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Nyuma y’imyaka 40 VIH/SIDA ivumbuwe, kuki urukingo rwayo rutaraboneka?

Yanditswe na Muhonzire Sylvine
Kuya 24 Kamena 2021 saa 01:36
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Covid-19 imaze umwaka n’igice igeze ku Isi, ariko hamaze kuboneka inkingo zayo zirenga eshatu kandi zifite ubushobozi bwo kurinda umuntu iki cyorezo. Gusa Virus itera SIDA ya VIH ntirabonerwa urukingo kandi imaze imyaka irenga 40 imenyekanye.

Abahanga mu bya siyansi batanga ibisobanuro byinshi kuri iyi ngingo harimo kuba iyi virus ya VIH ifite umwihariko utandukanye n’izindi virus zose, bityo bikaba ingorabahizi kuyibonera urukingo rwabasha kuyihangara.

Umushakashatsi akaba n’umwarimu wigisha isomo ry’inkomoko y’indwara zitandukanye muri Kaminuza ya Miami Miller muri Amerika, Ronald C. Desrosiers, yasobanuye ko igituma VIH itarabona urukingo nyuma y’imyaka 40 ivumbuwe atari uko habuze ubushobozi, cyangwa se byashyizwemo intege nke, ahubwo ari ukubera imitererere y’iyi virus.

Yakomeje ati “Mu 1984 ubwo Minisitiri w’Ubuzima muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, Margaret Heckler, yagiranaga ikiganiro n’abanyamakuru, yatangaje ko virus ya VIH ari yo itera SIDA ndetse ko mu myaka ibiri gusa urukingo ruzaba rwabonetse. Gusa ubu hashize imyaka 37 abivuze ntiruraboneka.”

Iyi nzobere isobanura ko ubusanzwe virus zihinduranya kugira ngo zibashe kubaho mu mubiri w’umuntu, kuko umubiri ubwawo nawo ukora abasirikare barwanya iyo virus.

Iyo ibonye ko iri kurwanywa irihinduranya ikirinda kurushaho kugira ngo ikomeze ibeho. Muri ubwo bwirinzi zikora, hari izidakora ubuhagije sikabasha kurwanywa, ariho usanga habonetse urukingo rufite imbaraga zo kurinda umuntu kuba yazahazwa n’iyo virus, cyangwa se rukamurinda kuyandura.

Urugero nka Covid-19 yavuye mu Bushinwa si yo ikiriho ubu, kuko yamaze kwihinduranya inshuro zitabarika harimo n’izihinduranyije ku buryo bukomeye nk’ iyabonetse muri Afurika y’Epfo, u Bwongereza, Brésil n’u Buhinde kuko zo zifite umwihariko wo kwandura cyane kuruta iya mbere.

Iyi virus kimwe n’izindi nyinshi zihinduranya bitewe n’uko zigenda zizenguruka mu bantu, uko abantu benshi bazandura ni ko zigenda zihinduranya.

Gusa uku kwihinduranya kuroroheje kuri Virus ya SIDA, nk’uko bisobanurwa na Desrosiers.

Ati “VIH ifite ubushobozi bwo kwihinduranya ku buryo yo bidasaba gusa kuba izenguruka mu bantu gusa, ahubwo yo ubwayo yihinduranya inshuro zitabarika mu mubiri w’umuntu wayanduye.”

Akomeza avuga uku kwihinduranya inshuro ibihumbi mu mubiri w’umuntu imbere ari imwe mu mbogamizi ituma urukingo rwa VIH rutaboneka kuko virus ziri mu muntu umwe atarizo usanga mu mubiri wundi.

Yatanze urugero rwa virus y’ibicurane yitwa ‘Influenza’. Avuga ko buri mwaka iyi virus yihinduranya ndetse mu bihugu byateye imbere baterwa urukingo rwayo buri mwaka bitewe n’uko yihinduranyije.

Gusa asobanura ko umubare wa virus za VIH zihinduranyije mu mubiri w’umuntu umwe uruta kure uwa virus zose z’ibicurane zihinduranyije ku Isi hose mu mwaka umwe.

VIH ishuka umubiri ntumenye ko watewe

Indi mpamvu ituma iyi virus itabonerwa urukingo ni imitwe igira yo kwihisha mu mubiri, ku buryo umubiri wibeshya ko atari virus ije kuwumerera nabi ahubwo ikagira ngo ni kimwe mu bigize umubiri, bityo abasirikare ntibabashe kuyihashya.

Barton Haynes inzobere mu ndwara zibasira ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri muri Kaminuza ya Duke muri Amerika, yagize ati “Imwe mu mitwe iyi virus igira ni ukwitwikiriza isukari ku bice byayo by’inyuma, kandi ibyo bice by’inyuma ni ibyo abasirikare b’umubiri baza bareba igihe bagiye guhangana na virus. Iyo umubiri ubonye iyi sukari ugira ngo ni iyawo maze abasirikare ntibabashe kuyirwanya."

Desrosiers we avuga ko iyi virus ya VIH itera SIDA ari yo virus ya mbere mu miryango 22 y’amavirusi yose abaho igira isukari nyinshi kuruta ibinure ku ikote ryayo, kuko izindi ziba nka Coronavirus ziba zifite ibinure byinshi kurusha isukari ari nabyo bituma umubiri umenya ko watewe ugakora abasirikare bajya kurwanya iyo virus.

Akomeza avuga ko ibi byose ari byo bituma itabonerwa urukingo kuko ubwenge izi bwo kwihisha mu mubiri yaba kwihinduranya inshuro nyinshi cyangwa kwitwikiriza isukari ni ibyo bibera imbogamizi abashakashatsi kuba bayikorera urukingo ruyirwanya, kuko kenshi bakoresha abasirikare b’umubiri babashije kuyirukana.

Haracyari icyizere ko izabonerwa urukingo

Nubwo iyi virus ikomeje kuyoberana hari icyizere ko igihe kizagera ikabonerwa urukingo.

Kugeza ubu hari inkingo eshanu za VIH zimaze kugera ku rwego rwa nyuma rw’igerageza, nibura buri buri rukingo rwatwaye miliyoni 100$. Muri izo eshatu zamaze kwerekana ko zidashoboye kurinda virus itera SIDA.

Urwa Kane Thai RV144, nirwo rwagaragaje ko rushoboye kurinda umuntu kuba yakwandura VIH/SIDA, gusa igenzura ryakozwe rishingiye ku igerageza ryagaragaje ko rufite ubushobozi buri munsi ya 78%.

Urwa Gatanu, HVTN 702, narwo rwagaragaje ko rudashobora kurinda umuntu kwandura cyangwa ngo rufashe uwayanduye kugabanya umubare wa virus zitera SIDA ziri mu mubiri we. Gusa nibwo bimeze gutya icyizere kiracyahari.

Lawrence Corey umwarimu wigisha ubuvuzi muri Kaminuza ya Washington muri Amerika ubwo yazaga mu Rwanda mu 2019 mu nama mpuzamahanga kuri SIDA n’izindi ndwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina, ICASA, yavuze ko urukingo rwa SIDA ruzaboneka mu myaka 4 cyangwa 5 iri imbere.

Yagize ati "Ndifuza kubwira abantu ko hari intambwe ndende yatewe mu bushakashatsi ku rukingo rwa SIDA ku buryo n’ubwo ntabizeza 100% hari icyizere ko rwaboneka nko mu myaka 4 cyangwa 5 iri imbere.’’

SIDA iracyari ihurizo ku bashakashatsi banyuranye hirya no hino ku Isi, gusa umunsi ku wundi bagenda bashakisha uburyo bushya bwo gukora urukingo rwazahangana n’iyi virus imaze kwigira akari aha kajya he, ndetse benshi bavuga ko ruzageraho rukaboneka nubwo batazi ngo igihe ruzabonekera.

Imibare yo mu 2020 y’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye rishinzwe kurwanya SIDA, UNAIDS, igaragaza ko kuva SIDA yamenyekana abantu bari hagati ya miliyoni 77. 5 bamaze kuyandura, mu gihe 34.7 bamaze guhitanwa nayo.

Igihugu cya mbere ku Isi gifite ubantu benshi bafite ubwandu bw’agakoko gatera SIDA ni Afurika y’Epfo ifite miliyoni 7,5. Gusa uko imyaka igenda ishira niko imibare y’abayandura hirya no hino ku Isi igenda igabanuka kubera ko benshi bamaze kumenya uko yandura n’uko bayirinda.


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