Itangazamakuru rifite ibibazo; ese ba nyir’ibitangazamakuru bo ntabyo baba bariteza?

Yanditswe na Vital Karangwa Jr.
Kuya 3 Ugushyingo 2017 saa 08:05
Yasuwe :
0 0

Maze imyaka itari myinshi ariko kandi si mike cyane nkora itangazamakuru hano mu gihugu. Nkitangira gutekereza kujya gushaka akazi mu bitangazamakuru ndi muri kaminuza, abenshi bahitaga banca intege ko bibamo ibibazo byinshi. Nanjye kuko nabibwirwaga na benshi natangiye gucika intege kugeza igihe umwe muri bagenzi banjye wabyinjiyemo mbere yansabye kujya mu gitangazamakuru yakoreraga.

Nabanje kwanga ariko nyuma njyayo kuko nibyo nize nabonaga ntaho nabihungira kandi mbikunda. Nagize amahirwe igitangazamakuru nagiyemo nsanga kiri ku murongo ibyahavugwaga ntabihari. Ibibazo mu itangazamakuru byavuzwe kuva na mbere hose, ngo ntibyishyura, ntibisora, birukana uko bashatse, habamo ruswa n’ibindi.

Ba nyir’ibitangazamakuru batatse kenshi basaba inkunga ya leta n’indi miryango. Ibibazo itangazamakuru rigaragariza leta sibyo ngiye kugarukaho kuko byagarutsweho kenshi kandi ndizera neza ko abo byagaragarijwe hari icyo bazabikoraho.

Ariko uyu munsi ndibaza nti: ese ba nyir’ibitangazamakuru bo bazi ko aribo bafite inshingano za mbere mu gukemura bimwe mu bibazo biri mu itangazamakuru?

Dore bimwe mu bindi bibazo by’ingutu bitajya bigaragazwa byugarije itangazamakuru.

1. Nta gahunda yo gutanga akazi ihamye ihari

Nta gahunda ihamye yo gutanga akazi iri mu itangazamakuru. Hari ibitangazamakuru winjiramo ugasangamo abakozi akayabo nyamara abishyurwa ari bake.

Ba nyirabyo bazakubwira ko ari abakorerabushake abandi ko bari kwimenyereza umwuga nyamara nuhindukira ukaganiriza uwitwa umukorerabushake azakubwira ko ari umukozi w’icyo kigo akongerereho ko ikibazo afite ari uko atishyurwa.

Impamvu ni imwe. Nta biganiro n’amasezerano yanditse afitanye n’ikigo, yisanze aza kwaka akazi maze bamubwira kuba akora bakazareba nyuma niba yahembwa. Kuva icyo gihe nibwo aherukana n’uwamwemereye uwo mwanya, cyangwa yewe yanazanywe na mugenzi we umuyobozi w’igitangazamakuru ntabwo amuzi, amubona aho gusa.

Hari ubwo usanga n’abahembwa batangira gufata inshingano zabo bakazegeka ku bitwa ko ari abakorerabushake n’abimenyereza nyamara, muri make bagahemberwa akazi kakozwe n’abadahembwa. Ese ari ubucuruzi utangiye kandi ushaka ko bukomera bukagera kure ubu nibwo buryo wakoresha?

Hagomba kubaho gutandukanya akazi, kwimenyereza no gukorera ubushake (Volunteering) kandi bigasobanurirwa uwo bireba mbere y’uko atangira bikajya no mu nyandiko igashyirwaho n’igihe ahawe uko kireshya. Cyarangira agasezererwa, agahabwa akazi cyangwa hakarebwa niba yakongererwa igihe bitewe n’ubwumvikane bw’impande zombi.

2. Hari abayobozi b’ibitangazamakuru wamara amezi abiri utarabona ku kazi

Ese wayobora ikigo cy’ubucuruzi utahaba? Nta n’uwo wahaye ububasha bwo gufata imyanzuro? Ibi nibyo bijya bigaragara muri bimwe mu bitangazamakuru.

Ba nyirabyo ari nabo babiyobora ntibahaba. Ushobora kumushaka ukwezi utaramubona kandi ahari. Abakozi batamubona yewe hari n’abatamuzi ukagira utya ukabona ahikojeje iminota 30 nimugoroba ahise agenda ukwezi kukarangira agenza atyo.

Abakozi ntawe bafite bagezaho ibibazo byabo, abitwa ko bahari nabo nta bubasha bafite bwo kubikemura. Ibi ntabwo ntinda ku ngaruka zabyo kuko iyo ufunguye ikigo cy’ubucuruzi ukagita ntube hafi abakozi ingaruka ntawutazizi.

3. Imikorere y’akazi

Abakoresha ntibicara ngo bashake impuguke mu micungire y’abakozi (Human Resource specialists) cyangwa bazigishe inama ari naho usanga hari abakozi bakora isaha imwe bakitahira, abakora amasaha cumi n’abiri, mbese hakaba aho usanga hari abakozi akayabo ariko harimo ubusumbane mu masaha y’akazi bigatuma hari umusaruro udatangwa ubundi ugasanga kwishyura byagoye umukoresha kuko afite abantu benshi kandi nyamara hari ubundi buryo yavugurura amasaha y’akazi akabasha gukoresha abo ashoboye.

4. Ibitambuka mu bitangazamakuru hari aho bitagenzurwa

Ibintu bitambuka mu gitangazamakuru hari ubwo usanga umwaka urinze ushira bizwi n’umunyamakuru wabikoze gusa utabaza ubuyobozi bwe ngo bakubwire ibyo yatangaje kuko nta mbaraga n’ubushake bwashyizemo.

Ibi urwego rw’abanyamakuru bigenzura (Rwanda Media Commission) ruzi ingaruka bitera kubera amakosa y’umwuga akorwa kuko nta muntu uhari wo gutanga no kugenzura amabwiriza igitangazamakuru kigenderaho n’amahame n’amategeko bigenga umwuga w’itangazamakuru.

Aha usanga n’udufaranga twakwinjiye mu gitangazamakuru batwihera umunyamakuru (abakiliya) kuko we abaca make kandi akabamamariza nta kibazo afite kuko ba nyir’igitangazamakuru batamwumva.

5. Hamwe na hamwe nta nzego zihari

Nizera ko ikigo kugira ngo gikore neza kigomba kuba gifite inzego kandi buri rwego rukora neza inshingano zarwo. Umubaruramari (accountant), ushinzwe ubucuruzi (Sales Manager), umuyobozi wa gahunda (Programs Manager-ku maradiyo na televiziyo) n’umuyobozi w’amakuru/umwanditsi mukuru (chief editor) abo ni abantu b’ingenzi cyane mu gitangazamakuru mu gihe gishaka kwinjiza amafaranga.

Hari ibitangazamakuru uzajyamo usange umunyamakuru niwe ushinzwe ubucuruzi (marketing), umuyobozi mukuru niwe mubaruramari ni nawe ushinzwe gahunda.

Uku kuvanga inshingano usanga bigira ingaruka zikomeye ku gitangazamakuru. Uzasanga amafaranga yinjiye umuyobozi mukuru ahita ayajyana muri gahunda ze atabanje gukemura ibibazo by’igitangazamakuru. Ushinzwe ubucuruzi (sales manager) bimusaba ingamba zikomeye zirimo gutegura impapuro zo gupiganirwa amasoko, kubaka umubano n’abakiliya n’abandi ateganya ko bazaba abakiliya n’ibindi.

Hari ababikora bidatewe n’uko nta bushobozi bafite bwo kubahemba ahubwo bigaterwa n’uko batumva akamaro kabo cyagwa se batanakazi. Ese igitangazamakuru nk’iki niyo cyahabwa inkunga cyayikoresha neza n’iyi mikorere?

6. Gutangiza igitangazamakuru nta nyigo yakozwe

Hari ubwo usanga igitangazamakuru gitangiwe n’umuntu utarakoze inyigo n’imwe. Kuko bamubwiye amafaranga bisaba n’ibyangombwa ngo umuntu afungure igitangazamakuru ugasanga abyutse abikora ariko atakoze inyigo y’umushinga.

Nyamara hari ubwo usanga bamwe mu bantu nk’aba ari bamwe bafite n’ibindi bikorwa by’ubucuruzi basobanukiwe neza inyigo zisabwa, gusa kuko bamubwiye itangazamakuru nta bakozi benshi risaba kandi yanakoresha abakorerabushake (ibintu bitari byiza na mba) agahita agitangiza atyo.

7. Bimwe mu bitangazamakuru byica isoko

Ibitangazamakuru biri kwica isoko. Nta tegeko rigenga isoko rihari ubusanzwe usanga hari ibiciro ibitangazamakuru bigenderaho ariko kubera ko nta murongo ntarengwa hari ubwo usanga igitangazamakuru runaka cyangwa amafaranga umukiliya azanye kuko ari make nyamara wa mukiliya agahita asamirwa hejuru n’ikindi kuri kimwe cya kabiri cya ya mafaranga icya mbere cyanze.

Hari ubwo wumva cyangwa usoma igitangazamakuru cyamamaza abakiliya benshi ukaba wakeka ko cyakize ariko wakora iperereza ugasanga igiteranyo cy’amafaranga gica abakiliya batanu ntikigera no ku yo ikindi gica umwe.

Hari ubwo usanga ibitangazamakuru byihagararagaho nabyo bibaye ngombwa ko bipfa gufata amafaranga byitaga make kuko ubuze uko agira agwa neza. Nutayafata undi azayafata kandi ubuzima bw’uwamamaza bukomeze.

8. Bamwe mu bayobora ibitangazamakuru nta bumenyi babifitiye

Hari umwe mu banyamakuru twaganiriye mu minsi ishize ambwira uburyo bafite umuyobozi udasobanukiwe n’imikorere y’itangazamakuru. Uyu bamubwiye ko bakeneye icyumba cyo gukoreramo inama y’amakuru buri munsi (editorial meeting) arahindukira abareba nabi ati "n’uturere ntitugikora inama buri gihe mwe murashaka inama za buri munsi z’iki?”

Uru ni urugero rwiza rw’umuntu utakagombye kuba yitwa ko ayobora igitangazamakuru. Inama y’amakuru igomba kuba buri munsi ikiga ku makuru akorwa uwo munsi n’umurongo ahabwa.

Kuyobora igitangazamakuru wakagombye kuba ufite amashuri runaka kandi ufite ubunararibonye mu itangazamakuru (gusa si ngombwa kuba wararikoze nubwo biba byiza rimwe na rimwe).

9. Hakenewe imikorere mishya yimakaza ikoranabuhanga

Muri iki gihe imikorere y’isi n’ihanahana ry’amakuru biri kwihuta kandi bihindagurika buri munsi. Ba nyir’ibitangazamakuru bakagombye nabo guhindura imikorere.

Bagomba guha imbaraga imbuga nkoranyambaga (social media). Uyu munsi biracyagoranye kuko ni hake wasanga umuntu ahemberwa gukora ku mbuga nkoranyambaga gusa.

Abenshi bumva ko aka kazi ari ako ku ruhande gakorwa n’umunyamakuru ufite ibindi akora ku kazi n’uwo babihaye usanga ashyirwa mu kebo k’abantu badafite umumaro ukomeye ku kazi, isaha n’isaha habaye kugabanya abakozi niwe baheraho. Ibi bigaragaza ko nta gaciro imbuga nkoranyambaga zirahabwa, ibintu bitakagombye na busa.

Itangazamakuru riha umwanya abaturage mu gukusanya no gutangaza amakuru (Citizen Journalism) rigomba guhabwa agaciro. Ibi zimwe muri radiyo z’abaturage zarabikoze kandi biri gutanga umusaruro.

Muri make hakagombye gukorwa inyigo nshya ibitangazamakuru bigomba gukoreramo muri iki kinyejana cya 21. Ibi byose biragenda bikagira ingaruka ku banyamakuru n’abandi bakozi b’ibigo by’itangazamakuru bidasize na ba nyir’ibitangazamakuru. Ariko ahanini abababara cyane ni abakozi.

Hari ibitangazamakuru byigenga biri ku murongo ariko imikorere idahwitse iri mu bindi usanga ihesha isura mbi imikorere y’itangazamakuru ryo mu Rwanda muri rusange bikanatera ikibazo abashaka kuhashora imari.

Leta nayo nkatekereza ko hari aho ishobora gushyira mu gatebo kamwe ibitangazamakuru byose byigenga kandi atari ko bimeze. Hari ibitangazamakuru bikora neza kandi binashyigikiwe byakora neza kurushaho nk’ubutegetsi bwa kane.

Nubwo itangazamakuru rikeneye ubufasha ariko ba nyirabyo bakagombye kwicara nabo bakisuzuma bakareba ko bimwe mu bibazo itangazamakuru rifite atari bo nyirabayazana.

Ibi bibazo bikemutse cyangwa bikagabanuka ku rwego runaka byakorohera ibitangazamakuru kugaragariza leta n’abandi baterankunga ibibazo bindi bahura nabyo bakeneyemo ubufasha. Cyane nk’ikibazo cy’amasoko ya leta cyakunze kugarukwaho.

Ubwanditsi: Vital Karangwa Jr., ni umwanditsi mukuru (Chief Editor) wa Radio Flash na Flash TV. Ibikubiye muri iyi nyandiko ni ibitekerezo bwite bye, ntaho bihuriye n’igitangazamakuru akorera.

Vital Karangwa Jr. amaze igihe mu itangazamakuru ryo mu Rwanda

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza