Imyaka 25 yo kwibohora igwingira ry’imyumvire mu Rwanda (Igice cya 1)

Yanditswe na Tom Ndahiro
Kuya 24 Kamena 2019 saa 04:26
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Ku itariki ya 4 Nyakanga 2019, u Rwanda ruzizihiza ku nshuro ya 25 rwibohoye. Imyaka 25 si mike mu buzima bw’umuntu, igihugu ndetse n’Isi. Aho u Rwanda rwavuye icyo gihe ndetse n’ubu nabibonyemo intambara yo kurwana no kwibohora kugwingira ko mu myumvire n’imitekerereze yatumye habaho Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda.

Kuki Igwingira?

Abahanga mu by’imikurire y’abantu, ari iy’umubiri n’ubwenge, bavuga ko iminsi ya mbere igihumbi (1000) kuva umugore atwite kugeza ubwo umwana yuzuza imyaka ibiri, ar ryo shingiro ry’ubuzima n’imikurire y’umwana.

Abo bahanga bakavuga ko mu myaka ibiri ya mbere, iyo umwana atitaweho neza, ari mu mirire ye no mu kumurinda indwara bigira ingaruka zikomeye mu mikurire ndetse bikamuviramo no kugwingira. Ari umubiri we udakura uko byakagombye ndetse n’ubwonko bwe.

Impamvu itera kugwingira n’imirire mibi itinze ku mwana cyane bitewe n’indyo nkene, indwara za hato na hato n’umwanda. Ingaruka zo kugwingira basobanura ko ziba mu byiciro bibiri: Ingaruka za vuba n’ingaruka z’igihe kirekire.

Ingaruka za vuba nuko umwana wagwingiye agira ibyago byinshi byo kurwaragurika ndetse bikanamuviramo no gupfa. Ikindi ni uko binagaragazwa no kudatanga umusaruro mu bikorwa ibyo aribyo byose bisaba ubwenge.

Muri za ngaruka z’igihe kirambye, umwana wagwingiye iyo abaye umuntu mukuru ibyo yigezaho ku giti cye n’umuryango mugari muri rusange biba bike, cyane cyane mu mirimo isaba imbaraga n’isaba ubwenge.

Ibimenyetso bigaragaza ko umwana yagwingiye ni byinshi ariko byose ntibyoroshye kubigenzura no kubibona. Ikimenyetso kimwe gishoboka kandi gikoreshwa hose ku Isi n’imikurire mu burebure.

Ikindi kivugwa n’abahanga muri ibi by’imikurire y’umwana, ni uko abana bari munsi y’imyaka ibiri iyo bagaragaweho igwingira bakitabwaho neza bakira bagasubirana imikurire myiza isanzwe. Ni muri cya gihe cy’iminsi igihumbi ya mbere y’ubuzima bw’umwana ariho honyine bishoboka kumuramira.

Igwingira ribi ritavugwa

Niba kimwe mu bimenyetso byo kugwingira ari ukugira ubwenge budahagije gutanga umusaruro wo kwiyubaka no kubaka umuryango mugari ndetse n’igihugu, hari ubundi buryo bw’igwingira butigeze bwitabwabo, cyane cyane mu gihugu cy’u Rwanda.

Iryo ni igwingira ry’imitekerereze riza umuntu yarakuze neza mu gihagararo ariko akazagwingizwa n’uburere na politiki igendera ku ngengabitekerezo mbi ibuza uwo yacengeye gutekereza ibifite akamaro akibanda kubisenya. Ibi ari nabyo nzibandaho mu nyandiko zizakurikirana.

Rikaba igwingira ryagaragajwe n’abantu bafite igihagararo kikwereka ko ari bantu bakuze neza, ukanasanga ari bantu bize neza bakaminuza bihagije. Muri abo harimo n’abafite impamyabushobozi z’Ikirenga (PhD) n’abandi bakoze imirimo ikomeye itapfa gukorwa n’ubonetse wese.

Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda, ni ingaruka ya politiki mbi yatewe n’abagwingijwe mu mitekerereze na politiki y’ubukoloni. Abagwingijwe n’iyo politiki y’abakoloni n’Abamisiyoneri, cyane cyane Abapadiri Bera (bo babikoraga ku nyungu zabo) na bo bagwingije benshi mu Rwanda.

Iryo gwingira ry’uruhererekane mu bihe kandi bimaze igihe, rigenda ryigaragaza na n’ubu mu mwaka wa 2019. Uwatekereje, uwashyigikiye n’ugishyigikira politiki y’ishyaka PARMEHUTU, aba yarigizemo kugwingira mu myumvire. Ntushobora kubaka igihugu, ushingiye kuri politiki idindiza bamwe igateza imbere abandi.

Uko kugwingira kw’imitekerereze, cyane cyane iya politiki n’imibereho myiza y’abaturage byagiye bigira ingaruka nyinshi ku gihugu cy’u Rwanda. Ingaruka mbi kurusha izindi ry’iryo gwingira ni ebyiri: Kwimakaza ubugome bukabije mu bantu, no kwibagirwa birenze kwemera kwa muntu.

Mu myaka 25 u Rwanda ruzizihiza ingingo remezo icyenda (9) za FPR-Inkotanyi, ari umunani (8) zashyizweho mu 1987, indi imwe yiyongereyeho nyuma ya Jenoside, usanga ari ingingo zirwanya kugwingira kwa politiki n’ubuzima by’igihugu. Ingingo ya mbere ni “Kugarura Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda”.

Icyatumye iyo ngingo ishyirwaho, ikaba igifite agaciro gakomeye kugeza n’ubu, ni uko ubwo bumwe bwari bwarashenywe guhera igihe cya PARMEHUTU kugeza kuri HUTU-Pawa na n’ubu ikibunga mu mitwe ya bamwe. Kwica ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda byadingije byinshi bivamo na Jenoside yazanywe no kutumva agaciro k’umuntu n’ubuzima bwe.

Ubugome bwatewe no kugwingira byatumye abanyarwanda bamwe bananirwa kumva isano yabo na bagenzi babo bahuje igihugu n’amateka. Tuzi abanyapolitiki ba mbere ba PARMEHUTU bari bafite abagore b’Abatutsikazi ariko bakaba aba mbere kuvuga ko Umututsi ari umwanzi w’Umuhutu n’inyangarwanda. Ibyo si ubugome bukomoka kw’igwingira riza umuntu akuze?

Uko kugira politiki igwingiza igihugu n’abagituye niyo yatumye bigera aho umubyeyi yiyicira abana yibyariye. Igitabo cya Albert Nsengimana na Hélène Cyr, “Ma mère m’a tué” (Mama yaranyishe) ni ubuhamya bukomeye bw’aho igwingira ryagejeje umunyarwanda.

Ntawifuza gupfakara yarashatse cyangwa ngo yifuze kuba incike yarabyaye. Ariko siko Nyiramanenge Virginie yabibonaga mu gihe cya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994. Nyiramanenge ari we nyina nyina wa Albert Nsengimana yari yarashakanye na Andre Mutabaruka babyarana abana 9. Kugirango babyarane abo bana bose, si agahato si n’urwango rwabiteraga Nyiramanenge. Ni urukundo (niba yarigeze arugira).

Bigeze mu gihe cya Jenoside, kubera ingengabitekerezo bafashe nk’amafunguro mabi no kudakingirwa indwara, Nyiramanenge yiyumvise ko ari Umuhutukazi, umugabo we n’abana yibyariye baba Abatutsi. Bahinduka abanzi nkuko byasobanuwe n’ingabo zari iz’Igihugu (FAR) muri Nzeri 1992, ibyo kubagirira impuhwe arabizira arabiziririza nkuko itegeko rya munani mu icumi y’Abahutu yatangajwe n’ikinyamakuru Kangura mu Ukuboza 1990. Umugabo n’abana be baba ba nyagupfa, we ari nyakubaho. Kuba abana be ari amaraso ye bimuvamo, gupfa kwabo bimuviramo ibyishimo.

Yarakoze Nsengimana kutugezaho ubuhamya bwe budasanzwe ariko bugaragaza imbaraga z’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside. Iyo adacika ku icumu rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, nyuma yo ku itariki 4 Nyakanga 1994, nyina Nyiramanenge yari gusigara ari incike n’umupfakazi wabiharaniye akabigeraho.

…Biracyaza..


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