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Imyaka icumi y’igihirahiro kuri Sudani y’Epfo, Perezida Kiir ’arananiwe’

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 9 Nyakanga 2021 saa 02:57
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Tariki nk’iyi mu 2011, ibyishimo byari byose ku baturage ba Sudani y’Epfo bari bamaze imyaka 29 barara rwantambi bashaka ubwigenge, bakagaira igihugu cyabo bwite aho kuba imwe mu ntara ya za Sudani.

Icyizere cyari cyose kuri Aquil De Chut Deng n’abandi bagore bagenzi be babyinaga intsinzi mu mihanda ya Juba, bishimira ko noneho bagiye kubyara bagaheka, bagatunga bagatunganirwa.

Ntibyateye kabiri, icyizere cyaraje amasinde inzozi batifuzaga kurota ziba impamo. Intambara zatangiye mu 2013 kugeza n’ubu zanze kurangira kugeza ubwo na Perezida Salva Kiir avuga ko ananiwe.

Mu 2013, Perezida Salva Kiir wari umaze imyaka ibiri ayoboye icyo gihugu gishya ku ikarita y’Isi, yashwanye na Riek Machar wari Visi Perezida, Kiir ashinja mugenzi we gushaka kumuhirika ku butegetsi.

Salva Kiir aturuka mu bwoko bw’aba-Dinka naho Machar agaturuka mu bwoko bw’aba-Nuer. Imirwano yahereye mu barinda Perezida, abo mu moko yombi batangira gushwana kugeza ubwo bigeze no mu baturage, imirwano ifata indi ntera.

Kuri uyu wa Gatanu tariki 9 Nyakanga 2021, abanya-Sudani y’Epfo basaga ibihumbi 400 bamaze kugwa muri iyo ntambara mu gihe abasaga miliyoni 4.5 bavuye mu byabo.

Ni igihugu gikennye ariko gikungahaye kuri peteroli ari na yo ivamo 90 % by’amafaranga igihugu cyinjiza, nubwo Perezida Kiir aherutse kubwira Citizen TV yo muri Kenya ko Peteroli bafite ‘yababereye umuvumo’ aho kuba isoko y’ubukire.

Kubera ko ariko gace kari gakungahaye kuri peteroli n’andi mabuye y’agaciro, Sudani y’Epfo yabonye ubwigenge ifite bimwe mu bikorwa remezo byiza, nyamara Croix Rouge ivuga ko nibura mu bitaro n’amavuriro Sudani y’Epfo yari ifite mbere y’ubwigenge, ibisigaye bikora ari 40 %.

Imvururu zo muri Sudani y'Epfo zimaze guhitana abasaga ibihumbi 400 mu gihe abasaga miliyoni 4.5 bavuye mu byabo

Ishami ry’Umuryango w‘Abibumbye ryita ku bana (UNICEF) rivuga ko nibura miliyoni 4.5 z’abana muri Sudani y’Epfo bakeneye ubufasha ngo bave mu mirire mibi.

Umubare w’abaturage bakeneye inkunga muri Sudani y’Epfo ugeze kuri miliyoni 8.5 muri miliyoni zisaga 10 zituye icyo gihugu.

Ntacyo kwishimira gihari

Kubera imvururu, imyaka icumi ishize igihugu nta bushobozi kiragira bwo gutegura amatora, ataha akaba ateganyijwe mu 2023 ariko icyizere cy’uko azaba ni gike hashingiwe ku bibazo by’intambara, inzara n’imvururu za politiki zicyugarije igihugu.

Igitutu cy’amahanga, cyatumye abayobozi bombi bemera gusangira ubutegetsi, mu 2018 Machar yongera kugaruka mu gihugu nka Visi Perezida wa mbere, mu ba Visi Perezida batanu igihugu gifite. Muri Gashyantare 2020 Kiir yashyizeho Guverinoma y’Ubumwe ariko ntabwo yabujije ko ubwicanyi bushingiye ku moko hirya no hino mu gihugu bukomeza.

Isabukuru y’imyaka icumi yakabaye ibirori bidasazwe ku gihugu cyabonye ubwigenge kimaze imyaka 30 kibuharanira, nyamara Perezida Salva Kiir yategetse ko nta birori bidasanzwe biba kuko ntacyo kwishimira gihari.

Aherutse kugira ati “Ibihano Sudani y’Epfo yafatiwe byaradukenesheje nubwo mu bisanzwe dukize. Ibihano byose baduhaye, ntabwo byatumye tuzamuka mu buryo twifuzagamo. Niyo mpamvu tudashobora kwizihiza imyaka 10 ishize nk’uko abantu babyifuzaga. Abantu barashonje, ubushobozi dufite ntabwo twabushyira mu birori, byarakaza abaturage bacu.”

Ubwo Sudani yemezaga ko ibonye ubwigenge, Akanama k’umutekano ka Loni katoye kemeza ko ingabo za Loni zishinzwe kubungabunga amahoro zigomba kujya mu gihugu gishya gusubiza ibintu ku murongo.

Izo ngabo zigerageza gushyira ibintu mu buryo ariko ntabwo bibuza imvururu gukomeza.

Benshi mu baturage ba Sudani y'Epfo baracyafite inzozi z'ejo hazaza nubwo imyaka icumi ishize yagenze nabi

Umuyobozi w’ingabo za Loni muri icyo gihugu , Nicholas Haysom kuri uyu munsi Sudani y’Epfo imaze imyaka icumi yigenga yagize ati “Turasaba abanyapolitiki kubyaza umusaruro aya mahirwe kugira ngo inzozi abaturage bari bafite mu myaka icumi ishize, zibe impamo. Baharanire amahoro arambye n’iterambere.”

Umuryango Mpuzamahanga na Kiir bararebana ay’ingwe

Nubwo amatora yitezwe mu 2023 ngo hatorwe undi uzasimbura Salva Kiir, benshi ntibizera ko ayo matora azaba. Hari ababona ko kugira ngo Sudani y’Epfo igire amahoro, bizasaba ko Kiir ava ku butegetsi akajyana na Riek Machar.

Ibyo byifuzo ababifite babisangiye na Loni dore ko Raporo yatanzwe muri Mata 2021 y’inzobere za Loni kuri Sudani y’Epfo, yavuze ko “Kiir na Machar bahindutse ikibazo kuri demokarasi, iterambere ry’ubukungu n’imibereho myiza muri Sudani y’Epfo.”

Iryo tsinda ry’impuguke ryakomeje rivuga ko abo bayobozi bombi bakwiriye kuvaho “kugira ngo igihugu kibone undi murongo mushya wa politiki hanakumirwe izindi mvururu.”

Nubwo Loni isanga Kiir ari we kibazo muri Sudani y’Epfo, nyir’ubwite we asanga Umuryango mpuzamahanga ari wo utuma igihugu kidatera imbere.

Mu kiganiro aherutse kugirana n’umunyamakuru wa Citizen TV Kenya, Jeff Mwaura Koinange, Perezida Kiir yagize ati “Ndananiwe, ariko ntabwo nanijwe n’abaturage, nanijwe n’umuryango mpuzamahanga. Niyo mpamvu mfite ba Visi Perezida batanu. Njya kubona nkabona n’umuntu utarigeze arasa na rimwe, baramuzanye ngo ari mu masezerano y’amahoro.”

Umunyamakuru yahise abaza Kiir impamvu bakora ibyo badashaka akabyemera, ati “Nagira nte se? Ndabareka bagakora icyo bashaka.Ubu se iyo ufashe inka ukayijyana mu ibagiro, yatera amahane. Niko bakora, bo icyo bashaka ni ukumvana ku butegetsi.”

Kubera imvururu n’intambara, Loni yafatiye Sudani y’Epfo ibihano birimo iby’ubukungu, kutemererwa kugura intwaro, gufatira imitungo ya bamwe mu bashinjwa uruhare mu mvururu no kubabuza gukorera ingendo mu mahanga.

Ibyo byakomye mu nkokora iterambere ry’icyo gihugu. Bishobora kuba ari nabyo bituma icyo gihugu kitagira igisirikare gikomeye cyabasha guhangana n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro.

Abaturage ntibizeye umutekano utangwa na Leta, ari yo mpamvu imbunda n’izindi ntwaro zinyanyagiye mu baturage zikanifashishwa iyo habaye imvururu zishingiye ku moko cyangwa ibindi.

Perezida Salva Kiir yavuze ko izo ntwaro bigoye kuzimara mu baturage, ngo keretse bahawe ingengo y’imari bakazibagurira.

Ati “ Niba umuntu yaragiye akagurisha inka ze akigurira imbunda ngo yirinde, ntabwo yapfa kuyitanga. Twe twumva ko kugira ngo ibyemejwe mu masezerano bigerweho, bizasaba ko dutekereza uburyo abaturage bamburwa intwaro. Bizakunda ari uko tubahaye amafaranga, tukazigura.”

John Garang wagejeje igihugu ku bwigenge aracyafatwa nk'umwe mu bashoboraga kugeza igihugu ku mahoro iyo aba akiriho

Hari ababona impamvu ibintu byazambye muri Sudani y’Epfo, ari uko Kiir asa n’uwaguweho n’ubutegetsi, akabufata atiteguye.

The Sudan People’s Liberation Army, umutwe w’ingabo warwaniye ubwigenge bwa Sudani y’Epfo washinzwe mu 1983 na John Garang.

Garang yari afite impamyabumenyi y’ikirenga (Phd) mu bukungu bushingiye ku buhinzi yakuye muri Iowa State University . Yari azi kureshya amahanga kugira ngo yemere impamvu yatumye bafata intwaro, ari nabyo byabagejeje ku bwigenge.

Mu 2005, Garang yasinye amasezerano y’amahoro na Guverinoma ya Sudani ari nayo yabanzirizaga ubwigenge. Yaje kugirwa Visi Perezida wa Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho ya Sudani, hashize iminsi agwa mu mpanuka ya kajugujugu.

Inyeshyamba za Garang zisanze mu ihurizo ryo gushaka umusimbura, bagena Salva Kiir wari umusirikare mukuru umenyereye ibyo kurwana, udafite amashuri menshi n’ubunararibonye muri politiki.

Mu gihe Garang yari azi kureshya amahanga no gutera ibipindi, Kiiir we yaje ari umuntu ucecetse.

Ikinyamakuru Foreign Policy giherutse gutangaza ko hari inama yigeze guhuza Kiir na George W Bush wayoboraga Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, gusobanura neza ibibazo byabo biramunanira biba ngombwa ko havuga abaminisitiri be.

Bush wakundaga cyane Garang, yabaye nk’utishimira politiki ya Kiir, gusa ibintu byarushijeho kuzamba ku ngoma ya Barrack Obama, ubwo Amerika yamenyaga ko Sudani y’Epfo yaba itera inkunga imitwe y’inyeshyamba irwanya Sudani.

Salva Kiir nubwo avuga ko ananizwa, ntatanga umuti uhamye w’icyakorwa ngo imvururu zihoshe mu gihugu cye. Gusa yizera ko mu myaka icumi iri imbere, Sudani y’Epfo izaba imeze neza.

Ati “Abaturage ba Sudani y’Epfo nibemera ko amahoro aganza, mu myaka icumi iri imbere kizaba ari igihugu kidasanzwe. Nibatongera kurwana, nyuma y’imyaka icumi kizaba ari igihugu.”

Icyakora, Kiir avuga ko hari “Hari abantu bakinyotewe n’amaraso, bashaka kubona abantu bapfa muri Sudani y’Epfo.”

Perezida Kiir yavuze ko ananiwe kubera ibibazo igihugu kimazemo igihe
Hari ababona ko amahoro muri Sudani y'Epfo azaboneka Salva Kiir na Riek Machar bavuye ku butegetsi
Salva Kiir ubwo yahuraga na Perezida Bush

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