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U Rwanda ruhagaze he mu gukumira frigo n’ibyuma bisohora imyuka yangiza ibidukikije?

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 17 Kanama 2021 saa 02:49
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U Rwanda kimwe n’ibindi bihugu bigize Umuryango wa Afurika y’Iburasirazuba (EAC) rwashyizeho ingamba zo gukumira ibikoresho bikonjesha nka frigo n’ibyuma bitanga ubukonje mu nzu (air conditioners), ibyohereza umwuka mu nyubako n’amatara akoresha amashanyarazi bisohora imyuka yangiza ibidukikije bigakoresha n’ingufu z’amashanyarazi nyinshi.

Ni ingamba zimaze igihe kitari gito ariko ugasanga zidatanga umusaruro zari zitezweho kuko zidashyirwa mu bikorwa uko bikwiye.

Mu 2018, uwari Umuyobozi wa REMA, Eng. Coletha Ruhamya, yasabye EAC na Afurika yose guhuza ingamba mu gukumira ibyo bikoresho.

Icyo gihe yari mu Ihuriro Nyafurika rya mbere ku Bukungu butangiza Ibidukikije ryabereye i Kigali; ku nsanganyamatsiko igira iti “Kwihutisha ingamba zo gukumira ibikoresho bikonjesha byangiza ingufu z’amashanyarazi bikanangiza ibidukikije muri Afurika.’’

Yari igamije gushyira mu bikorwa amavugurura ya Kigali ku masezerano ya Montréal yerekeye ibyangiza akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’Izuba, yemejwe burundu muri Mata 2017.

Ayo mavugurura yemeje ko ibihugu bikize bizagabanya ikoreshwa rya frigo zisohora imyuka ya Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) ku gipimo cya 85% hagati ya 2019 na 2036; ibiri mu nzira y’amajyambere bikarigabanyaho 80% hagati ya 2024 na 2045. Impamvu ni uko iyo myuka iguma ku Isi ikangiza ibidukikije.

Ni mu gihe izisohora imyuka ya Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) ihumanya ikirere zo zigomba guhagarikwa.

Icyakora hagaragajwe ko hakiri imbogamizi mu bushobozi kuko izo kuzisimbura zigezweho ku isoko zihenda. Ni izisohora umwuka wa Hydrofluoro-olefin utangiza akayunguruzo k’Izuba.

Ayo mabwiriza yemejwe mu 2019, atangira kubahirizwa mu myaka ibiri.

Nyuma y’uko igihe cyo kuyubahiriza cyageze, IGIHE yagiranye ikiganiro n’Umuyobozi Mukuru wa REMA, Kabera Juliet, asobanura aho u Rwanda ruhagaze mu iyubahizwa ryayo.

Yavuze ko mu 2019, u Rwanda rwashyizeho ingamba n’ibipimo byerekana ingufu z’amashanyarazi ntarengwa (Minimum Energy Performance Standards); bijyanye no gukumira ikoreshwa rya frigo na “air conditioners” zikoresha imyuka yangiza ibidukikije, zikanakoresha umuriro w’amashanyarazi mwinshi.

Yagize ati “Izo ngamba zifasha kugabanya imyuka yangiza yoherezwa mu kirere ikaba yahateza ubushyuhe bukabije idasize no ku Isi. U Rwanda kandi rwabanje gushyiraho iteka rya Minisitiri rigenga ikoreshwa ry’ibintu byangiza akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’Izuba ryasohotse ku wa 12 Gashyantare 2021.’’

Kugeza ubu raporo ya mbere y’itsinda ry’abatekinisiye bari gukora ku ihuzwa ry’ibipimo ntarengwa bigena ibikoresho bya frigo na “air conditioners” muri EAC yararangiye.

Yakomeje avuga ko gushyiraho ingamba zihuriweho n’ibihugu bigize uyu muryango bigenda biguru ntege.

Ati “Ibi bituma ibyamaze kuzishyiraho bibangamirwa n’ubucuruzi bw’ibikoresho bitujuje ibipimo bisabwa; byongeyeho ko biba bigura make. Kimwe mu bitinza ihuzwa ry’ingamba zavuzwe haruguru ni uko harimo ibihugu bitaranashyiraho izabyo zihariye, na byo bikaba imbogamizi. Ikindi ni ubukangurambaga. Abacuruzi banini benshi bamaze kubyitabira ariko abato ntibarabikangukira neza ndetse n’abaguzi ntibarabibwirwa bihagije.’’

Nubwo hakiri imishinga igenda biguru ntege, u Rwanda rwizera ko binyuze mu bufatanye n’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye rishinzwe Ibidukikije (UNEP) hazashyirwaho ingamba zihuriweho mu kwihutisha no kugera ku byiyemejwe.

Kabera yibukije ko kubungabunga ibidukikije ari inshingano za buri wese; yavuze ko ari ingenzi kwita ku bipimo ntarengwa bikoreshwa mu gihe ugiye kugura ibikoresho bikonjesha.

Ati “Ibigo bya Leta n’ibindi binini bikwiye kwita ku mabwiriza ajyanye no kubungabunga ibidukikije, bikaba byashyiraho nk’amabwiriza yihariye mu mitangire y’amasoko y’ibyuma bikonjesha ajyanye na gahunda ihari.’’

Umuyobozi Mukuru wa REMA, Kabera Juliet, yatangaje ko hari intambwe ikomeye imaze guterwa mu gukumira ibyuma na frigo bisohora imyuka ihumanya ikirere

-  Imyuka ihumanya ikirere ikomeje gutera impungenge

Hagaragazwa ko ibyuma bitanga ubukonje na frigo bizikuba hafi inshuro ebyiri bigere kuri miliyari ebyiri mu 2030, mu bihugu bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere.

Hatagize igikorwa mu maguru mashya ngo nibura bizabe bitangiza ikirere, byabangamira intego Isi yihaye yo kugabanya umwuka uhumanya ikirere hagamijwe kurinda ko ubushyuhe bw’Isi bwakomeza kwiyongera.

Mu 2020 u Rwanda rwashyikirije Umuryango w’Abibumbye intego zijyanye no kubungabunga ikirere, aho rwiyemeje kugabanya imyuka ihumanya ikirere ku gipimo cya 38% igasigara nibura kuri 16% mu 2030.

Ruri mu bihugu byasinye amasezerano ya Paris mu 2016; byiyemeje kugira icyo bikora ngo bigabanye ubushyuhe bw’Isi buzagere nibura kuri dogere Celsius 2 mu 2050, byaba akarusho bukajya munsi ya dogere Celsius 1.5.

Ibyo bizagerwaho binyuze mu kugabanya dioxyde de Carbone iva mu bicanwa, imyanda, imyuka y’ibinyabiziga bikoresha ibikomoka kuri peteroli n’ibindi bikorwa bya muntu.

Impungenge ubu zabaye nyinshi ko iyo ntego ishobora kutazagerwaho, nyuma y’uko Raporo ya Loni ya 2021 igaragaje ko ubushyuhe bw’Isi bwamaze kugera kuri dogere Celsius 1,1.

Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Loni, Antonio Guterres, yavuze ko “ubukungu burengera ibidukikije kandi budaheza, ubukire, umwuka usukuye n’ubuzima bwiza bishoboka kuri bose, mu gihe icyo kibazo [cy’ubushyuhe bw’Isi] cyaba cyitaweho mu buryo bw’ubufatanye kandi bufite ingufu”.

Biteganyijwe ko imyuka ihumanya ikirere mu Rwanda izikuba kabiri hagati ya 2015 na 2030, ive kuri toni miliyoni 5,3 za Carbone de dioxyde (C02), igere kuri toni miliyoni 12,1 mu 2030.

Ihumana ry’ikirere ryongera ubushyuhe bw’Isi, na bwo bukagira ingaruka ku bayituye zirimo imyuzure, imvura idasanzwe, kuriduka kw’imisozi, ukwiyongera kw’imiyaga n’ibindi.

Ibyuma byinjiza n'ibisohora umwuka mu nzu biri mu bigomba guhagarikwa kubera umwuka uhumanya bisohora ndetse bigakoresha ingufu z'amashanyarazi nyinshi
U Rwanda ni kimwe mu bihugu byihaye intego yo guca frigo zisohora imyuka ya Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) ihumanya ikirere

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