Umuriri w’imbunda n’indege z’intambara z’ibihugu icyenda ku butaka bwa Congo mu ntambara yiswe iya Afurika

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 19 Nyakanga 2018 saa 12:59
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Mu myaka 20 ishize tariki 18 Nyakanga, ibihugu icyenda n’imitwe y’inyeshyamba igera kuri 25, byatanze agahenge mu ntambara y’amateka yari imaze hafi imyaka itanu muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo (RDC) ubwo yahindukaga isibaniro, ibihugu byo mu bice bitandukanye bya Afurika bigakozanyaho riraka.

Benshi bayise intambara ya kabiri ya Congo, intambara nini muri Afurika yewe hari n’abayise intambara ya Afurika, bayigereranya n’iya Kabiri y’Isi yahuje u Budage n’ibihugu byari bifatanyije ndetse na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika n’ibihugu byari bifatanyije.

Muri iyi ntambara ya Kabiri ya Congo yatangiye tariki 2 Kanama 1998 kugera tariki 18 Nyakanga 2003, ubwo ubufatanye bw’ingabo z’u Rwanda, Uganda n’u Burundi bwari buhanganye n’ubwa RDC, Tchad, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Sudani na Angola.

Imbarutso y’intambara

Burya ngo ibijya gushya birashyuha! Tariki 14 Nyakanga 1998, Perezida wa RDC, Laurent Désiré Kabila, wari umaze umwaka ahiritse ku butegetsi Mobutu, yasezereye Gen. James Kabarebe ku mwanya w’Umugaba w’Ingabo, asimbuzwa Gen. Célestin Kifwa ku buryo butunguranye ndetse butavuzweho rumwe. Gen Kabarebe yagizwe umujyanama w’umusimbuye ndetse nyuma aza no kumwirukana.

Bidateye kabiri, Kabila yongeye gukora icyaje kubyara ishyano ubwo yategekaga ko Ingabo z’u Rwanda n’iza Uganda ziva igitaranya ku butaka bwa RDC, aho kuzishimira ko zamufashije kujya ku butegetsi.

Mu gihe ibi bihugu byombi byagize uruhare mu ntambara ya Congo ahanini ku mpamvu z’ubusugire n’umutekano wabyo, byahise bitangira kugaragara ko Laurent Désiré Kabila ahinduka nk’ikirere ku buryo byari kuzagera aho anahindukirana u Rwanda na Uganda afatanyije n’abanzi b’ibihugu byombi.

Kabila wari umaze kujya ku butegetsi abikesha u Rwanda na Uganda, yari atangiye kwitaza ibyo bihugu ku buryo ibyo yari yemeye byabonekaga ko atazabikora.

U Rwanda rujya gufasha Kabila gukuraho Mobutu, rwabitewe n’uko uyu yari yarahaye rugari Interahamwe, ingabo n’abanyapolitiki bari basize bakoze Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda.

U Rwanda kandi rwari ruhangayikishijwe cyane n’imitwe irimo ALIR yaje kubyara FDLR, ndetse ibitero bya buri kanya byaturukaga mu Burengerazuba n’Amajyaruguru by’u Rwanda biva muri Zaїre. Mu by’ukuri nta cyizere ko Leta yari imaze imyaka ibiri igiyeho yari gusugira igifite abanzi bayizengurutse bashaka kugaruka gufata Kigali.

Kabila kandi amaze kwicara mu ntebe i Kinshasa, yibagiwe isezerano ahubwo atangira gushaka amayeri y’uko azigobotora izo nshuti ze za kera. Imbere mu gihugu naho abaturage bahoze bamubona nk’umucunguzi, bari batangiye kumubonamo umugambanyi n’agakingirizo k’ibindi bihugu.

Intangiriro y’intambara

Bidatinze ku mugoroba wo ku wa 2 Kanama 1998, Gen Sylvain Mbuki wayoboraga Brigade ya 10 y’igisirikare cya Leta, yavugiye kuri Radio Goma ko ingabo zafashe umwanzuro wo gukura Perezida Laurent Kabila ku butegetsi kubera kunanirwa kuyobora, icyenewabo na ruswa.

Hashinzwe umutwe wiswe Rassemblement Démocratique Congolais (RCD Goma), maze mu minsi yakurikiyeho Imijyi ya Bukavu, Uvira na Goma irafatwa n’ahandi mu Burasirazuba bwa RDC harafatwa.

Byahuriranye n’uko itsinda rito ry’ingabo z’u Rwanda riyobowe na Gen Kabarebe wari umaze kugezwa i Goma avuye i Kinshasa, ryigaruriye indege eshatu ku kibuga cy’indege i Goma, zipakiramo abasirikare bo mu Ngabo z’u Rwanda na RCD Goma, zirahindukira zigaba igitero cy’akataraboneka ku Kigo cya Kitona giherereye mu bilometero 350 mu Majyepfo ya Kinshasa, ariho hagizwe ibirindiro bishya by’ingabo zirwanya Kabila.

Impuguke, umwanditsi, umwarimu akaba n’umurwanyi mu Ngabo za Amerika, Comer Plummer, mu 2008 yanditse ko igitero cy’Ingabo z’u Rwanda kuri Kitona kiri mu byabayeho bitazibagirana, ndetse ahamya ko kiri mu biherwaho hatangwa amasomo muri za kaminuza zikomeye zigisha ibya gisirikare.

Tariki ya 9 Kanama, nyuma y’iminsi itandatu gusa, izo ngabo zari zafashe icyambu cya Matadi, zikurikizaho urugomero rwa Inga rugaburira amashanyarazi Umujyi wa Kinshasa, kuva ubwo Kinshasa ihinduka icuraburindi.

Uko rwahinanaga kandi mu gace gaherereye ku Nyanja ya Atlantique ugana i Kinshasa, ni na ko mu Burasirazuba mu ntara za Kivu na Equateur bitari byoroshye, kuko ku wa 23 Kanama 1998, Ingabo z’u Rwanda zari zamaze kwigarurira Umujyi wa Kisangani wose n’ibibuga by’indege byawo.

Iki gihe nibwo Uganda yashingaga umutwe wa MLC wa Jean Pierre Bemba mu gace ka Ituri, ingabo zayo zinatumirwa n’iz’u Rwanda kuza gufatanya gucunga Kisangani.

Uko ibihugu icyenda byisanze mu ntambara

Tariki 19 Kanama ibihugu bigize Umuryango wa Afurika y’Amajyepfo (SADC) RDC yari ibereye umunyamuryango byarateranye, bifata umwanzuro wo gutabara umuvandimwe Kabila, cyane ko byari binafitanye umubano n’amasezerano yo gutabarana mu bya gisirikare.

Iyi ntambara yinjiwemo n’ibihugu byinshi hagendewe ku gitekerezo cy’uko ‘Umwanzi w’umwanzi wawe aba ari inshuti yawe’ ariko abasesenguzi bemeza ko buri gihugu cyabaga gifite impamvu kandi yihariye.

Urugero nka Uganda yifatanyije n’u Rwanda kuko itari yorohewe n’ibitero bya Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) yari ifite ibirindiro muri Congo. Yari ibabajwe kandi n’umubano wubuye hagati ya Congo na Sudani ya Bashir. Sudani niyo yafashaga imitwe yarwanyaga Uganda irimo ADF, West Nile Bank Front na Lord’s Resistance Army ya Joseph Kony.

U Burundi bwinjiye mu ntambara bugamije guhashya Kabila wari warahaye intebe CNDD -FDD yashakaga guhirika ubutegetsi bwa Pierre Buyoya nubwo uyu mutwe byarangiye ufashe ubutegetsi.

Angola yinjiye mu ntambara ihangayikishijwe n’umutwe wayirwanyaga wa UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola) wakoreraga ku butaka bwa Congo. Iki gihugu cyari kimaze iminsi cyumvise ko abayobozi ba UNITA bakorera ingendo i Kigali na Kampala, kikumva ko byanze bikunze bashaka kuwufasha.

Zimbabwe na yo yinjiye mu ntambara igiye gufasha Kabila ariko irengera ubucuruzi bwayo. Iki gihugu cyari cyaragurije Kabila amafaranga menshi akigera ku butegetsi ku buryo cyumvaga ko nabuvaho kizahomba.

Namibia yo yinjiye mu ntambara ifasha umuturanyi wayo Angola guhashya UNITA, dore ko uyu mutwe bivugwa ko wajyaga uha intwaro udutsiko twarwanyaga Leta ya Sam Nujoma wabaye Perezida wa mbere w’icyo gihugu.

Sudani yinjiye mu ntambara ije guhashya Uganda. Iki gihugu cyafataga Uganda nk’umwanzi dore ko Museveni yahaga inkunga ikomeye umutwe wa Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) wa John Garang washakaga ubwigenge bwa Sudani y’Epfo.

U Bufaransa bwari bumaze guta ibaba mu Karere k’ibiyaga bigari kubera Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, bwashutse Tchad ngo ijye ku ruhande rwa Kabila burebe ko bwasigarana ijambo mu karere, ariko birananirana kugeza ubwo Tchad yahitaga icyura ingabo zayo bidatinze kubera igitutu cy’amahanga kuko zakoraga amabara arimo gufata abagore ku ngufu.

Ingabo z’amahanga zaje gukorera mu ngata Kabila zabashije gusubiza inyuma ibitero by’abamurwanyaga ntibabasha gufata Kinshasa, ariko imirwano yarakomeje izindi ntara zigenda zifatwa.

Urupfu rwa Kabila, iherezo ku ntambara

Tariki 16 Mutarama 2001, Kabila yishwe na Rashid Muzelein wamurindaga. Urupfu rwe ntirwavuzweho rumwe kuko bamwe baketse ko yaba yishwe ku kagambane k’ibihugu byamurwanyaga.

Umuhungu we Joseph Kabila yahise atorerwa kumusimbura by’agateganyo. Nubwo imirwano yakomeje, Kabila mushya yaje atandukanye na se kuko we yagerageje gushyira imbere ibiganiro bigamije guhosha intambara, byaje kurangira binagezweho.

Tariki 19 Mata 2002 muri Afurika y’Epfo hasinyiwe amasezerano yiswe aya Sun City kubera uwo mujyi yasinyiwemo, agamije guhuza impande zitavuga rumwe muri Congo. Ayo masezerano yanenzwe kutagaragaza neza uburyo igisirikare kizihuza ari nabyo byatumye adashyirwa mu bikorwa uko bikwiye.

Nyuma y’iminsi itanu mu biganiro i Pretoria, tariki 30 Nyakanga 2002 u Rwanda na Congo basinye amasezerano y’amahoro. Haganiriweho ku buryo ingabo 20 000 z’u Rwanda zava ku butaka bwa Congo n’uburyo imitwe yasize ikoze Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yakurwa muri icyo gihugu.

Tariki 6 Nzeli 2002 hasinywe andi masezerano y’amahoro i Luanda hagati ya Congo na Uganda.

Tariki 5 Ukwakira nibwo u Rwanda rwatangaje ko rwamaze kuvana abasirikare barwo muri Congo, n’ingabo za Loni zibungabunga amahoro mu mu burasirazuba bw’icyo gihugu zirabyemeza.

Tariki 17 Ukuboza 2002 imitwe yose yarwanyaga Guverinoma ya Congo, amashyaka atavuga rumwe na Leta na sosiyete sivile basinye amasezerano yo gushyiraho Guverinoma ihuriweho y’inzibacyuho. Iyo Guverinoma yagombaga kumara imyaka ibiri hakaba amatora yari iyobowe na Joseph Kabila, yagiyeho tariki 18 Nyakanga 2003, ari nawo munsi ufatwa nk’uwabaye impera y’Intambara y’Isi ya Afurika.

Iyi Guverinoma yagiye ihura n’ibibazo byiganjemo iby’uko imitwe y’inyeshyamba itahise ishira mu gihugu ndetse n’intambara zakomeje guhungabanya igihugu. Icyakora ibihugu byarwanyaga RDC na byo byatangiye kwitwararika.

RDC yageze aho iba isibaniro ry'intambara, umuriri w'imbunda nto n'inini ukwira hose
Inyeshyamba zarwanyaga Kabila ubwo zari mu gace ka Kisantu zigana mu murwa mukuru Kinshasa tariki 22 Kanama 1998
James Kabarebe (wa Gatatu uhereye iburyo) yabaye Umugaba w'ingabo za Congo
Ubwo ingabo z'u Rwanda zavaga muri Congo mu mwaka wa 2002. Aha ni mu mujyi wa Kindu
Uganda n'u Rwanda nibyo byafashije Kabila kujya ku butegetsi

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