1961-2017: Ishusho y’amatora ya Perezida wa Repubulika mu Rwanda

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Kuya 28 Kamena 2017 saa 03:06
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Amateka y’amatora y’Umukuru w’Igihugu mu Rwanda ahanini atangirira kuri Kayibanda wayoboye igihugu kuva mu 1961 kugeza mu 1973 ubwo yahirikwaga ku butegetsi na Habyarimana Juvénal yari yarabyaye muri batisimu.

Kayibanda yafashe ubutegetsi mu Ukwakira 1961 asimbura Mbonyumutwa Dominique wari umaze amezi icyenda ayobora inzibacyuho nyuma yo gutora umwanzuro wo gukuraho ubwami n’ubukoloni bw’Ababiligi hakimikwa Repubulika.

Kayibanda Grégoire yabaye Perezida wa kabiri w’u Rwanda anarugeza kucyo twakwita ″ubwigenge″ bwo ku wa 1 Nyakanga 1962, ariko yari Perezida wa mbere wagiyeho habayeho amatora n’ubwo yiyamazaga wenyine bitewe n’uko ishyaka rye rya MDR (Mouvement Démocratique Républicain) ari ryo ryari ryemewe n’amategeko.

Kayibanda yayoboye manda ye ya mbere kugeza mu 1965, yongera kwiyamamaza ari we mukandida rukumbi, ndetse anabisubiramo mu 1969.

Kayibanda yayoboye u Rwanda mu gihe cy’imyaka 12 kugeza tariki 4 Nyakanga 1973, ubwo yahirikwaga ku butegetsi na Juvénal Habyarimana wari Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo icyo gihe. Habyarimana yamuhiritse nawe amushinja gutonesha abo mu gace k’Amajyepfo y’u Rwanda n’ibindi bikorwa by’ivangura rishingiye ku moko n’akarere.

Umukandida umwe rukumbi wa MRND mu matora ya perezida

Nyuma yo kujya ku butegetsi ku ngufu, ishyaka MRND (Mouvement Révolutionnaire National pour le Développement) rya Habyarimana niryo ryari ryemewe gusa.

Byatumye mu matora ya Perezida wa Repubulika yiyamamaza wenyine dore ko yari amatora yasaga nk’urubanza rw’urucabana, aho mu yo ku wa 24 Ukuboza 1978, yatowe ku kigero cya 98.99%, ayobora manda y’imyaka itanu.

Mu 1983 nabwo yongeye kwiyamamaza wenyine atorwa ku majwi 99.97% mu gihe ayo ku wa 19 Ukuboza 1988 ari nayo ya nyuma yakozwe ku ngoma ye, yayatsinze ntawe bahanganye ku kigero cya 99.98%.

Mu 1991 hakozwe amatora ya ″referendumu″ yari igamije kuvugurura Itegeko Nshinga ryemeza ubwiganze bw’amashyaka ya politiki, bitandukanye n’uko byari bisanzwe, aho ishyaka rimwe ari ryo ryabaga ryemewe n’amategeko y’igihugu.

Nyuma yo gupfa kwa Juvénal Habyarimana wari uyoboye u Rwanda imyaka irenga 20 mu 1994, hahise hajyaho leta yiswe iy’Abatabazi yari iyobowe na Sindikubwabo Théodore kugeza muri Nyakanga 1994, nyuma aza gusimburwa na Pasteur Bizimungu wayoboye u Rwanda bitanyuze mu matora kuva mu 1994 kugeza mu 2000, ubwo yeguraga kuri uwo mwanya igihugu gisigaranwa n’uwari Visi Perezida, Paul Kagame, wayoboye inzibacyuho kugeza mu 2003 ubwo hakorwaga amatora y’Umukuru w’Igihugu.

Aya matora yabaye ku wa 25 Kanama 2003 akanitabirwa n’abarenga miliyoni eshatu, ni yo ya mbere y’Umukuru w’Igihugu yakozwe kuva Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yahagarikwa mu 1994, ndetse asiga Perezida Kagame ayatsinze ku majwi 93% ahigitse Faustin Twagiramungu wagize 3.62% na Nayinzira Jean Népomuscène wagize 1.33%, bose bari abakandida bigenga.

Muri ayo matora, Dr Alvera Mukabaramba wari uhagarariye Ishyaka PPC (Parti du Progrès et de la Concorde), yikuye mu matora, amajwi ye ayegurira Paul Kagame.

U Rwanda rwahanganye imiryango mpuzamahanga

Muri ayo matora, Abanyarwanda batsinze amahanga igitego cy’umutwe kuko imiryango mpuzamahanga itandukanye yari yemereye Leta inkunga yo gutegura amatora [ingana na 50%], maze yisubiraho urugamba rugeze mu mahina ihagarika iyo nkunga bitewe n’uko u Rwanda rwari rwateye utwatsi ibyo yifuzaga bijyanye no guhindura ingengabihe y’amatora hakabanza ay’Abadepite.

Byarashobokaga ko amatora asubikwa bitewe n’ubushobozi buke igihugu cyari gifite muri icyo gihe, ariko abenegihugu banze gusuzugurwa bishakamo ubushobozi bw’amafaranga n’ibikoresho abandi bakorera ubushake, amatora arakorwa ndetse agenda neza.

Kuva icyo gihe ni nabwo Abanyarwanda bagize umuco wo kwishakamo ibisubizo ntawe bateze amaso n’amaboko, umuco ukibaranga n’ubu ndetse bahora bakangurirwa n’ubuyobozi buriho.

Hanatangiye kandi umuco w’ubukorerabushake ku buryo mu matora y’uyu mwaka, Komisiyo y’Amatora ivuga ko izafashwa n’abakorerabushake basaga ibihumbi 75.

Ayo yakurikiwe n’andi yo ku wa 9 Kanama 2010 yitabiriwe n’abarenga miliyoni eshanu nayo yegukanywe na Paul Kagame wagize amajwi 93.08%, Dr Jean Damascène Ntawukuriryayo wari uhagarariye ishyaka PSD yabonye 5.15%, Higiro Prosper wa PL we yagize amajwi 1.37% mu gihe Dr Alvera Mukabaramba wa PPC yabonyemo 0.40%.

Mu matora ateganyijwe ku wa 3 na 4 Kanama 2017, yo ntazitabirwa n’aya mashyaka yari yitabiriye aya 2010, kuko yamaze kwemeza neza ko azashyigikira umukandida w’Umuryango wa FPR Inkotanyi, Paul Kagame wanamaze gushyikiriza kandidatire ye Komisiyo y’Amatora kimwe n’abandi biganjemo abifuza kwiyamamaza nk’abakandida bigenga.


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