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Inkomoko n’ibirari by’ijambo ‘Sharia’

Yanditswe na Ntagengwa Servil Omar
Kuya 14 Ukwakira 2021 saa 06:10
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Nyuma y’aho Sheikh Sindayigaya Musa, umwe mu bayobozi b’Umuryango w’Abayisilamu mu Rwanda agiranye ikiganiro na IGIHE agasobanura inyito y’ijambo “Sharia’’, hari uwambajije ati ‘ese koko, guca amaboko, kubamba abantu byaba byemewe n’Imana?’ Arongera ati ‘ese buriya Abayisilamu mubonye aho mubikorera mwabikora kandi mukaba mwubahiriza itegeko ry’Imana?’

Ibi byatumye ntekereza kwandika kugira ngo ngire icyo mvuga kuri “Sharia’’, yahindutse inkoni iragira bamwe ikaba n’igitinyisha ku bandi.

Sharia ni iki, kuva gihe ki Abayisilamu bakoresha inyito yayo? Imbaga y’Abayisilamu bayumva bate, ese abatari Abayisilamu bo babyumva bate? Ibi ni bimwe mu byo tugiye kurebera hamwe.

Mu kubisobanura ndifashisha ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’abahanga barimo abarimu ba za Kaminuza, bagerageje kubivugaho ndetse banabyandikaho. Muri bo harimo Dr Syrille Moreno Al Ajamî, Dr Ghaleb Bencheikh, Dr Baudouin Dupret, Dr Sheikh Zakaria Seddiki na Prof Mohamed Arkoun.

Hari ibyanditswe muri Korowani n’ibivugwa na Islam. Mwambaza muti ‘bitaniye he?’ Korowani bivuga ijambo ryahishuwe naho Islam bikavuga amahame, inyandiko zose, ubusesenguzi imyigishirize byakozwe n’Abayisilamu mu bihe birebire.

Nkuko abamenyi hafi ya bose babivuga ijambo Sharia rifite inkomoko ifatiye ku nyuguti eshatu ari zo S.H.R; zisobanuye inzira, inzira ijya ku isoko hanyuma bakongeraho isoko y’amazi, akayira kajya ku mugezi.

Mu Iyobokamana bivuga inzira igana ku Isoko ya Muntu ariho ku Mana. Ibi bishimangirwa n’Ijambo ry’Imana mu gice cya 45 umurongo wa 18.

Mu buryo bw’imyumvire rusange, ijambo Sharia ntirigira igisobanuro cyuzuye cyumvikanwaho, (échappe à toute définition) nkuko bivugwa na Baudouin Dupret, Umwarimu w’Amategeko muri Kaminuza ya Al-Azhar no muri Kaminuza ya Louvain-la-Neuve ndetse na Dr Al Ajamî, Impuguke mu by’Idini n’Ururimi rw’Icyarabu. Bavuga ko iri jambo ryaje kwemezwa na rubanda rikomowe kuri “voie” cyangwa “way” bigirwa amategeko (loi, law).

Dr Ghaleb Bencheikh we avuga ko ijambo Sharia bivuga inzira ariko akongeraho ko binazana icyo kintu cy’itegeko nk’ikigena uburyo bwo kugenda muri ya nzira cyangwa se kubahiriza imbibi zayo.

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Prof Mohamed Arkoun asobanura itandukaniro riri hagati y’inyito (concepts) ebyiri ari zo autorité na pouvoir (ngenekereje mu Kinyarwanda ni Ubuyobozi n’ubutegetsi), avuga ko ubuyobozi bukoresha ihamagaramutima (persuasion de la conscience) ikuganisha ku kuyoboka, ukemera nta gahato nk’uko byakoreshejwe n’Intumwa zose zihamagarira abantu kuyoboka ubutumwa bw’Imana mu rukundo no mu bwigenge (Cor 2:256). Iyo Intumwa imaze gupfa, hasigara abayisimbura, ari bo bategetsi.

Icyo gihe ntihabaho gukangura umutimanama ahubwo habaho guhatira rubanda kumvira ubutegetsi (pouvoir contraignant et coercitif). Ni aho rero ibyari inzira bihinduka amategeko ategeka aho kuba amabwiriza ayobora. Ni uko Sharia yahindutse amategeko.

Nk’uko nabivuze hejuru ibyo Korowani ivuga bisimburwa n’ibyo Islam ivuga, yo ishimangira ko iyobowe n’ubutegetsi bwa Leta bugamije kugenzura rubanda n’ibyabo n’ubutegetsi bw’Abanyedini bugamije kugenzura roho zabo.

Mu kugerageza iyimuragisobanuro cyangwa se mu kubinyuza mu nzira nyayo, hatangijwe ibyitwa ubumenyi bwa Kiyisilamu (Ulumu diin), guhera mu kinyejana cya 7-9, abahanga b’Abayisilamu batangije icyo nakwita kugerageza gusobanukirwa ya mategeko maze bifashisha irindi jambo ryitwa Fiqh. Iri rivuze ‘gusobanukirwa’ kuko bavuga ko Sharia iva ku Mana, umuntu akaba atemerewe kwinjira mu byo yategetse, ahubwo bazana ubwo buryo bwo kubisobanukirwa.

Bavugaga bati ‘Fiqh ni amategeko ava ku Mana, areba ingeri nyinshi z’ubuzima: Ubutabera, iby’imigenzo yo kwiyegurira Imana, imibanire, umuco n’imyifatire n’ibindi.’

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Nyuma y’ibyo tumaze gusobanura, biragoye kongera kuvuga ko Sharia ari amategeko y’Imana kuko uburyo Fiqh iyisobanura bifite urugendo byakoze mu mateka y’Abayisilamu.

Abayisilamu b’Abasuni bavuga ko Sharia ifite isoko z’ubwoko bune burimo Korowani, Ibyavuzwe cyangwa ibyakozwe n’Intumwa y’Imana, Ibyemejwe na benshi no Kugereranya ibintu n’ibyo bisa.

Kuba hariho amashuri ane ya Fiqh kandi atandukanye, irya Hanafi (699-767), irya Maliki (711-795), irya Shaffy (767-820) n’irya Hanbali (780-855) aya na yo yarokotse kuko yashyigikiwe n’ubutegetsi na politiki; si Imana yayahisemo, andi menshi yarazimye.

Tugerageje kubisobanura, isoko y’igitabo cy’Imana ikwiye kwitwa: uko Abayisilamu bacyeka ko bumvise ibiri muri Korowani kuko kubaho kw’amashuri ane ya Fiqh bivuga neza ko ab’Abasuni (tutavuze ab’Abashia) batumva kimwe ubushake bw’Imana kuri bo.

Uwitwa Bernard Werber yaravuze ati “Hagati y’ibyo ntekereza, ibyo nshaka kuvuga, ibyo nkeka ko mvuze, ibyo mvuze, n’ibyo mushaka kumva, ibyo mwumva n’ibyo musobanukirwa harimo ingorane nibura 10 mu kumvikana ariko dukwiye kugerageza.’’

Icya kabiri imvugo z’Intumwa y’Imana, amateka atwereka ko ubwazo zuzuyemo izo bamwitiriye mu by’ukuri bimwe ari ibigize umuco yasanze. Ibyo batiriye mu Bayahudi, Abagiriki n’Abaromani no mu Baperse kuko bari baturanye hakiyongeraho ko igihe ibyitwa imvugo z’Intumwa byakusanywaga, hari haramaze kuba uruhurirane rw’iyo mico cyane ku buyobozi bw’Abayisilamu bwari bwaravuye iyo bwatangiriye i Mecca na Madina bwimukira i Damas muri Syria nyuma i Baghdad muri Irak. Imico y’imyemerere n’imigenzo y’imibereho n’imyumvire yari yarasabanye ku buryo kubivangura byabaye ingorabahizi.

Ku kibazo cy’ibyumvikanweho, umuntu yakwibaza ati ‘Ni bande babyumvikanaho? Ni inteko y’abamenyi? Abahe? Bangahe? Bo mu kahe karere? Bemejwe na nde? Ni imbaga se yose y’Abayisilamu? Bahuye bate? Bahuriye he? Bahujwe na nde?’ Biraboneka rero ko bigoye uretse icyemezo gifatwa buri gihe n’ubutegetsi bwa politiki bufatanyije n’ubutegetsi bw’idini kugira ngo bashyireho amategeko yo kwirengera.

Ku kibazo cy’igereranya: Iyi ni indi soko y’amategeko ashingira ku bintu nka bitatu by’ingenzi birimo kuba ibintu byaba bisa mu isoko yabyo, kuba ibintu bihuje cyangwa bijya guhuza igisobanuro no kuba bihuje cyangwa bijya gusa. Ingaruka zabyo ni uko hashobora kuzamo kwibeshya bishingiye ku marangamutima, ni umuryango w’amarangamutima ufunguye kandi mu buyisilamu nta kutibeshya kubamo (infaillibilité).

Biragaragara rero k’uwavuga ko Sharia ari inyubako y’abantu yakozwe mu bihe byinshi ataba yibeshye.

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Galeb Bencheikh avuga ko umuntu wa mbere wakoresheje ijambo Sharia (uko rikoreshwa uyu munsi nk’amategeko) ari uwitwa Abu Hassan Al Achari (873-936). Ibi mbere y’aho si ko byari bimeze. Indi gihamya ni uko uwitwa Ibn Muqafa (714-759) yabwiye Kalifa AL Mansur ko agomba kwihutira gushyiraho amategeko amwe agenga intara yose (empire) kuko mu hose bakoreshaga amategeko yo mu mico yabo. Ibi birakwereka ko nta Sharia rusange yariho mu Bayisilamu, byagiye byubakwa buhoro buhoro.

Dr Al Ajamî avuga ko abamenyi b’Abayisilamu bamaze kubona ko ibyahishuwe (Korowani) bitanga imirongo mike mu bijyanye n’amategeko yagenga imibereho y’abemera mu ngeri zose z’ubuzima kuko ijambo Sharia rivugwa rimwe gusa ndetse n’uwafata ibice bya Korowani bivuga ku bijyanye n’imbago (normatif) bitarenze imirongo (Verses) 70 ku mirongo irenze 6.000 igize Korowani, byabaye ngombwa ko bajya kwifashisha amategeko y’Abayahudi mu byitwa Halakha.

Prof Baudouin avuga ko Sharia-Fiqh yagiye yubakwa buhoro buhoro ikaza kugeza kw’ihari uyu munsi nyuma y’aho Napoléon agereye mu Misiri kuko abazungu bumvaga bagomba kubereka uko bo banditse amategeko yabo bityo bikabafasha kubayobora ariko babayoboje iby’iwabo. Icyo gihe abakoloni basaba abahanga b’Abayisilamu gukusanya no kwandika ibijyanye n’imico yabo babishyira mu byaje kwitwa Sharia ya none. Muri make iyo ni yo Sharia uyu munsi abantu bihanukira bakayita amategeko y’Imana.

Urugero rwa hafi ni ibiherutse kubera muri Arabie Saoudite aho abagore bari babujijwe gutwara imodoka bishingiye kuri Sharia, ubutegetsi buhindutse burabakomorera kandi ngo nabwo ari yo bushingiyeho.

Mu gusoza, ijambo Sharia ryabaye ikintu kimeze nka baringa, bamwe cyabaye inkoni yo gukubitisha no gukandamiza abo bashaka, ihinduka igikangisho mu buzima bwa buri munsi, abandi barahahamuka nk’aho ari inyamaswa iryana ndetse izanabamara bityo bakayamaganira kure bakayirwanya batanayizi. Sharia irahuza, ikanatanya.

Ibyo Sheikh yavuze ni imibonere iriho ishingiye ku myubakire y’uruhurirane rw’ubutegetsi bwa politiki bishingikirije ku bategetsi b’idini.

Dr Sheikh Zakariya avuga ko ariya mategeko y’ibihano bibabaza umubiri ari inkoni ikubita abakene ati ‘iyo umukene yibye isaha bamuca akaboko nyamara Igikomangoma cyayobya umutungo wa rubanda ntikibibazwe’.

Mugire amahoro y’Imana!

Ntagengwa Servil Omar


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