Amateka y’ubwoko bw’Abanyamulenge mu Biyaga Bigari

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 14 Gicurasi 2018 saa 12:01
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Abanyamulenge ni umuryango mugari w’abaturage babarizwa muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo hafi y’umupaka wayo n’u Burundi, Tanzania n’u Rwanda.

Ubwoko bw’Abanyamulenge bwiganje cyane mu Ntara ya Kivu y’Amajyepfo, hafi y’inkombe z’Ikiyaga cya Tanganyika gihuza u Burundi na Tanzania hamwe n’agace k’Amajyaruguru ashyira Uburasirazuba bwa Zambia.

Nubwo mu 1880 ari bwo habaye ibarura rya mbere ry’Abanyamulenge, bivugwa ko batangiye kugera muri Congo mbere ho imyaka isaga 100. Icyakomeje kuyobera abahanga n’abashakashatsi, ni ukuba kuba bitwa ko bafite inkomoko mu Rwanda, bakabaye bahuje ururimi n’abandi baturage bo muri Congo bavuga Ikinyarwanda nyamara bakagira imwe mu mico yihariye badasangiye n’abo bakoresha ururimi rumwe bo mu Ntara Kivu y’Amajyaruguru.

Iyo ugereranyije Abanyamulenge n’abo Banye-Congo bavuga Ikinyarwanda, usanga ikidahura ari uko abandi bafite inkomoko mu Rwanda bagiye bagerageza gushyingirana n’andi moko, ariko Abanyamulenge bakabyirinda n’ababigerageje bake bashyingiranwaga n’abagaragu babo gusa.

Hari Abanyamulenge bahunze imisoro y’Umwami Rwabugiri

Mu 1895, umubare w’Abanyamulenge wikubye inshuro nyinshi biturutse ku Mwami Kigeli IV Rwabugiri wari umaze gufata ingamba zikakaye zo gusoresha inka, agamije kuzahura ubukungu bw’u Rwanda no kubaka ubwami bwe.

Icyo gihe, abaturage benshi mu Rwanda biganjemo aborozi, babaye nk’abahunga imisoro bacibwaga ku matungo yabo, bahungishiriza amashyo yabo muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo. Binavugwa ko ari nabwo Abanyamulenge bikubaga inshuro nyinshi muri icyo gice nacyo cyari mu bwami bwaguye bwa Rwabugiri.

Uku guhunga imisoro, kwaje gukurikirwa n’itanga ry’Umwami Rwabugiri, bitera intambara yo ku Rucunshu byatumye abandi Banyarwanda bo hakuno y’Ikiyaga cya Kivu bimukira muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo.

Intambara ya Shikaramu n’intandaro y’amakimbirane hagati y’Abanyamulenge n’Ababembe

Nyuma y’Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi n’inkundura yo kwigenga kw’ibihugu bya Afurika mu myaka ya 1960, ibihugu byinshi byashatse kwigarurira Congo.

Ku ruhande rumwe, hari itsinda rya Leta yari imaze kwigarurirwa na Mobutu n’ingabo ze, ryari rishyigikiwe na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika n’u Bubiligi, rikaba ryarakoranaga bya hafi n’umucancuro w’Umubiligi witwaga Jean Schramme (Shikaramu).

Ku rundi ruhande, hari itsinda ry’umutwe w’Inyeshyamba witwaga Simba, wari warigaruriye hafi Uburasirazuba bwa Congo bwose ushyigikiwe n’Abasoviyeti, u Bushinwa na Cuba.

Schramme n’Ingabo za Leta baje kotsa igitutu ingabo za Simba, ibintu bihindura isura, inyeshyamba zabaga zicitse ku icumu zitangira kwigabiza inka z’Abanyamulenge zizirira kuzimara.

Mobutu, ingabo ze na Schramme babyumvise basabye Abanyamulenge kwiyomeka kuri Leta, abemerera no kubaha imbunda zo kurinda imikumbi yabo no guhumbahumba inyeshyamba za Simba zari zarayobotswe bikomeye n’abo mu bwoko bw’Ababembe, ubwoko bwari bwiganje muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo.

Insoresore z’Abanyamulenge zitwaje intwaro, zatangiye kurasa inyeshyamba za Simba zari zarabamariye inka, zicamo abasore n’abagabo benshi bo mu bwoko bw’Ababembe.

Kuva ubwo, Umubembe afata Umunyamulenge nk’umugambanyi, wagize uruhare mu kurimbura ubwoko bwabo, kandi akanongeraho ko yaje amusanga kuri ubwo butaka.

Mobutu abonye uko abasore b’Abanyamulenge barwananye ubutwari barengera inka n’inzuri byabo, yahise abigiraho inshuti, arabatonesha, anabashyira mu mashuri meza batangira kujya no mu butegetsi.

Uko niko Barthélémy Bisengimana, wari Umunyamulenge yaje kuba Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ibiro muri Perezidansi ya Mobutu, abandi bajya mu mashuri yari agezweho y’abamisiyoneri bariga ndetse mu 1971, Mobutu yahise ashyiraho iteka ryemerera Abanyamulenge ubwenegihugu busesuye.

Icyo gihe Abanyamulenge basaga n’ababaho biyometse ku Balega bari biganje ahitwa Mwenga, Ababembe babonekaga muri Teritwari ya Fizi n’Abafulero bari Uvira, guhera ubwo, andi moko ntiyongeye kubita abanyamahanga b’Abanyarwanda.

Mu matora y’Abayobozi b’intara yo mu 1985, Ababembe n’Abafulero [ biyitaga Abahutu bo muri Zaire ] baratsembye, bavuga ko Abanyamulenge bemerewe gutora ariko batemerewe gutorwa, kuva ubwo batangira guhangana kugeza ubwo mu 1991, abasore b’Abanyamulenge batangiye gutekereza kwitoza Igisirikare kugira ngo bazirwaneho igihe bazaba babangamiwe n’abari bamaze kubabuza gutorwa.

Intambara yo kubohoza u Rwanda

Ubwo Ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi zanzikaga n’urugamba rwo kubohoza u Rwanda ahagana mu 1991, rumwe mu rubyiruko rwaturutse imihanda yose mu Biyaga Bigari rwitabiriye urugamba ku bwinshi harimo n’Abanyamulenge.

Kuva ubwo, Mobutu n’abandi Banye-Congo batangira kubishisha bitewe n’umubano Leta ya Mobutu yari ifitanye n’iya Habyarimana Juvénal wari Perezida w’u Rwanda.

Nyuma y’imyaka 20 asinye iteka ryemereraga ubwenegihugu Abanyamulenge, mu 1991 Mobutu yahise abihindura atangiza amabarura yo kwerekana Abanye-Congo nyabo n’abandi batari bo.

Muri Zaïre hashyizweho Komisiyo Ishinzwe kwiga ku kibazo cy’Abanyamulenge yari iyobowe na Mambweni Vangu, mu gihe gito, itegeka ko Abanyamulenge bose ari Abanyarwanda kandi bagomba gutaha iwabo hatitawe ku gihe bagereye muri iki gihugu.

Kubera iryo hohoterwa bagiye bakorerwa, Abanyamulenge bisanze bari mu Ngabo zitandukanye muri Afurika zirimo n’izahoze ari iza FPR-Inkotanyi ikiri mu ishyamba n’ubwo nta mibare yashyizwe ahagaragara yerekana uko banganaga. Muri bo hari abari bafite ku mutima guhirimbanira kuzajya kubohoza Zaïre, nabo bakagira uburenganzira nk’ubw’abandi Banye-Congo basaga n’aho bavukijwe.

Ahagana mu 1995, nyuma y’aho impunzi zari ziganjemo izahekuye u Rwanda zigeze muri Zaïre, zatije umurindi urwango Abaye-Congo bari bafitiye Abanyamulenge, ibintu biba bibi, Abanyamulenge bongera gufata Intwaro, bajya inyuma ya Laurent Désire Kabila mu rugamba rwakuyeho Mobutu mu 1997.

Guhera ubwo kugeza magingo aya, Abanyamulenge ni ubwoko bukomeye muri Congo, kuko bugaragara mu nzego zikomeye nk’Igisirikare, Igipolisi, Sena, Inteko Ishinga Amategeko no mu Butegetsi butandukanye bwo ku rwego rwo hejuru, kandi bigoye kuba wagira ubutegetsi bugakomera muri Congo, uwo waba uri we wese, utavuga rumwe nabwo.

Mu 1895, hari Abanyamulenge bavuye mu gihugu bahunga imisoro y'inka ku Ngoma y’Umwami Rwabugiri

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