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Iby’ingenzi byagize u Bushinwa igihangange burangajwe imbere n’Ishyaka CPC rimaze imyaka 100 (Amafoto)

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 2 Nyakanga 2021 saa 01:38
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Mu 1990, u Bushinwa bwari kimwe mu bihugu byugarijwe n’ubukene ku Isi, nta n’akanunu k’uko buzabwigobotora vuba. Ni igihugu hafi bibiri bya gatatu by’abagituye bari mu bukene, abarya idolari rimwe ku munsi ari mbarwa.

Muri make, ubukungu bw’u Bushinwa icyo gihe bwanganaga n’ubwa Hong Kong kuri ubu, imwe mu duce tugengwa n’u Bushinwa. Ni agace gafite umusaruro mbumbe wa miliyari z’amadolari zisaga gato 360.

Nubwo Isi yugarijwe na Covid-19, ibirori mu Bushinwa birarimbanyije bishimira imyaka 100 ishize ishyaka rya rubanda, The Communist Party of China (CPC), rishinzwe ari na ryo ryagize uruhare mu kuzana izo mpinduka zose zituma u Bushinwa buri ku mwanya wa kabiri mu bihugu bikize cyane ku Isi, nta muturage wabwo n’umwe ukibarizwa munsi y’umurongo w’ubukene.

Ishyaka CPC ryashinzwe muri Nyakanga 1921, rishingwa n’abantu 13 bari baje bahagarariye abandi 50 mu gihugu hose, bafite intego yo gutangiza impinduramatwara n’urugamba byamaze imyaka 28 bigasiga bihiritse ubutegetsi bw’igitugu bw’Aba-Kuomintang (KMT).

Rya shyaka ryatangijwe n’abantu 50, ubu ni ryo rinini ku Isi rifite abayoboke benshi basaga miliyoni 95, rifite agahigo ko gutangiza ingamba zatumye mu myaka 30 ishize, abantu basaga miliyoni 700 baravuye mu bukene bukabije.

Ni ishyaka ryaje rishyize imbere abaturage nk’uko biri mu mazina yaryo, bikanagaragarira mu mazina igihugu cyahawe rimaze kujya ku butegetsi mu 1949, Repubulika ya Rubanda y’u Bushinwa (People’s Republic of China).

U Bushinwa bushya bwisanze mu gihe kibi, Isi iri mu bibazo byasizwe n’Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi yose. Cyari igihugu kikishakisha, hafi kimwe cya kabiri cy’abagituye bari mu bukene bukabije, ibikorwa remezo ari iyanga n’ibindi.

Isi yakurikiwe n’ibihe bibi by’Intambara y’Ubutita, u Bushinwa bufatwa mu murongo w’Aba-Communistes bari bahanganye n’Aba-Capitalistes bo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi. Kubera ingufu Abanya-Burayi n’Abanyamerika bari bafite, u Bushinwa ntibwagize ababureba neza benshi, ibihugu byinshi byakoranaga na bwo byikandagira.

Nta mukene rwimbi usigaye mu Bushinwa

Mu gihe byinshi mu bihugu ku Isi bigowe no kugera kuri imwe mu nkingi z’umuryango w’abibumbye zigamije iterambere rirambye (SDGs), yo kuba ubukene bukabije bwaranduwe mu 2030, u Bushinwa bwo bwabigezeho mbere y’imyaka icumi.

Mu mpera za 2020, u Bushinwa bwakoze ibyo benshi basanga bidasanzwe ubwo bwaranduraga burundu ubukene bukabije mu baturage babwo. Miliyoni zisaga 98 z’abaturage bavuye mu bukene bukabije mu myaka icumi gusa, ubaze neza ni nk’abatuye Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo bose, cyangwa se inshuro icyenda abatuye u Rwanda.

Mu mwaka wa 1990, 61% by’abaturage b’u Bushinwa babaga munsi y’umurongo w’ubukene. Byageze mu 2002 ubukene mu Bushinwa bugeze kuri 33 %. Mu mwaka wa 2015, abaturage 4 % mu Bushinwa ni bo bari basigaye mu bukene.

Abakozi b'uruganda rukora batiri mu Bushinwa bari mu kazi kabo

Mu myaka itarenze 30 gusa, miliyoni 700 z’abatuye u Bushinwa zakuwe mu bukene. Ni ibintu bitigeze biba ahandi ku Isi kandi byose byakozwe ku ngamba zagiye zifatirwa mu buyobozi bw’Ishyaka CPC nka moteri ya Guverinoma y’u Bushinwa.

Uku gutera imbere gukomeye k’u Bushinwa kwatewe n’ingamba Leta yashyizeho zigamije kuzamura abatuye mu bice by’icyaro byari byiganjemo ubukene bukabije. Abaturage benshi bimuwe mu bice bari batuyemo bashyirwa mu midugudu igezweho ibonekamo amahirwe y’imirimo n’ubuzima bwiza.

Ubukungu bwazamukanye n’imibereho myiza

Umushinwa wo mu 1949, iyo yuzuzaga imyaka 35 byabaga bidasanzwe, muri make yabaga ari umurame. Byaterwaga n’impamvu zitandukanye zirimo ubukene, intambara za hato na hato zahoraga muri icyo gihugu n’ibindi. Kuri ubu icyizere cyo kubaho ku Mushinwa kiri ku myaka 77.

Ubwo bwiyongere bw’icyizere cyo kubaho bwaturutse ku ngamba zirimo kongera ishoramari, ibikorwa remezo n’ibindi.

Kuri ubu, abantu batuye mu mijyi yo mu Bushinwa bafite akazi bavuye kuri miliyoni 15 bari bariho mu 1949, ubu bageze kuri miliyoni zisaga 435. Iki gihugu mu 1949 cyari gifite imijyi myiza 132 ariko ubu igeze kuri 670. Uburezi ni imwe mu nkingi yatejwe imbere cyane muri icyo gihugu gituwe na miliyari 1.4. Imibare igaragaza ko 99.95 by’abana bageze igihe cyo kwiga amashuri abanza bayiga nta nkomyi, mu gihe 48 % by’abagomba kuba biga Kaminuza bayiga.

Umusaruro mbumbe w’u Bushinwa ubu ugeze kuri miliyari ibihumbi 14.3 z’amadolari, uvuye kuri miliyari $360 mu 1990. Ni ubwa kabiri kuri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zifite umusaruro mbumbe wa miliyari ibihumbi 21 z’amadolari.

Ubukungu bw’iki gihugu bwarushijeho gutumbagira mu 2001 ubwo u Bushinwa bwinjiraga mu Muryango Mpuzamhanga w’Ubucuruzi (World Trade Oraganisation). Kwinjiramo byabuhaye amahirwe yo gukomorerwa kw’ibicuruzwa byabwo mu ruhando mpuzamahanga, gukwirakwira kw’ishoramari ryabwo mu mahanga n’ibindi.

Agaciro k’ibyo u Bushinwa bwoherezaga n’ibyo bwavanaga mu mahanga mu 1950 kabarirwaga miliyari 1.13 z’amadolari, nyamara mu 2018 byari bigeze kuri miliyari 4600 z’amadolari.

Igihugu cya mbere gifite imihanda myinshi ya gari ya moshi igezweho

Mu gihe urujya n’uruza rw’abantu rudashoboka ngo ubucuruzi busagambe, nta gihugu cyarota iterambere. Imihanda myiza ni imwe muri moteri y’iterambere ryihuse, ni yo mpamvu ahanyujijwe kaburimbo mu bihugu byacu bya Afurika, agaciro k’ikibanza kiwegereye kazamuka bitajenjetse, ubucuruzi bunini n’ubuciriritse bikahaza.

Guhera mu kinyejana cya 21, u Bushinwa bwashyize imbaraga mu kuvana mu bwigunge ibice byabwo bitandukanye, bwubaka imihanda igezweho ya gari ya moshi zihuta (high-speed railway).

Mu mwaka wa 2000, nta muhanda wa gari ya moshi yihuta (high-speed railway) n’umwe u Bushinwa bwagiraga. Gari ya moshi zahakoraga inyinshi zari iza kera zishaje zimwe zicumba umwotsi, zangiza ibidukikje ku buryo washoboraga kuva mu ntara imwe ujya mu yindi, bikagutwara iminsi n’iminsi.

Inkuru yarahindutse, ubu u Bushinwa ni cyo gihugu cya mbere ku Isi gifite imihanda myinshi ya gari ya moshi zihuta. Iyo mihanda ibarirwa ibilometero nibura 37.900. Kimwe cya kabiri cy’iyi mihanda cyubatswe mu myaka itanu ishize.

Icyerekezo cy’u Bushinwa ni ukuba bwubatse nibura ibilometero 70.000 bitarenze umwaka wa 2035. Myinshi muri iyo mihanda gari ya moshi zikoresha umuvudulo wa kilometero 350 ku isaha. Mu mwaka wa 2020, ibice 75 % by’imijyi yo mu Bushinwa byari byaragejejwemo imihanda ya gari ya moshi yihuta.

Gari ya moshi zihuta mu Bushinwa ni bwo buryo bworohera abaturage mu ngendo hirya no hino mu gihugu

U Bushinwa ni cyo gihugu cyonyine ku Isi cyabashije kugera ku iterambere rihambaye mu bijyanye na gari yamoshi zihuta kuko nk’u Bwongereza bufite kilometero 107 gusa mu gihe nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zifatwa nk’igihugu cya mbere gikize ku Isi, gifite umuhanda umwe wa gari ya moshi yihuta kandi nawo izinyuramo zigendera ku muvuduko wa kilometero 240 ku isaha, bivuze ko gariyamoshi zo mu Bushinwa ziri imbere ho ibilometero 100 kandi ari na nyinshi birenze.

Muri uku kwezi, u Bushinwa bwashyize hanze ubwoko bushya bwa gari ya moshi yihuta (bullet train) ikoresha amashanyarazi gusa. Ni ukuvuga ko ntaho ihuriye na zimwe za kera zakoreshaga amakara, izikoresha ibikomoka kuri peteroli n’ibindi byangiza ibidukukije. Ni cyo gihugu cya mbere ku isi cyabashije kubigeraho.

Iyo gari ya moshi nshya y’amashanyarazi ishobora kugendera ku muvuduko wa kilometero 160 ku isaha. Ni ukuvuga ko ihagurutse i Kigali saa Mbili za mu gitondo, saa Mbili n’iminota 50 yaba yageze i Rubavu mu ntera y’ibilometero 148.

Igisirikare kiyingayinga icya Amerika

Iterambere ryose rituruka ku mutekano, ni yo mpamvu u Bushinwa bwashyize imbaraga nyinshi mu kubaka inzego zabwo z’umutekano by’umwihariko igisirikare cyizwi nk’icya rubanda, People’s Liberation Army (PLA). Ibyo bigaragarira mu ngengo y’imari igisirikare gikoresha yiyongereye mu myaka ishize.

Igisirikare cy’u Bushinwa kandi cyiza mu bya mbere bikoresha ikoranabuhanga cyane cyane imashini zikoresha ubwenge bw’ubukorano (AI), misile zishobora gushwanyaguza ubwato bw’intambara mu gihe gito (anti-ship ballistic missiles) n’ibindi.

Nko kugeza mu 2018, igisirikare cy’u Bushinwa cyazaga ku mwanya wa kabiri mu gukoresha amafaranga menshi ku mwaka kuko cyakoreshaga nibura miliyari 239 z’amadolari, gikurikiye icya Amerika gikoresha miliyari 634 ku mwaka nkuko byatangajwe na Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). Ni inyongera ikomeye kuko mu 1998, Igisirikare cy’u Bushinwa cyakoreshaga ku mwaka ingengo y’imari ya miliyari 38 z’amadolari.

Iki gisirikare kandi cyongereye ubushobozi bwacyo mu bijyanye n’ubwirinzi mu kirere, indege z’intambara kandi zikomeye ndetse na drones z’ikoreshwa mu butasi.

Mu 2015, Ikigo cy’Abanyamerika RAND Corporation cyatangaje ko nibura kimwe cya kabiri cy’indege z’intambara u Bushinwa butunze ari izigezweho.

Intego u Bushinwa bufite ni ukugira igisirikare cya mbere ku Isi

Iki gisirikare bivugwa ko gifite ibisasu bishobora kuraswa bikagera ku bwato bw’intambara bwa Amerika buherereye mu Burengerazuba bw’Inyanja ya Pacifique.

U Bushinwa buri gukora misile zihuta cyane ku kigero gisumba cyane umuvuduko w’ijwi ku buryo byagora umwanzi kubona umwanya wo kwitegura guhangana nabyo mu gihe byaba birashwe. U Burusiya ni bwo bwonyine bwari butunze ubwo bwoko bw’ibisasu buzwi nka Hypersonic Missiles.

Mu myaka yatambutse, igisirikare cy’u Bushinwa cyakoreshaga nyinshi mu ntwaro zakorewe mu Burusiya ariko ubu byarahindutse, inyinshi zikorerwa mu nganda z’imbere mu gihugu. Igisirikare cyateje imbere umubano na Kaminuza zikomeye ku buryo ikorwa ry’intwaro mu Bushinwa rihorana udushya mu ikoranabuhanga.

Raporo ya SIPRI yo mu 2020, ivuga ko u Bushinwa bushobora kuba buri ku mwanya wa kabiri mu gukora intwaro nyinshi ku isi, nyinshi muri izo zikagurishwa mu bihugu biri mu nzira y’Amajyambere.

Mu mwaka wa 2017, Perezida w’u Bushinwa Xi Jinping yatangaje ko igisirikare cy’igihugu cye gifite intego yo kuba ari intangarugero mu mwaka wa 2049.

Ibihugu bikize byarakangaranye

Amagambo make, ibikorwa byinshi ni wo murongo u Bushinwa bufite. Kubera guceceka cyane, akenshi ibihugu bikomeye byisanga icyo gihugu cyageze ku bintu bidasanzwe ku buryo hari impungenge ko bishobora kwisanga byanyuzweho mu nzego zose.

U Bushinwa burajwe ishinga no kurushaho gufungura imiryango binyuze mu bufatanye mpuzamahanga, ahanini mu bihugu bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere, bigakorwa muri politiki itari iya gikoloni ahubwo ishingiye ku bwubahane

Iki gihugu mu 2013 cyatangije umushinga wo kubaka ibikorwa remezo bihuza imigabane yose y’Isi, umushinga wiswe Belt and Road Initiative.

Muri uyu mushinga, u Bushinwa bwiyemeje gutanga inkunga mu kubaka ibikorwa
remezo birimo imihanda ya gariyamoshi, ibyambu, imirongo migari ya internet, itumanaho, imihanda n’ibindi bituma imigenderanire n’urujya n’uruza byoroha mu batuye isi. Uyu mushinga ureba cyane ibihugu bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere.

Numara kujya mu bikorwa, uzasiga iki gihugu kiri ku mwanya wa mbere ku Isi mu bukungu byongere n’ijambo ryabwo mu ruhando mpuzamahanga. Biteganyijwe ko uyu mushinga uzahuza kimwe cya kabiri cy’abatuye Isi, byongere amahirwe y’ishoramari n’ubucuruzi. Ibihugu bisaga ijana byamaze gusinyana amasezerano n’u Bushinwa muri uwo mushinga.

Ibihugu birimo iby’i Burayi na Amerika byatangiye kureba ikijisho u Bushinwa kubera uwo mushinga ushobora gusiga nta jambo bigifite mu bukungu no mu buryo bwa politiki. Mu nama iherutse yahuje ibihugu bikize ku Isi (G7), byarwanyije cyane u Bushinwa ndetse bitangiza undi mushinga wo kubaka ibikorwa remezo bihuza isi mu guca intege uw’u Bushinwa.

Mu gihe umuvuduko u Bushinwa buriho mu iterambere waba ukomeje, iki gihugu biteganyijwe ko mu 2030 kizaba ari icya mbere gikize ku Isi n’umutungo wa miliyari ibihumbi 38 z’amadolari. Buzaba bukurikirwa na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika na miliyari ibihumbi 23 z’amadolari, u Buhinde buri ku mwanya wa gatatu.

u Bushinwa bwa kera

Umugore ari kumwe n'abana be mu Ntara ya Jiangsu mu Bushinwa. Ni urwibutso ku buzima bwo mu 1955
Umwe mu baturage b'u Bushinwa ari kuroba mu 1955. Icyo gihe hakoreshwaga uburyo gakondo
Umwe mu baturage b'u Bushinwa ubwo yari mu mihanda ya Beijing mu 1955
Amagare ari mu byakoreshwaga cyane mu bwikorezi bw'ibintu n'abantu. Iyi parking y'amagare iri muri Beijing, ifoto yafashwe mu 1955
Ubwo Mao Zedong yatangazaga ko u Bushinwa buhindutse Repubulika ya rubanda mu 1949
Abasirikare b'u Bushinwa mu 1958 i Beijing
Impunzi y'intambara mu Bushinwa mu mwaka wa 1949
Ingabo z'Abashinwa ubwo zagabaga igitero cyo kwigarurira Tibet mu 1950
Mao Zedong ufatwa nk'umubyeyi w'u Bushinwa yishimira Repubulika nshya ya rubanda mu myaka ya 1950
Mao Zedong atangaza ko u Bushinwa bubaye Repubulika, ni inkuru yakiranwe akanyamuneza mu buryo buhambaye
Abashinwa batwaye amagare mu mihanda yo mu Mujyi wa Shanghai mu 1955
Abakozi bo mu ruganda rw'imyenda i Beijing. Aha ni mu mwaka wa 1955
Abana bo mu gace ka Macau mu mwaka wa 1955
Abanyonzi batwaye amagare yabo i Beijing mu mwaka wa 1950

U Bushinwa bw’ubu

Abakozi b'uruganda rukora ibinyabiziga rwa Jianghuai Automobile Group mu Bushinwa, mu kazi ka buri munsi
U Bushinwa buza ku isonga ku Isi mu kugira imihanda myinshi ya gari ya moshi zigezweho
Imwe muri gari ya moshi zihuta zikoresha amashanyarazi u Bushinwa buherutse kumurika
Hong Kong imaze gutera imbere ku buryo bugaragara
Shanghai, umwe mu mijyi y'ubucuruzi ikomeye mu Bushinwa
Umujyi wa Beijing ni imwe mu igaragaza isura nyayo y'ubukungu bw'u Bushinwa
Mu myaka 20 ishize, ingengo y'imari igisirikare cy'u Bushinwa gikoresha yikubye hafi inshuro umunani

Ibirori byo kwizihiza imyaka 100 CPC imaze

Ibi birori byabaye hubahirizwa amabwiriza yo kwirinda COVID-19
Ishyaka CPC rifite abayoboke barenga miliyoni 95, bavuye kuri 50 baritangije
Ibirori byitabirwa n'abantu bake kubera icyorezo cya COVID-19
U Bushinwa bumaze kwandika izina mu kubaka inzu ndende
Ibi birori byo kwizihiza imyaka 100 Ishyaka ry'Aba-Communist rimaze byaranzwe n'imyiyerekano itandukanye
Urubyiruko mu bice bitandukanye by'u Bushinwa rwari rwahimbawe ku munsi w'isabukuru y'imyaka ijana CPC imaze ivutse
Ibirori byo kwizihiza imyaka 100 Ishyaka ry'Aba-Communist rimaze rishinzwe ni bimwe mu biba bikomeye mu Bushinwa
U Bushinwa bwateye imbere mu buryo bwihuse
Imihanda yo mu Bushinwa yari yatatswe mu buryo bwihariye ubwo hizihizwaga Isabukuru y'imyaka 100 ya CPC
Abana bato basusurukije ibirori byo kwizihiza imyaka 100 CPC imaze
Mao Zedong ufatwa nk'umubyeyi w'u Bushinwa yahawe umwanya wihariye mu birori by'iri shyaka
Muri ibi birori habayeho n'imyiyerekano y'indege za gisirikare
Perezida Xi Jinping yavuze ko igihe cyo kunnyuzura u Bushinwa cyarangiye, yikoma ibihugu bikomeza kubuha amategeko
Perezida Xi Jinping yavuze ko uzayobera ku Bushinwa azahabwa isomo rikomeye
Ibirori by'isabukuru y'Ishyaka riri ku butegetsi mu Bushinwa biba bibereye ijisho
U Bushinwa burajwe ishinga no kubaka igisirikare gikomeye ku Isi

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