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Imbuga nkoranyambaga: Ubucuruzi bwitwikiriye umutaka wo guteza imbere ubwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezo

Yanditswe na Ntawukuriryayo Frederick
Kuya 6 Nyakanga 2021 saa 07:35
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Niba ukoresha internet usoma amakuru, ukora ubushakashatsi, uhaha cyangwa ukoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga mu buryo butandukanye, ujya ubona ubutumwa bwamamaza bwikubise mu byo warimo usoma cyangwa ubona amakuru akwizaniye atari mu byo washakaga ako kanya.

Ingero, ushobora kuba uri gusoma amakuru ku rubuga rwa internet, uri kureba amashusho kuri YouTube ukabona hari ubutumwa bwikubisemo; ku rukuta rwawe rwa Facebook cyangwa Twitter, ujya uzasangaho ubutumwa bw’abantu cyangwa ibigo bitari mu bo ukurikira cyangwa abagukurikira (Followers).

Ubwo ni uburyo bwo kwamamaza hakoreshejwe internet, kandi mbere y’uko utangira gukoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga, wabanje gusinya amasezerano wemera ko ubwo butumwa uzajya ububona, nubwo abenshi basinya ayo masezerano batabanje kuyasoma.

Ushobora kuba wibaza uti ‘izi mbunga nkoranyambaga ko tuzikoresha ku buntu, ba nyirazo bunguka iki?’Hari n’abatekereza ko amafaranga bishyura ku mirongo y’itumanaho icuruza internet, agera kuri banyir’imbuga nkoranyambaga zitandukanye.

Kugira ngo usobanukirwe neza uburyo abashinze imbuga nkoranyambaga ndetse n’imbuga za internet (websites and social media) bunguka, nabigusobanurira mu buryo bworoshye.

Abakoresha internet n’imbuga nkoranyambaga, bameze nk’abantu bazana amazi bakayasuka mu ruhombo runini ariko ku yindi mpera y’urwo ruhombo, aho badashobora kureba, hakaba hari abantu bateze ibivomesho ayo mazi yisukamo, bagahita bayajyana ku isoko kuyagurisha.

Muri make, igihe cyose ukoresha internet, waba usoma amakuru cyangwa uganira n’inshuti ku mbuga nkoranyambaga, ni amafaranga uba utanga. Ibi rero bishimangira ko abakoze imbuga za internet n’imbuga nkoranyambaga n’ingufu bahora bashyiramo mu kuzivugurura kugira ngo zirusheho kunezeza abazikoresha, ntabwo bashishikajwe cyane no guteza imbere ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo ndetse no guhuza abantu. Intego nyamukuru ni ubucuruzi kandi bwunguka cyane.

Ni byo koko imbuga nkoranyambaga n’itangazamakuru ryo kuri internet byagize uruhare rufatika mu guteza imbere ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo. Uyu munsi, umuntu wese ashobora gufungura umuyoboro we agatangaza ibyo atekereza ku buryo bumworoheye kurusha uko byari bimeze mu bihe byashize.

Ariko ibitekerezo byose bitangwa muri ubwo bwisanzure, aho bibikwa hahinduka ikirombe gicukurwamo zahabu ibyara amafaranga menshi ku bashinze izo mbuga nkoranyambaga.

Ibi bigaragazwa n’uko ibigo bifite imbuga nkoranyambaga biri mu bikize kuri iyi si. Amakuru y’urubuga www.marketwatch.com agaragaza agaciro k’imigabane y’Ikigo Aplhabet Inc (gifite urubuga rwa Google rurimo YouTube n’izindi) ku isoko ry’Imari n’Imigabane ( Market Cap) kageze kuri Tiliyari ($1 Trillion) y’Amadolari y’Amerika muri 2020, aho urubuga rwa Google rwonyine rwari wihariye hafi 80%. Iki kikaba cyarabaye ikigo cya kane mu bigo bicuruza ikoranabuhanga byesheje uwo muhigo muri Amerika.

Imibare igagagazwa n’urubuga www.companiesmarketcap.com kandi igaragaza ko agaciro k’imigabane ya Facebook yari ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane mu mpera za Kamena 2020 kari Miliyari 984 z’Amadolari ya Amerika ($984.00 Billion)
Ako gaciro k’imigabane y’ibyo bigo karuta cyane umusaruro mbumbe (GDP) w’ibihugu bimwe na bimwe bibarizwa muri 20 bikize ku isi (G20) birimo nka Arabia Soudite ( Miliyari 793 $), Afurika y’Epfo (Miliyari 351.) cyangwa Singapore( Miliyari 372$).

Ikindi kigaraza ko imbuga nkoranyambaga ari ubucuruzi bukomeye ni uko banyirazo bari mu baherwe ba mbere ku isi. Urubuga rwa Forbes rugaragaza ko kugeza muri Kamena 2021, Mark Zuckerberg washinze Facebook yari uwa gatanu ku rutonde rw’abaherwe ku isi aho umutungo we ubarirwa kuri Miliyari 97 z’Amadolari ya Amerika (97$Billion), mu gihe Larry Page uri mu bashinze Google ari ku mwanya wa munani n’umutungo wa Miliyari 91.5 z’amadolari (91.5$Billion) akurikiwe na mugenzi bafatanije gushinga urwo rubuga, Sergey Brin n’umutungo wa Miliyari 89 Z’amadolari ya Amerika (89$Billion).

Ibi bigo amafaranga biyakura cyane cyane mu kwamamaza binyuze kuri izo mbuga nkoranyambaga ndetse no mu gucuruza amakuru. Amakuru yose abantu binjiza ku mbuga zitandukanye hariho ikoranabuhanga riyakusanya rikayasesengura, akagurishwa ku babafite ibigo by’ubucuruzi kugira ngo bashobore gukora ibicuruzwa na serivisi bihwanye n’ibyifuzo by’abaguzi.

Urugero, ikigo cy’ubucuruzi gishobora gushingira ku makuru abanyarwanda binjiza bakora ubushakashatsi, bashaka ibikoresho, serivisi cyangwa baganira ku mu mbuga nkoranyambaga, kikamenya ubwoko, amabara, impuzandengo y’igiciro cy’ibikoresho (imodoka, imyenda, mudasobwa n’ibindi) abanyarwanda bakunda kugura. Ibyo bikagifasha gukora ibijyanye n’ibyifuzo by’abanyarwanda mu gihe gishaka gucuruza mu Rwanda.

Ibyo mu gihe byasabaga gukora ubushakashatsi buhenze bunatwara igihe ku bashinzwe guteza imbere ubucuruzi, ubu ntibigoye, ayo makuru yose aba ahari kuri buri wese ayageraho bitewe n’ayo yifuza kandi kuyagura birahendutse kurusha gukora ubushakashatsi. Ikindi ni uko ayo makuru yizewe cyane kuko agaragaza ibyo abantu bakeneye, aho baherereye, ikigero cy’imyaka yabo, igitsina, ubushobozi bwabo, uko imibare yabo igenda ihindagurika n’ibindi.

Ubu bucuruzi bw’imbuga nkoranyambaga ntabwo bugaburira ba nyirazo gusa. Ubu noneho batangiye no kuvunguriraho n’abakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga mu rwego rwo kubatera akanyabugabo ngo bazikoreshe cyane haboneke ibitekerezo byinshi, byumvikana ko hakenewe amakuru menshi agurishwa.

Muri iki gihe abakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga bafite ababakurikira benshi na bo bahabwa amafaranga, hashingiwe ku mubare w’ababakurikira, igihe abareba ibyo bashyiraho bamara n’ibindi. Iyi miyoboro y’imbuga nkoranyambaga ikurikirwa na benshi igakoreshwa mu kwamamaza.

Ibigo by’ubucuruzi utaretse n’ibya Leta n’imiryango itari iya Leta ubu bitanga amafaranga ku bantu bakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga cyane kugira ngo babafashe kwamamaza ibicuruzwa cyangwa gutanga ubutumwa ku babakurikira (ibyitwa influencer marketing). Ibi rero ni byo bihindura za mbuga nkoranyambaga uburucuruzi kuruta ubwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezo.

Ubu bucuruzi ni bwo bituma abantu bahururira mu gushyira ku mbuga nkoranyambaga zabo ibiganiro n’amakuru bishitura abantu, bibakurura kugira ngo bagire ababakurikira benshi (subscribers and views) bityo bibonere umugati.

Uzasanga ku mbuga nkoranyambaga bashyiraho imitwe y’inkuru zishitura abantu, ariko nufungura usange ibivugwa bitandukanye n’ibyanditse. Uzabona inkuru z’impimbano nyamara zitangazwa nk’aho ari ukuri, ubuhamya butangwa n’abantu ariko budafitiwe ibimenyetso ndetse n’ababutangaza ntibite ku kubugenzura, ahubwo bakita ku kuba bukurura abantu.

Ubu noneho bamwe mu bafite imiyoboro y’imbuga nkoranyambaga na bo bungutse ubundi bwenge aho bishyura abantu kugira ngo babakurikire ndetse barebe ibyo bakora. Ubu hari abantu bishyurwa kugira ngo bafate umwanya wabo barebe amashusho kuri YouTube, basangize abandi amakuru kugira ngo banyirabyo bagwize ababakurikira bityo bongere amafaranga binjiza.

Ubushakashatsi buto nakoze ku miyoboro 15 ya YouTube (channels) natoranije nkurije iyo nkuze gukurikira hano mu Rwanda nifashishije urubuga rwa www.sociablade.com bwangaragarije umuyoboro winjiza menshi muri iyo ari ibihumbi 30 y’Amadolari (30,000$) ku kwezi mu gihe uwinjiza make ari 1,200 y’amadolari ya Amerika (1200$) ku kwezi.

Aya mafaranga avomwa mu gukoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga niyo ari inyuma y’ubushake n’ububyutse mubona muri iyi minsi bw’abantu bahururiye ku mbuga nkoranyambaga mu Rwanda, cyane cyane YouTube, ntabwo ari uko abantu basobanukiwe n’uruhare rwabo mu gutanga ibitekerezo kurushaho. Ikindi ni uko bidasaba igishoro kinini kuko telefone igendanwa irahagije kugira ngo umuntu akore Televiziyo ikorera kuri YouTube.

Gukoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga bikaba byaguha amafaranga si bibi, yewe byaba n’igisubizo ku bibazo by’ubushomeri byugarije urubyiruko. Imbuga nkoranyambaga ntizitangaza ibibi gusa n’ibyangiza byonyine. Hari n’andi makuru menshi zitangaza ajijura abantu.

Gusa, birakwiye ko abantu basobanukirwa ko imbuga nkoranyambaga zidakwiye gukomeza kureberwa mu mutaka wo guteza imbere ubwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezo gusa, kuko abazishinga si cyo kibashishikaje cyane. Ni abacuruzi bakomeye kuruta uko ari impirimbanyi z’uburenganzira bwo gutanga ibitekerezo.

Uko zigenda zigwiza amafaranga niko zigira imbagara zikomeye ndetse zishobora kugera n’aho zihanga na za guverinoma mu gihe zashyizeho amabwriza cyangwa amategeko abangamira inyungu zabo. Abakoresha izi mbuga nkoranyambaga na bo kuba baratangiye kwinjiza agatubutse, bakora bagamije kwinjiza menshi, bityo ibituma bakurikirwa na benshi ni byo bibashishikaje cyane, batitaye ku kuba byangiza cyangwa bikayobya sosiyete muri rusange.

Birakwiye ko abantu babyaza umusaruro amahirwe atangwa no gukoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga ariko bigakorwa hirindwa kuyoborwa n’inda bigatuma abantu batangaza ibinyoma, ibihuha n’ibindi ibyangiza rubanda. Birashoboka cyane gutangaza ibyubaka ndetse n’ayo mafaranga ukayakorera.

Abasoma n’abakurikira ibitangazwa ku mbuga nkoranyambaga na bo bakwiye gushishoza cyane, ntibemere ibyo babonye byose cyangwa ngo babikwirakwize batabanje kugenzura byimbitse.


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