Impamvu zateye ubutegetsi bw’ibihugu bya Afurika gucogora nyuma y’inkundura y’ubwigenge

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 21 Ukuboza 2017 saa 02:49
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Afurika, umugabane ukungahaye ku butunzi bwo munsi y’ubutaka amateka agaragaza ko mu myaka yo hambere wayoborwaga n’abakoloni baturutse ku yindi migabane y’isi.

Nyuma yo kwigobotora ingoyi ya gikoloni y’abarimo Abongereza, Abaholandi, Abadage, Abataliyani, Abanya-Portugal, Ababiligi n’Abafaransa, itarahaga amahwemo ba kavukire, Afurika yaribohoye ibona ubwigenge, ubutegetsi bwayo ariko uko imyaka yicuma nabwo bwagiye bugwa agacuho bamwe bagatangira gucika intege.

Max Weber, Umudage w’inzobere mu bijyanye na politiki asobanura ijambo “Ubutegetsi” nk’umuryango mugari w’abantu bahuriye ahantu hagengwa n’imbibi zimwe kandi bafite imiyoborere hagati yabo ubwabo n’uruhare mu kuyigena.

Joel Migdal we yunzemo agaragaza ko uwo muryango uba uyobowe mu buryo bwujuje ibikenewe harimo gukurikiza amategeko, uyatandukiriye akabibazwa cyangwa akabihanirwa kandi hakabaho uburyo bwo kunenga ibitagenda neza.

Ubutegetsi bwiza ngo burangwa no kubahiriza ubusugire bw’igihugu, kugira gahunda z’uburezi bufite ireme kuri bose, kuzigama no guteganyiriza iza bukuru, iz’ubwishingizi mu kwivuza, ingamba zongera ibikorwaremezo mu by’imibereho myiza y’abaturage nk’amavuriro n’amasoko y’ubucuruzi n’ibindi; ibi bijyana no kubibungabunga mu buryo buhagije.

Max agaragaza ko kugira urubuga rwo kungurana ibitekerezo rufunguye ari ingenzi kuko abantu bose bareshya imbere y’amategeko.

Ku rundi ruhande, ubutegetsi bubi burangwa n’amacakubiri, ruswa mu mitangire ya serivisi zihabwa abaturage, igihugu kivogerwa n’abanzi uko bishakiye, kutubahiriza ibyemezo bifatwa n’inzego zibishinzwe n’ibindi. Ubutegetsi bubi bukunda gushegeshwa no kotswa igitutu kuko buba butishimiwe na benshi aho usanga bafatanya urunana bagaragaza ibikwiye guhinduka byaba binyuze mu myigaragambyo n’izindi nzira zitandukanye.

Isimburana ry’ubutegetsi nyuma y’ubwigenge bwa Afurika

Mu myaka ya 1960 nibwo byinshi mu bihugu byo ku mugabane wa Afurika byatangiye kubona ubwigenge, bubihesha uburenganzira busesuye bwo kugena uburyo bigomba kuyoborwamo.

Hari abatanga ibitekerezo bakomoza ku kuba ubwigenge bushobora kuba bwaraje nk’ubucagase aho na nubu usanga hakigaragara ibisigisigi by’ubukoloni muri politiki ya Afurika haba mu by’ubukungu, imibanire hagati y’ibihugu, imibereho y’abaturage, umutekano n’ibindi.

Iyi nkuru iribanda ku nyandiko y’Umwarimu akaba n’Umushakashatsi muri Kaminuza ya Cologne mu Budage, Dr John Emeke Akude ukomoka muri Nigeria, aho yerekana intandaro nyakuri y’ukunanirwa no guhirima kwa bumwe mu butegetsi bwa Afurika nyuma yo kubona ubwigenge.

Dr Akude avuga ko kimwe mu bintu byatumye ubutegetsi muri Afurika budashinga imizi nyuma yo kubona ubwigenge ishingiye ku kuba imiterere yabwo n’uburyo bwubatse byarateguwe n’abakoloni mu gushaka kwabo.

Abanyafurika babaye nk’abatamitswe ubutegetsi batari bazi, batanamenyereye, basabwa kubushyira mu bikorwa bidafite aho bihuriye n’umuco wabo bwite.

Abaturage batari bazi gusoma no kwandika bahatiwe politiki yaje ifurebye demokarasi, bayisamira hejuru badahawe umwanya wo kubitekerezaho cyangwa guhuza iyo mitegekere n’imico isanzwe y’Abanyafurika.

Ibihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi byari bimaze hafi imyaka 200 byigenga, aho nka Amerika mu 1960, yari yujuje imyaka 184 yigenga mu gihe u Bufaransa bwishimiraga imyaka 170 bwigenga ariko demokarasi yigishwaga ko igiye gukurikizwa n’iyo byagenderagaho.

Abakoloni basukumiye ubutegetsi udutsiko tw’abantu bubashywe bafatwaga nk’inzobere bari baratoranyije bajyanwa mu mashuri, bigishwa amasomo atandukanye aganisha ku gushaka kwabo.

Mu gihe ubutegetsi bwasaga n’ubushyizwe mu biganza by’abifuzwaga, byatumye biyumvamo ko bagomba kubugundira bishingikirije amafaranga n’imbaraga z’igisirikare.

Abenshi muri bo bafataga imitungo yabo bakayijyana hanze y’umugabane wa Afurika ndetse bakanasinya amasezerano akomeye y’ubucuruzi n’abakire n’ibigo bikomeye by’i Burayi no muri Amerika.

Iyi migirire yashegeshe Afurika ndetse ubukungu bwayo bukomeza guhungishirizwa mu mahanga ya kure, amafaranga asaruwemoakagurwa intwaro za gisirikare zo gukomeza ingoma yabaga ifite ubutegetsi. Abandi bagakoresha amafaranga bubaka inzu nziza mu Burayi ahari higanje amabanki babitsagamo mu bihugu birimo u Busuwisi, i Paris mu Bufaransa, Londres mu Bwongereza, muri Espagne n’ahandi.

Mobutu yabitsaga umutungo we i Burayi

Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga wayoboye Zaïre kuva mu 1965 kugeza mu 1997, wafatwaga nk’umunyagitugu yari umwe mu baherwe bakomeye mu myaka yo hambere.

Ihuriro ry’Amabanki mu Busuwisi rishinzwe kugenzura isoko ry’amabanki imbere mu gihugu, ryakoze iperereza muri banki 406 nyuma y’icyemezo cyo guhagarika imitungo ya Mobutu.

Guverinoma nshya yari igiyeho muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, yavugaga ko umutungo wa Mobutu uri mu Busuwisi ubarirwa muri miliyari umunani z’amadolari. Minisitiri w’Ubutabera wariho, Célestin Lwangi, yavuze ko umutungo we wose ku isi wabarizwaga muri miliyari 81.

Mobutu Sese Seko

Imyitozo ya gisirikare yari ifite imizi mu bakoloni

Nyuma y’ubwigenge, ibihugu byagombaga kubaka igisirikare gihamye kizabifasha kurwanira ubusugire bwabyo. Abashinzwe umutekano baherwaga imyitozo mu mu mashuri ya gisirikare y’ibihugu byahoze bibakoloniza.

Ibi byasaga no guhindura ahantu bakoreraga kuko imikorere yasaga neza n’iy’abakoloni babatozaga, bakabaha n’intwaro ziherekejwe n’indangagaciro zabo.

Bamwe mu bategetsi bikundwakazaga ku bihugu by’igihangange biyumvaga nk’abafite ubudahangarwa, ibizwi mu mvugo “Sit-Tight-Mentality” byasaga n’ibibaha ububasha bwo gutuza ntacyo bikanga.

Abenshi muri bo bafatirwaga ibyemezo biturutse mu mijyi ya Paris, Washington, Londres, Moscow n’ahandi ku buryo ntacyo bakoraga kidahawe umugisha n’izo nshuti zabo aho kujya inama n’abaturage babatoye.

Aha ni naho hashibutse igenzurwa ryaherekezaga inkunga n’inguzanyo zahabwaga Afurika zazaga ziherekejwe n’imbaga y’abiyambitse umwambaro w’impuguke bitwaje n’amabwiriza y’uko zizakoreshwa, bikarangira asubiye mu mifuka ya bene yo.

Muri izo mpuguke bivugwa ko hanaziragamo intasi zashoboraga kumenya umutegetsi utari mu murongo wifuzwa ibukuru akaba yakurwa amata mu kanwa nkuko byabaye kuri Thomas Isidore Noël Sankara wahoze ayobora Burkina Faso wiciwe mu Mujyi wa Ouagadougou ku ya 15 Ukwakira 1987.

Thomas Sankara afatwa nk'intwari yaharaniye ukwibohora nyako kwa Afurika

U Bufaransa bwo bwakomeje gutunga ibigo bya gisirikare muri bimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika y’u Burengerazuba, iyo hagati n’Amajyaruguru y’Iburasirazuba mu bihugu nka Djibouti.

Kuba ubukoloni bwarasimbuwe n’ubutegetsi bwigenga ariko bwashyizweho n’abakoloni ubwabo, bijyana n’imyitwarire y’abategetsi barushijeho kwiyumva mu kwaha kw’ibihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’isi aho gukorera abaturage biri mu byashegeshe leta zabayeho nyuma yo kwigenga kw’ibihugu byinshi bya Afurika.

Afurika ikwiye kuyoborwa n’abategetsi bafite umuco n’indangagaciro zayo; ubukungu bwayo n’ibikomoka ku mutungo kamere ikagena uburyo bitunganywa kugira ngo ibiciro by’ibikomoka muri Afurika byoherezwa hanze byongererwe agaciro, bikanagabanya ibiciro byo hejuru by’ibikoresho by’ibanze bituruka hanze. Ibi bizatanga ireme ry’ubutegetsi budahuzagurika bwa bundi buhora buteze amaboko y’ak’imuhana kamwe kaza imvura ihise.

Abasirikare ba UNITA mu byishimo ku ya 15 Ugushyingo 1975 i Nova Lisboa nyuma y'iminsi mike Angola ibonye ubwigenge

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