Ese gahunda yo gutura kuri Mars igeze he?

Yanditswe na Uwishyaka Jean Louis
Kuya 5 Ukuboza 2016 saa 04:03
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Imyaka irenga 60 irashize abahanga basohora inyandiko zivuga ku igerageza ryo gushaka uko muntu yajya gutura kuri Mars, umwe mu mibumbe yo mu isanzure ubonekaho ibintu bifitanye isano n’ibyo ku Isi.

Mars ni umwe mu mibumbe igize isanzure bakunze kwita Utukura (Red Planet), ariko ufite ubushyuhe buri munsi ya Dogere 143(-143 oC), mu gihe iyo hari ubushyuhe bwinshi buba buri kuri dogere 35(35oC). Uyu mubumbe ufite byinshi uhuje n’Isi dutuye kuko hari amazi, abantu bashobora kuhahinga, haba umwuka ndeste hashobora no kuboneka ibintu byakwifashishwa mu bwubatsi.

Igitekerezo cyo gutura kuri Mars cyatangiye gusohoka mu nyandiko z’abahanga b’Abanyamerika ahagana mu myaka ya 1950, zagaragazaga uyu mubumbe nk’ufite imigende myiza y’amazi, ibimera n’urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima nk’iza Giovanni Schiaparelli na Percival Lowell.

Gusa mu myaka yakurikiyeho inkuru n’inyandiko byavuye mu gutekereza ibyo bibwiraga, zitangira kuvuga k’ukuntu noneho abantu bajya kuhatura ndetse hagakorerwa imirimo isa n’iyo ku Isi.

Abanditsi nka Arthur C. Clarke muri 1951 yasohoye agatabo yise The sands of Mars, kavuga umuntu wagiye kuri Mars agamije kwandika ku kuntu abantu bashobora gutura kuri Mars. Uyu mwanditsi yaje kugaragaza ko kuri uyu mubumbe hashobora guturwa nk’ahandi.

Mu byanditswe byose, bagaragazaga ko hari igitekerezo n’amatsiko yo kumenya ibiri ku mubumbe wa Mars, ndetse byanatumye bamwe mu bahanga b’abanyamerika batangira kugira igitekerezo cyo kujyayo.

Ni bande bashaka kujyayo?

Universe today yandika ku bijyanye n’isanzure, ivuga ko Ikigo cy’Abanyamerika gikora ubushakashatsi ku bumenyi bwo mu kirere n’isanzure NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), cyimuriye ibikorwa byo kujya kuri Mars mu mwaka wa 2030 hakoreshejwe icyogajuru cyiswe Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Usibye NASA, ibindi bigo byigenga nabyo byagize umugambi wo kujyayo.

Ikigo cyo ku Mugabane w’u Burayi gikora iby’ubumenyi bw’isanzure (ESA), cyo giteganya kohereza abantu muri uwo mubumbe ariko nta byogajuru byo kugendamo bari bubaka. Ikigo cy’Abarusiya gikora ibyo mu isanzure nacyo cyagize umugambi wo kujyayo hagati ya 2007 na 2011 wiswe Mars-500, umugambi bahuriyeho na ESA n’u Bushinzwa kuri ubu.

Mu mwaka wa 2012, itsinda rya ba rwiyemezamirimo b’Abadage bashyizeho ubukangurambaga bugamije gufasha umushinga wo kuzatura kuri Mars, wazatangira mu mwaka wa 2023.

Mu 2011 Umudage witwa Bas Lansdorp yatangije umushinga yise Mars One ugamije kutwara abantu ngo bajye gutura ku mubumbe wa Mars. Umuyobozi w’undi mushinga wo kujya kuri Mars wiswe SpaceX, Elon Musk, nawe yatangaje ko afite gahunda yo gutuza abantu kuri Mars bagera ku bihumbi 80. Ibi ngo bikazabanzirizwa no kubaka icyogajuru bise Mars Colonial Transporter (MCT), kizajya kijyana abantu kuri Mars kinabagarure ku Isi.

Muri Kamena 2016, Musk yavuze ko urugendo rwa mbere rw’abantu bake ruzaba mu mwaka wa 2022, rukazakurikirwa n’urw’itsinda ry’abantu benshi ruzaba mu 2024.

Mu nama mpuzamahanga yiga ku isanzure yabereye mu Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, muri Nzeri uyu mwaka, Musk yavuze ko bafite n’umugambi wo gushyiraho ubundi buryo bise Interplanetary Transport System (ITS) buzajya butwara abantu ku mubumbe wa Mars.

Gutura kuri Mars Bisa n’ibitagorana

Nkuko twabigaragaje ko hari isano uyu mubumbe ufitanye n’isi bitewe n’ibyo isangiye, ngo no kuhatura ntibyagora abantu babaga ku Isi bitewe n’uko ngo nk’amasaha agize umunsi asa n’aho angana kuko ku Isi umunsi ugizwe n’amasaha 24 mu gihe kuri Mars ari amasaha 24 n’iminota 39, bivuze ko ibimera amatungo n’abantu babasha kuhisanga bitabagoye.

N’ibihe kandi ngo ni bimwe kuko iyo naho ari mu gihe cy’impeshyi, haba hari izuba ryinshi mu gihe mu itumba haba hari imvura n’ubushyuhe bukagabanuka nkuko ku Isi bimeze.

Uyu mushinga ufite imbogamizi zikwiye kubanza gukurwaho

Ikinyamakuru Space Bounder kivuga ko kuva ku Isi ugera kuri Mars harimo ibirometero hafi miliyoni 55. Ibi bikaba bituma kohereza ubutumwa bisa n’ibitinda ugereranyije no ku Isi .

Ikindi ngo ni uko abajyayo bahura n’imirasire y’izuba ishobora kubagiraho ingaruka mbi zishobora no kuvamo Kanseri y’uruhu. Kuri Mars kandi ngo haba imyuka yangiza imyanya y’Ubuhumekero.

Uretse ibyo kandi, bagaragaza ko indi nzitizi iri kuri uyu mugabane ari ubushyuhe buke ugereranyije no ku Isi. Gusa bemeza ko nubwo bimeze bityo, ngo kuhatura bishoboka.

Umuntu ngo ashobora kuba kuri Mars bitagoranye bitewe n'uko ufitanye isano ya bugufi n'Isi
Kuri Mars ngo haba imirasire myinshi y'izuba ishobora gutera kanseri y'uruhu

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