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Iby’umucamanza Bruguière byasubiweho; Umutego wanga ikinyoma

Iby’umucamanza Bruguière byasubiweho; Umutego wanga ikinyoma


Yanditswe kuya 3-04-2013 - Saa 08:49' na Gerard Niyomugabo na Kayonga J.

Mu myaka makumyabiri ishize , mu kwezi kwa Gashyantare 1993, Perezida Francois Mitterrand yahaye umugisha igikorwa cy’ibanga cyiswe “Opération Chimère “. Ingabo z’igihugu yayoboraga zaje gukorera mu Rwanda mu rwego rwo gufasha igisirikare cy’ubutegetsi bwariho, benshi batari bayobewe imikorere yabwo ku birebana n’ivangura ry’amoko ndetse n’umugambi wo gushaka gutsemba Abatutsi.

Abasirikare b’Abafaransa bageze n’aho bigira kuri za bariyeri bakabaza indangamuntu abahisi n’abagenzi bafasha ingabo za ex-FAR guhiga Abatutsi, byageze n’aho nyuma y’aho indege yari itwaye uwahoze ari Perezida w’u Rwanda Yuvenali Habyarimana ihanuriwe, Abafaransa bakomeza gufasha uko bashoboye Leta y’Abatabazi yarimo ishyira mu bikorwa Jenoside kugeza ku munota wa nyuma mu gikorwa cyiswe Turquoise.

Mu myaka hafi 19 ishize, uruhare rw’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi rwakomeje kujya ruvugwaho byinshi, nyuma umucamanza Jean Louis Bruguière yaje gukora iperereza mu buryo bwihariye adakandagije ikirenge mu Rwanda aho ibyaha yakoragaho iperereza byose byabereye, birangira ashyize mu majwi bamwe mu bahoze bari mu ngabo za FPR Inkotanyi ku bijyanye n’ihanurwa y’indege ya Habyarimana, igikorwa benshi bagaragaza ko cyari kigamije kuyobya uburari kw’u Bufaransa.

Nk’uko ikinyamakuru Jeune Afrique cyo muri iki cyumweru dukesha iyi nkuru kibigaragaza, ihanurwa ry’indege Falcon 50 yari itwaye Habyarimana n’abandi, na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yarikurikiye, iperereza ryakozwe n’ubutabera bw’u Bufaransa nyuma yaho ryaranzwe n’ibinyoma byinshi; inyandiko mpimpano, ubuhamya mpimbano, ikinyoma ku warashe misile yahanuye indege, boîte noire itari yo n’ibindi. Inenge zari zuzuye muri dosiye irebana n’ihanurwa ry’indege Falcon 50 ubwo umucamanza Jean-Louis Bruguière yayisigiraga uwamusimbuye Marc Trévidic mu mwaka wa 2007 zari nyinshi bitavugwa, ku buryo ari ngombwa kwibaza icyari kibiri inyuma.

Mu gitabo ndetse n’ikiganiro (documentaire/documentary) bishya bizashyirwa ahagaragara tariki 6, iya 8 n’iya 10 Mata, byombi byatunganyijwe nyuma y’iperereza rikomeye abanyamakuru babiri b’Ababiligi, Catherine Lorsignol, wa RTBF na Philippe Brewaeys wahoze akorera ikinyamakuru Le Soir, bakoze ku myitwarire y’umucamanza Bruguière muri iki kibazo ndetse banashyira ahagaragara ibindi bimenyetso biganisha ku kugaragaza ukuvuguruzanya kwagiye kubaho muri cyo, basoza bagira bati “Kuva ku munsi wa mbere, Abafaransa bahora bashaka guhisha byinshi bazi birebana n’ihanurwa ry’indege.”

Mu kiganiro yise “Rwanda: une intoxication française” kizerekanwa kuri Canal+ tariki ya 8 Mata ndetse na RTBF tariki ya 10, Catherine Lorsignol agaruka birambuye ku makosa y’ibanze akomeye agaragara mu iperereza kuva ku ikubitiro, ryagendeye ku bimenyetso by’ibinyoma mbere yo kugwa mu makosa.

Na ho mu gitabo yise “Rwanda 1994, Noirs et Blancs menteurs (agendeye ku gitabo kindi cyanditswe na Pierre Pean gikubiyemo ibyavuye mu iperereza ry’umucamanza Bruguière cyiswe Noires fureurs, blancs menteurs), Philippe Brewaeys agaragaza ukuntu uyu mucamanza w’Umufaransa yigwishije mu mutego w’abatangabuhamya bamuhase ibinyoma byose bifite aho bihuriye, kuko ababajijwe bose bahuriye ku rwango bafitiye Leta iriho mu Rwanda barimo abari bagize inzego z’ubutasi z’Abafaransa – Paul Barril ushinjwa kugira uruhare rukomeye mu bikorwa by’Abafaransa mu Rwanda – bamwe mu bari bafungiye Arusha muri Tanzaniya bashinjwaga cyangwa bari barahamwe no kugira uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, ndetse na bamwe mu batavugarumwe na Leta baba hanze y’u Rwanda.

Ubu buhamya hamwe na hamwe buvuguruzanya ndetse n’ibimeyetso ntibihure, ahandi ugasanga nta na byo, umucamanza Bruguière yabugendeyeho ashyira mu majwi FPR Inkotanyi kuba ari yo yaba yarahanuye indege Falcon 50.

Amakosa

Philippe Brewaeys agaruka ku makosa yagiye akorwa mu iperereza ryo gushaka uwaba yarahanuye indege yarimo Habyarimana, agerageza kwerekana ko icyakomeje kuranga amateka y’iki kibazo, ari ukuvuguruzanya kw’abagerageje kugenda bakora ibyegeranyo by’ihanurwa ry’iyo ndege cyane, akagaruka ku bo bigaragara ko bashobora kuba bafite icyo babiziho.

Iyo usomye iby’Ikigo cy’Abafaransa gishinzwe umutekano wo hanze y’igihugu (DGSE) mu byegeranyo byacyo bibiri ndetse n’icyegeranyo cy’ikigo cy’ubutasi cy’Ababiligi uhita ubona uku kuvuguruzanya. Mu cyegeranyo cya mbere DGSE hari aho kigira kiti «Igitekerezo cy’uko ibisasu byaba byararashwe n’ingabo za FPR ntabwo cyumvikana neza. Kugira ngo zegere ikibuga cy’indege byasabaga kurenga bariyeri nyinshi, kandi ako karere kari kabujijwe kugerwamo ku basivile. Na none kandi, amarondo y’abajandarume n’abasirikare ba MINUAR yakorwaga bikomeye muri ako gace… Abasirikare bo mu mutwe ushinzwe kurinda umukuru w’igihugu bayobowe n’abahezanguni ba CDR bari bafite urutonde rw’amazina y’Abatutsi n’Abahutu bakomoka mu majyepfo bari ku ruhande rw’amashyaka arwanya ubutegetsi, babirayemo batangira kubica »…

Muri Mata 1994 ikigo cy’ubutasi cy’Ababiligi (SGRS) na cyo cyashyize ahagaragara amakuru asa n’ayo ndetse kigira na bimwe mu bika byo muri iyo raporo ya DGSE cyifashisha nk’aho kigira kiti «Igisasu cyateje impanuka cyari giturutse ku nkengero z’ikigo cya Gisirikare cya Kanombe. Bigaragara ko cyaba cyaroherejwe n’umuntu wahuguwe bihagije kandi wari uherereye mu muzenguruko w’aho umutekano w’ikibuga cy’indege ucungirwa. Ibyo kuba rero ingabo za FPR zaba zarabashije kugera mu muzenguruko ikibuga ucungirwamo umutekano w’ikibuga cy’indege nta kuri kubirimo. Byongeye kandi n’inyungu FPR yaba yari ifite mu kaduruvayo kajyaga gukurikira ihanurwa ry’iyo ndege ntizumvikana, dore ko n’ababikurikiraniraga hafi bahamyaga ko amasezerano ya Arusha FPR yari isigaye iyabonamo inyungu nyinshi kuruta uko yabibonaga mbere hose.»

Nyamara n’ubwo ku ntangiriro iz’izi raporo ebyiri zisa, imyanzuro yazo usanga ihabanye. Iya SGRS yo iragira iti « Twe tubona ko kuba ihanurwa rya « Falcon 50 » ryaba ryarakozwe n’agatsiko kegereye baramu b’uwari umukuru w’igihugu, ari byo byumvikana nk’uko babyigambye kuri radio RTLM bagenzuraga.» Na ho ku ruhande rya DGSE bati «Ni ngombwa gukura abantu bo mu kazu mu by’ihanurwa ry’indege, birashoboka cyane ko yaba yarahanuwe n’agatsiko k’ingabo zigumuye zari ku ruhande ry’ishyaka MDR abenshi bakomokaga mu majyepfo y’igihugu.» Iki kikaba ari ikindi gitekerezo mpamya ko abantu benshi batari barigeze banarota.

Ubutasi bwa Leta y’u Bubiligi ntabwo butandukana na bagenzi babo b’abasirikare nubwo aho bakura amakuru rimwe na rimwe usanga hatavugwa, ubundi n’ahavugwa ukaba utabona uko uhagenzura. Hari nk’aho bakoresha inyito ‘Amasasu’ (bashaka kuvuga uruhande rw’abasirikare ba Leta y’icyo gihe rwatsimbararaga cyane ku by’ubuhutu) ubutasi bushimangira ko urwo ruhande nta kintu na kimwe cyo mu masezerano ya Arusha bemeraga kandi bari baraburiye Perezida Habyarimana ko igikorwa cyo kuyasinya kizafatwa nk’ikimenyetso cy’uko ntacyo agishoboye kandi ibyo bizatuma apfa.

Ibi birushaho kumvikana neza wumvise icyo Koloneli Vincent, umubiligi wari umuyobozi mu ngabo z’Ababiligi zari mu Rwanda, wanahamije ati «Perezida Habyarimana yaba yarashatse guherekezwa na Perezida w’u Burundi kugira ngo ataza kuraswa. Ntabwo nshidikanya ko iki ari ikibazo hagati y’abari ku butegetsi mu Rwanda mu rwego rwo kuburizamo amasezerano ya Arusha. Ku bahezanguni, aya masezerano yari asobanuye ko Abatutsi bafashe ubutegetsi. Ntibabishakaga na gato…Ndemeza ko Jenerali Nsabimana kimwe n’abandi basirikare bakuru bari bafite icyizere ko bitazakorwa kandi biteguye kuburizamo igikorwa cyose cya FPR. Ku kibuga cy’indege nko ku itariki ya 15 Mata 1994 nagiye impaka na Major Mutabera wambwiraga yeruye ko byari ngombwa kubumva, kandi ko byari ngombwa gushaka umuti wa nyuma kuko kuri bo Arusha yari isobanuye ko Abatutsi bafashe ubutegetsi.»

Bamwe mu batangabuhamya baje kwisubira

Ibyashyizwe ahagaragara n’umucamanza Bruguière mu gihe cy’imyaka irenga icumi byagendeweho nk’ukuri n’abigisha muri za kaminuza zo mu Bufaransa, mu Bubiligi, ndetse no muri Amerika y’Amajyaruguru. Urukurikirane rw’ibyaranze ibikorwa by’umucamanza Bruguière rwasaga nk’urwanditswe mbere: ishyirwa ahagaragara ry’impapuro zisaba ifatwa ry’abayobozi icyenda bahoze mu buyobozi bwa FPR Inkotanyi na APR, kugeza aho habereye urubanza abaregwa badahari (in absentia) …

Gusa bidatinze, imipango y’umucamanza Bruguière yaje gukubitwa n’inkuba mu mpera z’umwaka wa 2006, ubwo bamwe mu bo yavugaga ko bamuhaye ubuhamya baje kumwigarika, barimo Deus Kagiraneza na Ruzigana Emmanuel batangaje ko umucamanza Bruguière yabitiriye ubuhamya batatanze, mu gihe Ruzibiza Abdul wahoze ashinja FPR yahozemo kuba yaragize uruhare mu ihanurwa ry’indege yaje gutangaza ku mugaragaro ko ubuhamya yahaye umucamanza Bruguière bwari bukubiyemo ibinyoma bityo bukaba butagenderwaho.

Nyuma gato y’izi mpinduka zabayeho mu idosiye y’umucamanza Bruguière, barindwi mu icyenda bashinjwaga bahise batanga ikirego mu Bufaransa, bityo babasha kugera kuri dosiye yose yuzuye yifashishijwe mu kubashinja. Mu mwaka wa 2008 Roza Kabuye, umwe mu bashinjwaga mu idosiye ya Bruguiere wari umuyobozi wa protocole y’Umukuru w’Igihugu yaje gutabwa muri yombi ubwo yari mu Budage, nyuma ajyanwa i Paris, aho yahagarariwe n’abunganizi babiri mu rubanza barimo Umufaransa Léon-Lef Forster n’Umubiligi Bernard Maingain, baje kumusabira kuba afunguwe by’agateganyo, bityo baba babashije kubona uburenganzira bwo kubona dosiye y’urubanza.

Ibi byose ariko hari abavugaga ko byari imipango yizweho na Bernard Kouchner wari Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga w’u Bufaransa ku butegetsi bwa Nicolas Sarkozy, kugirango hashakwe uko imitego yari yaratezwe n’umucamanza Bruguiere yaburizwamo. Kouchner yakunze gutungwa agatoki n’abatavugarumwe na leta kuba yari afite ubwumvikane budasanzwe na Leta y’u Rwanda.

Kuva aho abashinjwa ku ruhande rw’u Rwanda babashirije kugera kuri dosiye ikubiyemo ibyo baregwa, bahise bategura ukwiregura. Abunganizi babo bahise bagaragaza inenge zikubiye mu byo baregwa, berekana ukwivuguruza kuri muri iyo dosiye ya Bruguiere, yaje guta agaciro.

Muri Nzeri 2010, baherekejwe n’impuguke eshanu, abacamanza Nathalie Poux na Marc Trévidic wasimbuye Bruguiere, banyarukiye mu Rwanda. Ibi byari agashya kubona uwasimbuye Bruguiere aza gukorera iperereza mu Rwanda, kuko uyu yari yararahiriye ko atazigera akandagiza ikirenge cye muri iki gihugu.

Umutego Bruguière yaguyemo

Aba bagenzi ba Bruguiere b’abacamanza n’aba bashakashatsi b’Ababiligi babona ko yayobejwe n’uko yagiye gushaka amakuru afite uruhande yishyizemo, ko iki cyaha kigomba guhaa ; bityo akita ku ruhande rumwe. Ibyo bikagaragazwa n’uko yumvaga atari na ngombwa kwivuna ajya aho icyaha cyakorewe, ibintu bigayitse cyane mu gukora iperereza.

Kuba Lorsignol yarabajije Grégoire de Saint-Quentin, umusirikare wa mbere wabashije kugera mbere y’abandi ndetse abahamya benshi bemeza ko ari we waba waratwaye bimwe mu bice by’indege byajyaga gutanga amakuru arebana n’ihanuka harimo « Agasanduku k’umukara » ntagire icyo atangaza, yabazaga Jenerali Christian Quesnot wahoze ari umuyobozi wihariye wa Etat Major wa Perezida François Mitterrand wayoboraga u Bufaransa muri icyo gihe, akavuga ko yabyibagiwe muri aya magambo «Mvugishije ukuri ntabwo mbyibuka, nzi ko hari abantu bageze aho impanuka yabereye, ariko sinzi icyo bahasanze.»

Byatumye Christine Lorsignol avuga ko impamvu ubucamanza bw’ubufaransa bwagiye bukomeza kwica ijisho rimwe kuri iki kibazo kandi bigaragara ko bwajyaga kubona ibihamya bifatika bituma bugera ku kuri byatewe n’impamvu ebyiri: Icya mbere ni ukuba Abafaransa bari ku ruhande rw’abakoze Jenoside, barabigizemo uruhare cyangwa bari babiziranyeho. Icya kabiri gishobora kuba ari uko u Bufaransa bwari buri ku ruhande bw’abakoze Jenoside, bityo bukaba bwarakoze ibishoboka byose ngo buhishe ibimenyetso byahamya izo nshuti zabo icyo cyaha.

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