Isoko rusange rya Afurika: Imbuto y’umugisha yeze ku giti cy’umuruho

Yanditswe na Ufitinema Remy Maurice
Kuya 5 Mata 2018 saa 10:38
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Ku wa 21 Werurwe 2018, i Kigali mu Murwa Mukuru w’u Rwanda handikiwe amateka ubwo ibihugu 44 muri 55 bigize umugabane wa Afurika byashyiraga umukono ku masezerano aganisha ku ishyirwaho ry’isoko rusange rihuza ibihugu bya Afurika (African Continental Free Trade Area-AfCFTA).

Ni uburyo bwo guteza imbere ubucuruzi hagati y’ibihugu bya Afurika horoshywa urujya n’uruza rw’ibicuruzwa, abantu ndetse na serivisi hagati y’ibihugu bigize uyu mugabane.

Ibi byitezweho gutuma igipimo cy’ubucuruzi hagati y’ibihugu bya Afurika cyikuba inshuro zirenga ebyiri mu mwaka wa 2020 ugereranyije n’urugero cyariho mu 2010. Isoko ryo rirahari kuko abaturage bo kuri uyu mugabane ubabariye hamwe bagera muri miliyari imwe na miliyoni 200 ndetse n’umusaruro mbumbe w’ibihugu bya Afurika uwushyize hamwe usaga miliyari 2000 z’amadorali.

Mu muhango wo gusinya aya masezerano, Perezida w’u Rwanda akaba na Perezida wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe, Paul Kagame yagize ati “Aya ni amasezerano akomeye yinjiye mu mateka, avuye mu rugendo ruyategura rumaze hafi imyaka 40, ni intambwe ikomeye ijyanye no kubaka ubumwe bw’umugabane wa Afurika.”

Isinywa ry’aya masezerano ryavuzweho n’Isi yose ryatumye ngira amatsiko ngerageza gusoma ibigaragaza umusingi wayo nza gusanga aya masezerano ari “igiti cy’umugisha cyeze ku mbuto y’umuruho.” Ni urugendo Afurika yanyuzemo yizezwa ibyiza mu masezerano n’ingamba mpuzamahanga bitandukanye, iza gusanga zimwe zihishemo imikorere ya gikoloni, izindi zirayidindiza isanga igisubizo ari uko ibihugu biyigize byifatanya bigaharanira kwigira (collective self-reliance).

Amasezerano ya Lagos ya 1980 (Lagos Plan of Action)

“Twizera ko Afurika itaremewe gusigara inyuma mu iterambere. Ndetse ubona bitumvikana ukuntu ikennye kandi ikize ku baturage no ku mutungo kamere.”

Ibi bigaragara mu gika cya gatanu cy’iriburiro mu nyandiko yiswe “Lagos Plan of Action” yemejwe mu nama ya kabiri idasanzwe y’Umuryango wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe yateraniye i Lagos muri Nigeria, muri Mata 1980. Iyi nama yabaye kuva ku wa 28 kugeza 29 yibanda gusa ku kibazo kirebana n’ubukungu bwa Afurika. Abakuru b’ibihugu bari bateraniye muri iyo nama bemeje ko kwishyira hamwe aricyo gisubizo kizafasha Afurika kwigobotora ubukene kuko hamwe usanga bunaterwa no kwizera amahanga cyane kurusha kwishakira ibisubizo.

Ibi kandi byari byanashimangiwe mu nama isanzwe ya 16 y’Umuryango wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe yateraniye i Monronvia mu Liberia muri Nyakanga 1979. Aha havuye inyandiko yiswe “Monrovia Declaration of Commitment of the Heads of State and Government of the OAU on the guidelines and measures for national and collective self-reliance in economic and social development for the establishment of a new international economic order.”

Mu ijambo ry’ibanze rya “Lagos Plan of Action” abakuru b’Ibihugu bya Afurika bagaragaje ko bikwiye ko hashyirwaho isoko rusange rya Afurika riganisha ku ishyirwaho ry’Umuryango w’Ubukungu bwa Afurika. Mu gika cya gatatu (v) baragize bati “ingamba twashyizeho zizafasha mu kubaka ubukungu bwa Afurika buhamye kandi bwubakiye ku buhahirane hagati y’ibihugu bya Afurika haba ku rwego rwa buri gihugu, cyangwa uturere ibihugu bihuriyemo; kandi ibyo bikazafasha mu ishyirwaho ry’Isoko rusange rya Afurika naryo rizafasha mu kugera ku muryango w’ubukungu bwa Afurika.”

Ku bayobozi ba Afurika iyi niyo nzira yari gufasha uyu mugabane kwigira ntukomeze kubeshywa n’amahanga ko azawufasha. Mu ijambo ry’ibanze rya “Lagos Plan of Action”, mu gika cya mbere haranditse ngo“Afurika niwo mugabane ugirwaho ingaruka zikomeye n’amasezerano ya baringa ajyanye n’ingamba z’iterambere ry’Isi. Ingamba zitandukanye zagiye zisimburana ariko aho kugira ngo zifashe mu kuzamura ubukungu bwa Afurika ahubwo zarabudindije ndetse zituma burushaho kugirwaho ingaruka n’ibibazo by’ubukungu biba byabaye mu bihugu byateye imbere.”

Lagos Plan of Action (1980) na Monronvia Strategy (1979) zagaragaje ko Afurika itabonaga icyizere mu ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’amasezerano agamije gusaranganya ubukungu bw’Isi ya New International Economic Order “NIEO” yashyizweho mu 1974.

Ibihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere byabonaga ubukungu bwikubiwe n’ibikize. Icyo gihe ubukungu mu bihugu bikize bwari bwahungabanyijwe n’ibiciro by’ibikomoka kuri peteroli, ibihugu bya Afurika nabyo byabigizeho ingaruka kuko ubukungu bwabyo bwari bufitanye amasano ya hafi n’ubw’ibihugu bikize bishingiye ku byoherezwa hanze no ku nkunga. Ibihugu bikize byagiye ku gitutu cy’ibihugu byari mu nzira y’amajyambere bemera kwicarana bemeranywa ku masezerano yo gusaranganya ubukungu NIEO. Gusa nabwo byaranze Ubukungu bwa Afurika bukomeza kuhadindirira.

Mu nyandiko ya Lagos Plan of Action hagaragaramo ko abayobozi ba Afurika bibazaga ukuntu mu bihugu 31 bikennye ku Isi hagaragaramo 20 byose byo ku mugabane wabo kandi ukungahaye ku mutungo kamere ujya gukiza ibindi bihugu.

Igisubizo kivuye mu Banyafurika ubwabo

Lagos Plan of Action ifatwa nk’intambwe ya mbere ikomeye Abayobozi ba Afurika bateye bo ubwabo bagamije gushakira igisubizo kirambye ikibazo cy’ubukungu bwangaga bukadindira kandi amahanga abizeza ko arimo kubafasha kubushakira ibisubizo. Uwo muhate wo kwishakamo ibisubizo no kwigira ni nawo ugaragara mu ishyirwaho ry’Isoko Rusange rya Afurika.

Ubwo yabazwaga n’igitangazamakuru Al Jazeera icyizere afite ku birebana n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’amasezerano ashyiraho isoko rusange rya Afurika. David Luke wo muri Komisiyo ya Loni ishinzwe Ubukungu bwa Afurika (UNECA) yarasubije ati “Iri soko rusange ni igitekerezo Abanyafurika bo ubwabo bagaragaje ko bashaka gushyira mu bikorwa. Ntibabitegetswe n’Ikigega Mpuzamahanga cy’Imari (IMF) cyangwa Banki y’Isi, nticyavuye ku muntu uwo ariwe wese waje ngo ababwire ngo murakora ibi nimwanga ndabima ibi n’ibi.”

Iki gisubizo cyatanzwe n’umuyobozi ukurikirana politiki zirebana n’ubucuruzi muri Afurika cyibutsa ibyo abayobozi ba Afurika bari bateraniye Lagos mu 1980 bavuze ko ingamba zitandukanye zagiye zishyirwaho ku rwego mpuzamahanga zananiwe gukura Afurika mu bukene. Cyibutsa kandi ko hari ingamba zitandukanye Afurika yagiye izanirwa n’amahanga zinyuze muri biriya bigo bikomeye ku Isi ariko ntizitange umusaruro. Byongeye ariko mu nyandiko ya Lagos Plan of Action abakuru b’ibihugu bya Afurika bagaragaje ko hari abagishaka kunyunyuza umugabane binyuze mu bukoloni bwihishe mu bindi bikorwa.

“Afurika yaranyunyujwe bikomeye mu gihe cy’Ubukoloni. Uhereye mu myaka 20 ishize uku kunyunyuza Afurika kwakozwe binyuze mu mikorere ya gikoloni yihishe mu bindi bikorwa bigamije kwerekeza Afurika na Politiki zayo z’Ubukungu aho bashaka.”

Nko mu 1981, nyuma y’umwaka umwe gusa hashyizweho Lagos Plan of Action hasohotse icyamenyekanye nka Berg Report. Ni raporo yiswe “The Accelerated Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Agenda for Action” yakozwe n’itsinda ryari riyobowe n’uwitwa Elliot Berg, igaragaza ibyo yitaga ko ibikwiye gukorwa ngo Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara itere imbere. Ibyo iyi raporo yavugaga byagaragaye nk’ibishaka kubangamira Lagos Plan of Action bituma ibihugu bya Afurika biyamagana.

Icyizere ni cyose

Uhereye mu 1980, bifashe urugendo rw’imyaka hafi 40 ngo ibihugu bya Afurika bibashe gushyira umukono ku masezerano aganisha ku ishyirwaho ry’isoko rusange.

Bamwe banibazaga ko iki gitekerezo kibagiranye ariko mu 2012 abakuru b’Ibihugu bya Afurika bongeye gushimangira ko ntaho cyagiye biyemeza kugikomeza maze mu 2015 hatangira imishyikirano hagati y’ibihugu bya Afurika humvikanwa ku bigomba kuba bikubiye mu masezerano aganisha ku ishyirwaho ry’Isoko rusange rya Afurika. Perezida wa Niger, Mahamadou Issoufou, niwe wari washinzwe na Afurika Yunze Ubumwe guhuza ibikorwa by’iyi mishyikirano.

Nyuma yo gusinya kwabereye i Kigali, ubu hakurikiyeho igikorwa cy’ibiganiro muri buri gihugu bigamije kwemeza burundu aya masezerano. Birasaba ko ibihugu 22 biyemeza burundu kugira ngo atangire gushyirwa mu bikorwa. Habayeho kwiha igihe cy’iminsi 180 ngo ibihugu bibe byamaze kuyemeza burundu.

Umunyarwanda wagize uruhare mu itegurwa ry’amasezerano ya AfCFTA, Sebahizi Prudence, yabwiye The New Times ko hari ibindi bizaganirwaho mbere y’uko amasezerano atangira gushyirwa mu bikorwa. Birimo nko kumenya ibicuruzwa buri gihugu kizakuriraho imisoro cyangwa kikayigabanya mu gihe bikinjijwemo bivanywe mu kindi. Hazanozwa kandi ibirebana n’ishyirwaho ry’ubunyamabanga buzakurikirana ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’amasezerano n’ibindi. Gusa ibihugu bya Afurika bifite intego y’uko aya masezerano yaba yatangiye gushyirwa mu bikorwa mu mpera z’uyu mwaka.

Stephen Karingi wo muri Komisiyo ya Loni Ishinzwe Ubukungu bwa Afurika aherutse gutangariza The New Times ko amasomo ibihugu byakuye mu ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’amasezerano y’imiryango y’ubukungu y’uturere twa Afurika (Regional Economic Communities) azafasha cyane mu ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’amasezerano y’isoko rusange rya Afurika.

Komisiyo y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ishinzwe Ubukungu bwa Afurika itangaza ko mu 2020 ubucuruzi hagati y’ibihugu bya Afurika buzagera ku gipimo ya 53% cy’ubucuruzi bwose bw’uyu mugabane aya masezerano nashyirwa mu bikorwa. Kuri ubu ubu bucuruzi buhagaze kuri 16%.

Perezida wa Tchad, Idriss Déby Itno asinya ku masezerano ashyiraho isoko rusange
Perezida Paul Kagame yabwiye abakuru b’ibihugu ko muri uku gusinya basezeranyije Abanyafurika uburumbuke
Perezida Mahamadou Issoufou wa Niger, ashyira umukono ku masezerano

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