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Impaka muri Loni ubwo u Rwanda n’u Burundi byangaga kumvira amahanga ngo bibe igihugu kimwe

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 1 Nyakanga 2021 saa 11:26
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Iyo biza kubaho, byashobokaga ko ubu tuba twandika indi nkuru itandukanye n’iyi ariko siko byagenze kuko u Rwanda n’u Burundi byanze kumvira igitutu byashyirwagaho n’amahanga ngo bibe igihugu kimwe, birangira buri gihugu kibonye ubwigenge bwacyo tariki 1 Nyakanga 1962.

Imyaka 59 irashize ibihugu byombi bibonye ubwigenge, bwabanjirijwe n’imyaka ibiri y’inkundura bisaba kuva mu maboko y’u Bubiligi, Umuryango w’Abibumbye ukabanza kubisaba kwihuza kugira ngo bitazawurushya.

Mu 1960 Congo ikimara kubona ubwigenge, nibwo u Burundi n’u Rwanda byari bimaze imyaka ari indagizo Loni yahaye u Bubiligi, byihutishije umushinga wo kwigenga kwabyo. Ni inkundura yari irimbanyije no mu bindi bihugu byinshi bya Afurika nyuma y’imyaka y’ubukoloni.

By’umwihariko mu Rwanda, hari hari ibibazo bikomeye n’imvururu zaterwaga n’amashyaka y’Abahutu yari ashyigikiwe n’u Bubiligi yari amaze iminsi ahiritse ubwami akanirukana umwami mu gihugu, ikibazo Loni yizeho bikarangira ikiburiye umwanzuro.

Kwihutisha uwo mushinga w’ubwigenge ku ruhande rw’u Rwanda, raporo za Loni muri iyo myaka zigaragaza ko byari uburyo bwo gushyira igitutu kuri Loni ngo yemere ubutegetsi bushya bwari buherutse gushyirwaho na Parmehutu ya Grégoire Kayibanda, bityo mu maso y’amahanga u Rwanda rugaragare nka Repubulika, ikibazo cy’ubwami n’Umwami kiburizwemo.

Umwaka wa 1962, ibiganiro bigamije guha ubwigenge u Rwanda n’u Burundi byafashe indi ntera. Inteko rusange ya Loni yateranye tariki 23 Gashyantare 1962 yafashe imyanzuro itandukanye ku kibazo cy’u Rwanda n’u Burundi kugira ngo bibashe kubona ubwigenge.

Loni yatoye ko kugira ngo “ejo hazaza h’u Rwanda harambirije mu kwihuza nk’igihugu kimwe gihuje ubukungu, igisirikare n’ububanyi n’amahanga ariko ntibivaneho ubuzima gatozi bwa buri kimwe nk’u Rwanda n’u Burundi.”

Icyo gihe Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Loni yasabwe gushyiraho Komisiyo igamije gufasha mu guhuza impande zitavuga rumwe haba mu Rwanda n’u Burundi, gukurikirana iyubahirizwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu n’ubwo gutanga ibitekerezo, iyubahirizwa ry’umutekano n’amategeko, gutegura uko ibihugu byagira igisirikare n’inzego zabyo zishinzwe umutekano, gukurikirana itahuka ry’impunzi n’ibindi.

Hasabwe ko iyo Komisiyo itegura mu maguru mashya inama ikabera Addis Abeba u Rwanda n’u Burundi bigahararirwa n’abantu batanu kuri buri ruhande, bakigira hamwe uburyo ibihugu byombi byakwihuza bikavamo kimwe kizahabwa ubwigenge.

Byari bigiye kwihuza na Congo cyangwa Tanganyika

Ibihugu bihuriye mu muryango Commonwealth, ibya Aziya na Afurika byari bishyigikiye ko u Rwanda n’u Burundi biba igihugu kimwe.

Ikibazo gikomeye ibyo bihugu byagaragazaga ku gutandukana k’u Rwanda n’u Burundi, ni uburyo ari ibihugu bikennye, bitagira abakozi b’inzobere, abasirikare n’abapolisi babyo bwite ku buryo gutatanya imbaraga byari kuba ikibazo gikomeye. Amahanga na Loni ngo byari kuyagora kujya abona amafaranga yo guha buri gihugu nk’inkunga.

Ibaruwa Canada yandikiye umunyamabanga wungirije wa Loni ushinzwe ububanyi n’amahanga ku wa 24 Mutarama 1962, ivuga ko kuba nta bukungu buri gihugu cyari gifite buhagije, na byo babibonaga nk’ikibazo ngo buri kimwe kizabashe kwibeshaho. Canada yumvaga ko kuba u Rwanda n’u Burundi byaba igihugu kimwe bizoroshya imikoreshereze y’ingengo y’imari.

Canada yavuze ko iyo muri Congo haba hatarabayeyo imvururu, ngo baba barashyize igitutu ku Rwanda n’u Burundi bikemera kwihuza na yo bikaba igihugu kimwe gifatika. Icyo ntabwo cyari kigishobotse kuko Congo itari ikigaragara nk’iyo kwizerwa kubera imvururu zabaye hicwa Abasirikare b’Ababiligi byanihutishije gahunda yayo yo kubona ubwigenge. IKindi ni uko na Congo ubwayo yari yatangiye gucikamo ibice.

Muri raporo za Loni, ntabwo hagaragazwa neza icyo u Rwanda n’u Burundi byashingiragaho byanga kwihuza, icyakora mu ibaruwa ya Canada, bigaragara ko hari ibindi bihugu byari byatangiye kwegera u Rwanda n’u Burundi ngo bibe igihugu kimwe.

Grégoire Kayibanda wari Minisitiri w'Intebe w'u Rwanda hamwe na Otto Rusingizandekwe wari Minisitiri w'ububanyi n'amahanga mu biganiro byasabaga ko u Rwanda rwihuza n'u Burundi

Hari amakuru y’uko Moïse Tshombe warwaniraga ukwigenga kwa Katanga yiyomoye kuri Congo, yaba yaregereye u Rwanda n’u Burundi abyumvisha ko bazihuza bagakora igihugu kimwe gihuje u Rwanda na Katanga n’u Burundi. Ni ubusabe bwashobokaga kuko Katanga yabisabaga ari intara ikungahaye ku mutungo kamere.

Andi makuru yari ay’uko Julius Nyerere yari yatangiye kwegera u Rwanda n’u Burundi abisaba kwihuza na Tanganyika bikaba igihugu kimwe. Tanganyika yari itarihuza na Zanzibar ngo bibyare Tanzania. Canada yavuze ko yabiganiriyeho n’u Bubiligi, bukagaragaza ko icyo cyifuzo cyaba ari cyiza kandi bazagishyigikira.

Byanavugwaga ko ibihugu byombi bishobora kwihuza na Uganda, Tanganyika na Kenya bigakora Leta ihuriweho ya East Africa.

Impamvu ibihugu byinshi bya Afurika byari bishyigikiye ko u Rwanda n’u Burundi biba igihugu kimwe, ni uko mu buso byari ibihugu bito kandi bikennye ku buryo hashobora kujya hahoramo amakimbirane ashingiye ku bukene. Ikindi ntabwo ibihugu bya Afurika byashakaga ko ikomeza gucikagurikamo uduce twinshi.

Bakekaga ko uko gucikamo ibice k’u Rwanda n’u Burundi kwihishwe inyuma n’u Bubuligi bwari bufitanye umubano mwiza na Guverinoma ya Parmehutu yariho mu Rwanda mu gihe ku ruhande rw’u Burundi Guverinoma y’Umwami Mwambutsa IV batacanaga uwaka.

Mu nteko rusange yo ku wa 9 Gashyantare 1962, Minisitiri w’ububanyi n’amahanga w’u Bubiligi yavuze ko bashyigikiye ugutandukana kw’ibihugu byombi. Impamvu yatanze, ni uko ngo imyumvire y’abanyapolitiki mu bihugu byombi yari itandukanye bityo ko kubahatira kumvikana byaba ‘ntaho bitaniye n’ubundi bukoloni bari kwirukana’.

Mu nama ya Commonwealth yabaye tariki 18 Mutarama, abari bahagarariye Australia barwanyije igitekerezo cyo gutandukana k’u Rwanda n’u Burundi, basaba ko habaho uburyo bwo guhuza abayobozi ku mpande zombi bakabyumvikanaho uko byagenda kose.

Uwo munsi u Buhinde bwavuze ko byaba ari ‘ishyano’ kwemera ko habaho uduhugu duto gutyo kandi mbere twari igihugu kimwe.

Nubwo amahanga yakomeje gushyira igitutu ku Rwanda n’u Burundi ngo byemere kuba igihugu kimwe, abari bahagarariye ibihugu byombi ntibigeze babyemera. Mu biganiro byahurije hamwe intumwa z’ibihugu byombi n’iza Komisiyo yari yashyizweho na Loni bikabera Addis Abeba muri Ethiopia, ibihugu byombi byakomeje gutsimbarara gusa bigaragara ko bizemera guhuza za gasutamo n’ibijyanye n’ubukungu.

Mpakaniye Lazare wari Minisititi w'umutekano mu Rwanda na Cyimana Gaspard wari Minisitiri w'imari nabo bari bari mu ntumwa z'u Rwanda zagiye Addis Abeba

Ntabwo mu myanzuro y’izo nama za Addis Abeba hagaragara neza icyashingirwagaho u Rwanda n’u Burundi byanga kwihuza, icyakora imiyoborere ya buri kimwe ishobora kuba yarabigizemo uruhare.

U Burundi bwari mu maboko y’abatutsi mu gihe u Rwanda rwari mu maboko y’Abahutu. Byari bigoye ku Bahutu mu Rwanda bari bari ku butegetsi nyuma y’iminsi mike bahiritse ubwami bashinjaga kubaheza ngo bemere kuyoborwa n’Abatutsi bavuye mu Burundi. Ikindi ku Burundi byari bigoye ko Umwami Mwambutsa na Leta ye bemera guhara ubutegetsi ngo babusigire Abahutu bo mu Rwanda.

Kugenda kw’ingabo z’u Bubiligi byabaye ihurizo

Ikindi kibazo cyabaye insobe mu biganiro byaganishije ku bwigenge bw’u Rwanda n’u Burundi, ni ukugenda kw’ingabo z’u Bubiligi zari zishinzwe umutekano mu bihugu byombi.

Umwami w’u Burundi Mwambutsa yashakaga ko ingabo za Loni ziguma mu gihugu cye ariko abo bategekana batabishaka. Byatumye mu biganiro bya Addis Abeba aho u Burundi bwari buhagarariwe na Minisitiri w’Intebe, bwamaganye icyemezo cyo kugumisha ingabo za Loni mu gihugu. U Rwanda rwo rwarifashe cyane, ruvuga ko ruzabyigaho rukareba niba bitaba ngombwa ko zihaguma cyangwa se zikahava.

Impungenge zari zihari, kwari uko ibihugu byombi nta ngabo byari bifite ku buryo ikibazo cy’umutekano cyavuka nyuma yo kugenda kw’Ababiligi, nta bushobozi byari kubona bwo guhangana na cyo.

Ikinyamakuru Le Monde muri Gashyantare 1962 cyatangaje ko ibihugu by’aba-Communistes byashakaga ko ingabo z’u Bubiligi zihita zivanwa mu Rwanda n’u Burundi, ahubwo Loni igashyiraho uburyo bufasha gutoza abasirikare b’ibyo bihugu bazahita bafata inshingano Ababiligi bakihava mbere y’ubwigenge.

Loni yo yatangarije ibyo bihugu ko u Rwanda n’u Burundi nibitemera ko ingabo z’u Bubiligi zihaguma, nta mafaranga izabiha yo kubifasha gutoza no kwita ku mutekano wabyo kuko nta bushobozi ibifitiye.

Byakomeje kuzurungutana kugeza ubwo tariki 27 Kamena 1962, Inteko rusange ya Loni yatoye umwanzuro uvuga ko u Bubiligi bwambuwe inshingano zo kurebera u Rwanda n’u Burundi nk’indagizo bwahawe na Loni, bityo ko ibihugu bihawe ubwigenge buzatangira kubahirizwa tariki 1 Nyakanga uwo mwaka.

Ingabo z’u Bubiligi zahawe kuba zahavuye bitarenze Kanama 1962 kandi Loni igahita yohereza intumwa ziyihagararira mu Rwanda gukurikirana ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’iyo myanzuro no gufasha ibyo bihugu bishya kwisuganya mu nzego zitandukanye z’iterambere.

Ibihugu byombi hemejwe ko bizakomeza gukorera hamwe ku bijyanye n’ubukungu nka gasutamo n’imicungire y’amafaranga, Banki nkuru ikomeza kuba Banque d’Emission du Rwanda et du Burundi (BERB) yari iherereye i Bujumbura. Tariki ya 1 Mutarama 1964 nibwo ibihugu byombi byatandukanye mu by’ubukungu, buri cyose kigira Banki yacyo na gasutamo.

Umurwa Mukuru w’u Burundi byemejwe ko ukomeza kuba Bujumbura mu gihe u Rwanda rwahisemo Kigali kuko ariho hagaragaraga nko hagati mu gihugu. Kubera ko mu Rwanda nta kibuga cy’indege mpuzamahanga cyahabaga, u Burundi bwemeye ko Abanyarwanda bazakomeza gukoresha ikibuga cy’indege cya Bujumbura kugeza babonye icyabo kiri ku rwego mpuzamahanga.

Inkuru bijyanye: Uko gushwana k’u Rwanda n’u Burundi byabaye intandaro yo kuvuka kwa BNR

Uko u Rwanda n’u Burundi byari bigiye kugirwa igihugu kimwe n’ibidasanzwe mu mibanire kuva mu myaka 500 ishize

Joseph Ndwaniye wari umunyamabanga w’itsinda ryagiye rihagarariye u Rwanda na Callixte Habamenshi wari Minisitiri w’Itumanaho
André Muhirwa wari Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Burundi na Thaddée Siryumunsi wari Perezida w’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko mu Burundi baganirira Addis Abeba ku bwigenge bw'ibihugu byombi
Abari bayoboye Komisiyo yahuje u Rwanda n'u Burundi mu biganiro bya Addis Abeba

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