishe kandi y’igihe kirekire cyane izashyirwa mu bikorwa ku mugabane wa Afurika.

Imwe mu nzira bashyizeho zo gushyira mu bikorwa iyo migambi yabo ni ugushyiraho imiryango n’amashyirahamwe mpuzamahanga atandukanye, afite intego zitandukanye. Mu by’ukuri ayo mashyirahamwe n’imiryango mpuzamahanga, bayaha intego nziza mu nyandiko ariko mu kuzishyira mu bikorwa ugasanga hihishemo ubugome n’imigambi kirimbuzi, igambiriye kwibasira umugabane runaka, igihugu cyangwa itsinda ry’abantu runaka kandi byose bishingiye ku nyungu za ba gashakabuhake.

HRW ni umwe mu miryango mpuzamahanga, ufite intego nziza yo kurengera uburenganzira bwa muntu ariko nanone izi ntego yazigize umutaka yihishamo, ugatwara inkota ityaye y’ubugome yo kwica no gusohoza umugambi kirimbuzi w’abazungu ku migabane, ibihugu n’amatsinda y’abantu bagambiriwe kwibasirwa.

Ni umuryango winjirana umutwe wo kurengera uburenganzira bwa muntu ariko uhetse kontineri y’uburozi bwica kandi bukangiza uburenganzira bwa muntu, ufite umwambaro w’uburenganzira bw’umuntu ariko ukagira kamere yo guhungabanya uburenganzira bwa muntu.

Kuki HRW yita ku bakoze amabi ikirengagiza abo yagizeho ingaruka?

Mu mateka y’uyu muryango uzasanga iteka raporo zawo ziba zivugira, zishyigikira kandi zikorera ubukangurambaga n’ubuvugizi abagize amatsinda y’inkozi zibibi, imitwe y’iterabwoba n’iyindi ihitana ubuzima bw’abantu benshi ariko ukibaza impamvu HRW ivugira abica abantu ariko ntivugire abishwe n’ay’amatsinda.

Igisubizo cyoroshye ku mpamvu HRW ivugira amatsinda y’abagizi ba nabi babangamiye uburenganzira bwa benshi ni uko akenshi ayo matsinda, abo ba ruharwa, abo bagizi ba nabi baba bari gushyira mu bikorwa imigambi kirimbuzi yateguwe na ba mpatsibihugu ari na bo bashyizeho HRW.

Akenshi ayo matsinda cyangwa abo bantu iyo bagiye mu migambi kirimbuzi yo kwica abantu no guhungabanya uburenganzira bwa muntu, bizezwa ubuvugizi na ba nyiri ya miryango mpuzamahanga nka HRW.

Ukoze isesengura ku byatumye HRW isohora raporo igaragaza ko uburenganzira bw’ababana bahuje igitsina n’ababihinduje bubangamiwe mu Rwanda, impamvu nyamukuru kandi y’ukuri iragaragara mu nkuru yasohowe n’abavuga ko bahagarariye inyungu kandi bakavugira abibumbiye mu itsinda rya LGBTQ mu Rwanda, aho bagaragaje ko nta burenganzira bwabo bwigeze bubangamirwa, ko nta munyamuryango wabo wigeze afungirwa ibyiyumviro bye n’amahitamo ye ku mikoreshereze y’igitsina kandi koko ni ukuri kuko u Rwanda ruri mu bihugu bya Afurika bidafite amategeko ahana abahuza ibitsina babihuje nubwo bifatwa nk’akaga, ishyano n’ikizira mu muco nyarwanda.

Ariko na none, aba bavugira iri tsinda basaba ko bakorerwa ubuvugizi n’ubukangurambaga ngo umuryango Nyarwanda wumve ibyiyumviro byabo n’amahitamo yabo yo gutingana.

Impamvu nyamukuru y’iyi raporo ni ugushyira u Rwanda ku gitutu kugira ngo rwemere gushyiraho amategeko yemera ku mugaragaro abaryamana bahuje igitsina no gukora ubukangurambaga bubavugira mu muryango Nyarwanda.

None se ni izihe nyungu abazungu bafite mu gushyigikira ubutinganyi muri Afurika no mu Rwanda muri rusange?

Impamvu nyamukuru n’inyungu wazishakira mu mateka y’ubukoloni aho batahwemye gushyiraho gahunda zigambiriye gusenya, gucinyiza no guhagarika intekerezo z’Abanyafurika bagambiriye kugira Afurika imbehe bariraho ikagaburira abana babo n’abazabakomokaho na ho Abanyafurika bakabagira nk’ibimashini cyangwa robo zikora zidatekereza, zidahumeka ku bw’inyungu z’abazungu.

Urugero twavuga ni gahunda y’uburezi yaremye Abanyafurika kuba abafasha b’abaganga aho kuba abaganga, abahereza mu bwubatsi aho kuba abubatsi, abanyamabanga mu bigo aho kuba abayobozi.

Mu gitabo kiri muri “Archives de Pères blancs à Rome” cyanditswe na Padiri Brard mu 1902 cyitwa ‘Au Rwanda’ gifite nimero 01071, avugamo iyicarubozo ryo mu bitekerezo bakoreye abanyarwanda umusaruro wabyo bawugezeho 1931 igihe bari bamaze kwigizayo Umwami Yuhi V Musinga.

Iyi gahunda yo gushyira imbere no guteza imbere abaryamana bahuje ibitsina , ihishe umugambi kirimbuzi wo gusenya umuco w’abanyafurika muri rusange n’uw’umuryango Nyarwanda by’umwihariko.

Ubundi igitandukanya amatsinda y’abatuye isi ni umuco wa buri gihugu cyangwa wa buri tsinda. Mu muco ni ho hahishe imbaraga z’ubumwe n’ubusabane bw’abawuhuriyeho, iz’uburere n’uburezi, izo gukunda igihugu, kukirinda no kucyitangira n’imitekerereze. Niho hahishe isano muzi y’abenegihugu cyangwa ubwoko bw’abantu runaka, ni yo mpamvu abakurambere b’abanyarwanda bagize bati"agahugu umuco, akandi uwako." Kandi bati"agahugu katagira umuco karacika."

Kotsa igitutu ibihugu bya Afurika muri rusange n’u Rwanda by’umwihariko ngo byemere ubutinganyi, bubishyire mu mategeko yabyo ni nk’igitero gikomeye kandi gikoreshejwemo ibisasu kirimbuzi, kigabwe ku muco w’Abanyafurika n’Abanyarwanda by’umwihariko kandi ubumara bwabyo bukazica ibisekuru byinshi by’abazadukomokaho.

Dushingiye ku mateka y’abazungu mu Rwanda, intego yabo nyamukuru ni ugukoresha uburyo bwo gucamo ibice Abanyarwanda, kubatatanya kugira ngo babone uko babayobora buhumyi, intwaro ikomeye Abanyarwanda bakoresheje batsinda ibitero bagabwaho n’abazungu, ni umuco kuko mu muco w’Abanyarwanda ni ho havuye inkomoko yo kwishakamo ibisubizo, kubabarirana, gusabana, kwihesha agaciro, gutabarira hamwe n’ibindi.

Indangagaciro z’umuco nyarwanda zabaye inkomoko yo kwishakamo ibisubizo no gukemura ibibazo u Rwanda rwasigiwe na Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu 1994. Kwemera no gushyigikira ubutinganyi ni ukurema icyuho no gusenya umuco w’Abanyafurika n’uw’Abanyarwanda muri rusange ari byo bizafasha ba gashakabuhake kutugira ingaruzwamuheto cyane ko ubona abagambiriwe ari urubyiruko rwo Rwanda rw’ejo. Gusa, aha ukaba wakwibaza niba abashyigikiye uyu mugambi mubisha w’ubutinganyi batabona ingaruka zawo.

Dusoza iyi nyandiko, ntidukwiye kumva ko ababana bahuje ibitsina (abatinganyi) aribo bonyine bafite ibyiyumviro byihariye ku buryo ari bo bakwiye gushyirirwaho amategeko yihariye no gukorerwa ubukangurambaga bwo kwemerwa kuko hari abafite ibyiyumviro byo guhuza ibitsina n’inyamaswa, hari abafite ibyiyumviro byo guhuza ibitsina n’abana, hari abafite ibyiyumviro byo kwanga uwo badahuje ubwoko inkomoko n’akarere, hari abafite ibyiyumviro byo kunywa ibiyobyabwenge, hari abafite iby’iyumviro by’ubuhezanguni ku by’idini n’ibindi nubwo aba bose bari muri ibi byiciro ari Abanyarwanda dusangiye ubunyarwanda kandi dukunda ariko tutifuza ko ibyiyumviro byabo byakorerwa ubukangurambaga ngo byigishwe kuko bitandukanye n’imitekerereze n’indagagaciro Nyarwanda.

Gusa aba bose mu mitekerereze yabo bumva ko kugira ibyiyumviro bitandukanye n’iby’abandi ari uburenganzira bwabo kandi koko ni byo ariko burya buri wese akwiye kumva ko aho uburenganzira bwe burangirira ari ho ubwa mugenzi we butangirira. Kandi Leta ni yo ifite ishingano yo kumenya no gushyiraho imirongo igaragaza uburyo uburenganzira bwa buri wese butabangamira uburenganzira bw’abandi n’ituze rya rubanda kandi ku birebana n’abaryamana bahuje ibitsina, dushingiye ku Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda, iry’umuryango n’irishyiraho Minisiteri y’Umuco agaragaza aho leta ihagaze.

Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda ryo muri 2003 nk’uko ryavuguruwe muri 2015 kugeza ubu, ingino yaryo ya 11, ivuga ko umuco nyarwanda ari isoko yo kwishakamo ibisubizo, ingingo ya 17, ikavuga uburenganzira bwo gushyingiranwa no kugira umuryango, aho igira iti "Ugushyingiranwa ku mugore umwe n’umugabo umwe gukorewe mu butegetsi bwa Leta ni ko kwemewe."

Ingingo ya 18 ivuga ku kurengera umuryango aho igira ko "umuryango ari wo shingiro kamere y’imbaga y’abanyarwanda, urengerwa na rubanda."

Ingingo ya 36, ivuga uburenganzira ku biteza imbere umuco w’igihugu, ingingo ya 41, ivuga aho uburenganzira n’ubwisanzure bigarukira na ho iya 47 ikavuga ku kurengera no guteza imbere umuco w’igihugu aho igira iti "Leta ifite inshingano zo kurengera no guteza imbere indangagaciro z’igihugu zishingiye ku mibereho no ku mitekerereze ndangamuco ndetse no ku biranga umuco w’igihugu muri rusange, mu gihe bitabangamiye uburenganzira bwa muntu, ituze rusange rya rubanda n’imyifatire ndangabupfura."

Indirimbo yubahiriza igihugu, igice cya kabiri igira iti "Horana Imana murage mwiza ibyo tugukesha ntibishyikirwa, umuco dusangiye uraturanga, ururimi rwacu rukaduhuza, ubwenge umutima, amaboko yacu nibigukungahaze bikwiye nuko utere imbere ubutitsa."

Iki gice kigaragaza neza icyo buri wese agomba gushyira imbere mu bikorwa bye bya buri munsi no mu burenganzira bwe mu nyungu z’igihugu: icya mbere ni ukumenya ko igihugu ari wo murage w’abenegihugu akaba ari na yo ngobyi ibahetse kandi inkingi zigize igihugu ni umuco (indangagaciro na kirazira) n’ururimi (Ikinyarwanda), iyo umuntu afite indangagaciro na kirazira z’umuco bimufasha kugira ubwenge, umutima ukunda igihugu n’amaboko yo kugikorera maze kikabona gutera imbere.

Ntibishoboka ko igihugu cyatera imbere mu gihe umuco n’ururimi byacyo byatakaye. Kandi hashingiwe ku bivuzwe mu mategeko no mu ndirimbo yubahiriza igihugu, ibikorwa by’abaryamana bahuje igitsina bibusanyije n’umuco nyarwanda n’itegeko nshinga rya RepubuLika y’u Rwanda.

Tugarutse ku ruhande rw’abavuga ko kwemera ibikorwa by’ababana bahuje ibitsina ari ukubaha uburenganzira bwabo kandi ko ariko bavutse, twakwibaza kandi tugasubiza ibibazo bikurikira: ese koko kwamamaza ibikorwa by’ababana bahuje ibitsina ni uburenganzira bagenerwa n’amategeko? Ese koko ababana bahuje ibitsina ni ko bavutse?

Mu kuri umuntu wese hano mu Rwanda afite uburenganzira agenerwa n’amategeko bwo kubaho uko ashatse ariko na none iyo iyi mibereho irenze we wenyine, ntiba ikibaye uburenganzira bwe bwenyine ahubwo haba hakwiye no gutekerezwa ku burenganzira bw’abandi.

Umuntu ufite ibyiyumviro byo kuryamana n’uwo bahuje igitsina ni uburenganzira bwe, nta n’ukwiye kubimuziza, yemerewe kuba muri ubwo buzima ariko iyo bigeze ku kwamamaza ibikorwa by’ababana bahuje ibitsina biba byarenze uburenganzira bw’umuntu ahubwo byageze mu burenganzira bwo kurengera umuco w’igihugu, indangagaciro z’abenegihugu, ibikorwa ndangabupfura n’amategeko.

Nk’uko twabibonye kandi bikaba bigenwa n’amategeko cyane cyane Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda ryo muri 2003 nk’uko ryavuguruwe muri 2015 kugeza ubu, cyane cyane mu mutwe waryo wa kabiri, mu ngingo ya 8, umutwe wa gatatu mu ngingo ya 11, umutwe wa kane mu ngingo ya 18,19,38 n’iya 41 n’umutwe wa gatanu mu ngingo ya 47, rigaragaza ko Leta ifite inshingano zo kurinda umuco no kuwuteza imbere, kurinda umwana n’urubyiruko ikintu icyo ari cyo cyose cyahungabanya umwana mu mitekerereze, kubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu hirindwa icyahungabanya ituze rusange rya muntu, kubungabunga umuryango no kuwurinda icyawuhungabanya hibandwa cyane ku burenganzira bw’umwana n’umugore.

Mu ngingo zavuzwe z’Itegeko Nshinga, zigaragaza ko Leta ifite inshingano zo kurinda umuco w’igihugu kandi rigaragaza aho uburenganzira bwa buri wese butangirira n’aho bugarukira yaba mu gutanga ibitekerezo, imyemerere n’ibindi. Uburenganzira bwa buri wese, yaba umuhanzi, umunyamakuru, umuvugabutumwa n’abandi bugarukira mu kubungabunga ituze rya rubanda.

Ibikubiye muri iyi nkuru ni ibitekerezo bwite by’umwanditsi Urinzwenimana Mike


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