Inyungu zo kugana inzira y’Ubuhuza mu Rwanda ugereranyije no kujya mu nkiko

Yanditswe na Prof Sam Rugege
Kuya 17 Gashyantare 2021 saa 11:47
Yasuwe :
0 0

Muri gahunda nyinshi u Rwanda rwatekereje zo kubaka ubumwe n’imibanire myiza by’Abanyarwanda no guteza imbere ubukungu bw’igihugu, harimo n’icyerekezo cyo gukemura ibibazo mu bwumvikane, binyuze mu biganiro.

Twahera ku Itegeko Nshinga rya 2003 nk’uko ryagiye rivugururwa. Mu irangashingiro (Preamble) rivuga riti: “Twiyemeje kandi kubaka Leta ishingiye kuri demokarasi y’ubwumvikane n’ibitekerezo bya politiki binyuranye, yubakiye ku isaranganya ry’ubutegetsi, ubumwe n’ubwiyunge by’Abanyarwanda, imiyoborere myiza, iterambere, guha abaturage amahirwe angana mu mibereho yabo, ubworoherane no gukemura ibibazo binyuze mu nzira y’ibiganiro.”

Ibi bishimangirwa mu ngingo ya 10 irondora amahame remezo Leta y’u Rwanda yiyemeje kugenderaho, aho ivuga mu gace ka 6 “gushaka buri gihe umuti w’ibibazo binyuze mu nzira y’ibiganiro n’ubwumvikane busesuye.”

Itegeko Nshinga kandi rishyiraho komite z’Abunzi, mu ngingo ya 141 rikavuga riti “Komite y’Abunzi inshinzwe kunga abagiranye amakimbirane, hagamijwe kubaka ubumwe n’imibanire myiza y’Abanyarwanda.” Itegeko rigena imitunganyirize, ifasi, ububasha n’imikorere ya komite y’abunzi naryo risobanura ko Abunzi bafite inshingano yo gufasha abafitanye ikibazo kumvikana, byananirana akaba aribwo bafata icyemezo.

Birazwi ko komite z’Abunzi zikemura ibibazo byinshi, bigatuma Abanyarwanda bakomeza kubana neza, bakarushaho gukoresha umwanya wabo n’amikoro bafite mu bibafitiye akamaro. Muri 2018 Abunzi bakiriye ibibazo 49,525 bakemura 97%, ni ukuvuga ko 3% aribyo byakomeje nk’imanza mu nkiko.

Ubushakashashatsi bugaragaza ko Abanyarwanda bishimiye imikore y’Abunzi ku kigero cya 76.4% hashingiwe ku bipimo by’ubunyangamugayo, ubumenyi/ubushobozi, uko ibyemezo bishyirwa mu bikorwa n’icyizere muri rubanda (Rwanda Governance Board “Citizen Report Card”, 2019). Ikigero cy’uko Abanyarwanda bishimiye imikorere ya komite z’abunzi cyariyongereye mu mwaka wa 2020 kigera kuri 88.21%. [Reba Rwanda Governance Board Scorecard 7th Edition ‘The State of Governance in Rwanda’, 2020, p.22].

N’ubwo komite z’Abunzi zikora neza mu kunga abafitanye ibibazo bikarangira mu bwumvikane, hari imbogamizi y’uko ububasha bw’izo komite bufite aho bugarukira. Zakira ibibazo bijyanye n’imitungo yimukanwa n’itimukanwa, izungura, n’izijyanye n’amasezerano ariko bifite agaciro katarengeje amafaranga miliyoni eshatu. Ni ukuvuga ko ibibazo byinshi bigomba kujya mu nkiko, kandi Inkiko zikaba zifite abacamanza batarenze 300 mu gihugu cyose, bigatuma imanza zitinda gucibwa, amakimbirane agakomeza, bikagira n’ingaruka ku mibereho y’abaturage n’ubukungu bw’igihugu.

Haherewe ku manza z’ubucuruzi, gutinda kw’imanza z’ubucuruzi gutuma abashoramari badashishikazwa no gushora imari y’abo mu gihugu bikadindiza iterambere. Niyo mpamvu Leta yatekereje ubundi buryo impaka n’amakimbirane byakemurwamo muri wa murongo w’ubwumvikane.

Ubukemurampaka (Arbitration)

Muri 2008 hashyizweho inkiko z’ubucuruzi hagamijwe kwihutisha imanza z’ubucuruzi. Muri 2010 hashyizweho ikigo cy’ubukemurampaka, Kigali International Arbitration Centre (KIAC), hagamijwe kwihutisha ikemurwa ry’impaka zivutse mu bucuruzi, bitagombye kujya mu nkiko ahubwo bikozwe n’abakemurampaka b’umwuga abafitanye ikibazo bihitiyemo.

Ubukemurampaka burihuta ariko uko ibyemezo bifatwa n’ink’ubucamanza. Umukemurampaka ntashinzwe kunga cyangwa kumvikanisha abafitanye ikibazo, ahubwo afata icyemezo kigaragaza utsinze n’utsinzwe uretse ko bidakorerwa mu ruhame nko mu rukiko. Ya ntego yo kubanisha neza Abanyarwanda binyuze mu biganiro n’ubwumvikane ntigerwaho. Niyo mpamvu hatekerejwe ubuhuza (mediation) nk’indi nzira yo gukemura ibibazo bitanyuze mu nkiko, yiyongera k’ubukemurampaka.

Ubuhuza (Mediation)

Ubuhuza ni igikorwa cyo guhuza abantu bafitanye ikibazo bagahuzwa n’undi muntu bahisemo udafite aho ahuriye n’ikibazo kugira ngo abafashe kuganira no kumvikana ku mwanzuro warangiza ikibazo bafitanye. Ubuhuza ntabwo ari bushya mu muco nyarwanda uretse ko bwateshejwe agaciro n’ubukoloni n’imigenzereze yabwo yo gukemura amakimbirane.

Ubuhuza bufite aho buhuriye n’ubwunzi mu buryo bwo gukemura impaka hakoreshejwe ubwumvikane, uretse ko Abunzi bafata umwanzuro igihe abafitanye ikibazo bananiwe kumvikana, naho umuhuza akaba atemerewe gufatira abo ahuza umwanzuro. Iyo bananiwe kumvikana, ubuhuza burangiriraho abafitanye ikibazo bakaba bagana inkiko.

Byagaragaye ko iyo ibibazo by'abaturage bikemuwe mu bwumvikane, bigira umusaruro kurusha kubikemurira mu nkiko

Mu bihugu byinshi, cyane cyane ibyateye imbere, inzira y’ubuhuza irakoreshwa mu gukemura ibibazo byinshi cyane ibijyanye n’ubucuruzi (commercial matters), ubwishingizi (insurance), ubwubatsi (contruction), umurimo (labour/employment) n’ibibazo by’umuryango nk’ubutane n’ibishamikiyeho.

Guhera muri 2017 habaye ibiganiro byimbitse mu nzego z’ubutabera, cyane cyane mu bucamanza, hareberwa hamwe uko ubuhuza bwatezwa imbere bukaba inzira y’abantu bahitamo kurusha izindi mu gukemura ibibazo bafitanye, ntibajye mu nkiko. Muri 2018 Itegeko ryerekeye imiburanishirize y’imanza z’ imbonezamubano, iz’ubucuruzi, iz’umurimo n’izubutegetsi, ryahaye umwanditsi w’urukiko ububasha bwo kumvikanisha ababuranyi mu gihe cy’Inama Ntegurarubanza bakarangiza ikibazo bafitanye.

Umucamanza na we ashobora kugira inama ababuranyi kwiyambaza ubuhuza aho urubanza rwaba rugeze hose. Iyo bumvikanye kuri byose Perezida w’urukiko akora icyemezo kibyemeza kigashyirwaho kashe mpuruza, kikaba cyarangizwa. Iyo bumvikanye kuri bimwe, raporo y’umwanditsi irabigaragaza igashyikirizwa Perezida na we akagena umucamanza uzaburanisha urubanza ku ngingo ababuranyi batumvikanyeho gusa. Ni ukuvuga ko n’aho bakumvikana kuri bimwe urubanza rwakwihuta kurusha ruburanishijwe ku ngingo zose.

Ibibazo bigaragara mu kugana Inkiko nk’inzira yo gukemura impaka n’uko byakemurwa n’ubuhuza

Abantu bagirana ibibazo bibabangamira, bitewe no kutumvikana ku masezerano, imibanire cyangwa imikoranire. Hari ibibazo byinshi bikemurirwa mu muryango, mu nzego z’ibanze cyangwa hitabajwe inshuti. Ariko hari byinshi bidakemurwa muri ubwo buryo bikaba ngombwa ko abafitanye ikibazo bagana inkiko kugira ngo basubizwe uburengazira bwabo igihe bwavogerewe, cyangwa urukiko rubakiranure mu bundi buryo, harebwa uruhare rwa buri wese mu cyateje impaka.

Mu rukiko akenshi hagira utsinda n’utsindwa, uwishimye n’utishimye. Kugana inkiko bigira ingaruka akenshi zitari nziza ku bazigana, bitandukanye n’uko bimeze mu buhuza nk’uko tubigaragaza mu bika bikurikira.

1.Igihe bitwara

Imanza mu nkiko ziratinda kubera ko aba ari nyinshi zisuzumwa n’abacamanza bake, bigatwara ababuranyi umwanya n’amafaranga bakabaye bakoresha mu bindi bibafitiye akamaro. Imanza zishobora kumara imyaka ibiri cyangwa itatu zizenguruka mu nkiko zitandukanye, mu bujurire cyangwa zisubirishwamo ku mpamvu zitandukanye, izo mpamvu zaba zifite ishingiro cyangwa nta shingiro. Hari n’igihe haba kujurira cyangwa gusubirishamo kubera umwe mu baburanyi adashaka ko ikibazo kirangira. Mbere y’amavugurura yabaye mu rwego rw’ubucamanza, hari imanza zamaraga imyaka irenga 10 mu nkiko.

Uretse ubwinshi bw’imanza mu nkiko, imwe mu mpavu zitera gutinda kw’imanza ni amarangamutima no kwifuza kw’ababuranyi. Mu manza zimwe na zimwe, igikunze kugaragara ni uko buri muburanyi aba ashaka gutsinda mugenzi we mu buryo bushoboka bwose, akamuvanaho ibyo aburana byose byaba ibyo koko afiteho uburenganzira, byaba n’ibirenze ku byo afitiye uburenganzira. Ibi bikunze kugaragarira ahanini mu ndishyi basaba aho usanga akenshi ziba ari umurengera.

Ikindi kandi mu manza abavoka nabo, n’ubwo baba baburanira cyangwa bunganira ababuranyi baba bakorera igihembo kandi gishingiye ku buremere bw’akazi bakoze, ubwo buremere bukaba bwiyongera iyo bakomeje imanza zitarangira, bigatuma hataba ubushake bwo kurangiza imanza mu gihe gikwiye. Ibyo byose bituma imanza ziba ndende mu nkiko kandi zigatwara byinshi.

Mu buhuza, iyo abafitanye impaka bemeye kugerageza ubwumvikane babifashijwemo n’umuhuza, impaka zikemurwa vuba bishoboka kuko ikiba kigenderewe, kuri bo, ku b’avoka babo ndetse n’abahuza ni kimwe aricyo kurangiza impaka ku bwumvikane. Iyo kigezweho kandi mu gihe gikwiye buri wese yiyumvamo ko atsinze ko kandi inyungu ye yayigezeho, ibyo bemeranijweho bigashyirwa mu bikorwa. Ku bibazo biba byarageze mu nkiko, umwanzuro w’ubwumvikane ushyirwa mu cyemezo cy’urukiko, ugashyirwaho kashe mpuruza y’urukiko, ugashyirwa mu bikorwa, nta yandi mananiza. Nta bujurire, cyangwa gusubirishamo byemewe.

2.Ikiguzi cyo kuburana urubanza ugereranije n’ubuhuza

Imanza zitinze mu nkiko zirahenda; cyane cyane amafaranga yo guhemba abunganizi mu by’amategeko, ay’ikurikiranarubanza, n’ibyo ababuranyi batakaza mu bucuruzi, imishinga yahagaze cyangwa indi mirimo ibafitiye inyungu. Igihugu nacyo kibihomberamo iyo imishinga ifitiye rubanda akamaro ihagaze n’imisoro yinjizwa ikagabanuka.

Ugereranije n’inzira y’inkiko, gukemura ibibazo hakoreshejwe Ubuhuza ntabwo bihenze. N’ubwo hari amafaranga y’igihembo cy’Umuhuza yiyongera ku yatanzwe nk’igihembo cya avoka, ni makeya, cyane cyane ushyize mu gaciro ko amakimbirane aba arangiye burundu, nta n’ayandi mafaranga azatangwa mu bujurire cyangwa mu gusubirishamo urubanza.

Ku byerekeye imanza zageze mu rukiko nyuma ababuranyi bagahitamo kujya mu buhuza, igihembo cy’umuhuza cyagenwe mu mabwiriza ya Perezida w’Urukiko rw’Ikirenga kikaba gishingira ku rukiko urubanza rwarimo. Mu manza zisanzwe, igihembo kiva ku mafaranga 150,000 ku manza zari mu rukiko rw’Ibanze, 250,000 ku zari mu Rukiko Rwisumbuye, 300,000 izari mu Rukiko Rukuru na 500,000 ku zageze mu Rukiko rw’Ubujurire cyangwa urw’Ikirenga.

Mu manza z’ubucuruzi ni 250,000 Frw ku zari mu rw’Ubucuruzi, 350,000Frw ku zari mu Rukiko Rukuru rw’Ubucuruzi na 600,000 Frw ku zigeze mu Rukiko rw’Ubujurire cyangwa mu Rukiko rw’Ikirenga. Biragaragara ko icyo gihembo giciriritse ugereranije n’igihembo cya avoka mu nkiko zitandukanye.

Mu nyandiko itaha, tuzakomeza kugaragaza ingaruka zo kujya mu nkiko ugereranyije n’Ubuhuza

Prof Sam Rugege ni Umuyobozi w’Akanama Ngishwanama k’Abahuza


Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE
Kwamamaza

Special pages
. . . . . .